Nausea can be experienced with or without vomiting. It is important to know that nausea, frequently called morning sickness, can actually be experienced at any time of the day. Similarly, it usually occurs during the first trimester and subsides after that for most women, but some will experience nausea all throughout their pregnancies.

Swollen or tender breasts: The third most frequently cited symptom of pregnancy is changes in the breasts. These changes are usually indicated by swelling or tenderness. Changes to the breasts can start as early as 1 to 2 weeks after conception.

Fatigue or Tiredness: Following conception, as early as the first week after, many women cite feeling tired as a sign of pregnancy. This fatigue is commonly experienced by those who are expecting and is recognized as a typical symptom of pregnancy.

The previous symptoms are usually the first signs you experience when pregnant. There are other signs also commonly experienced by those who are expecting as well:

Backaches: Lower backaches are commonly reported by women who discover that they are pregnant. This symptom can occur with the onset of pregnancy, but it is often experienced later as the pregnancy progresses. This makes it an easy pregnancy symptom at week 27 to week 34.

Headaches: Experiencing headaches at the onset of pregnancy is another common early sign of pregnancy. Experts believe that the sudden rise of hormones in your body leads you to experience the headaches.

Headaches during pregnancy may also be caused by the increase of blood flow. There is an approximately 50% increase in the volume of blood flowing while you are expecting.

Frequent urination: Don’t be surprised if you feel like you have to pee more often. Increase urination starts for most people between 6 to 8 weeks.

You will find that increased urination will pick back up or continue throughout your pregnancy as the expanding baby and uterus place pressure on your bladder.

Food cravings or food aversions: The reason for certain food cravings or food aversions is not known. Don’t be surprised if you find yourself drawn to something you normally do not care for, or avoiding things that you normally like.

The food that expecting women crave or seek to avoid varies and are quite sporadic. It is alright to allow yourself the freedom to pursue those cravings and avoid the things you don’t want as long as you are getting the nutrition you need for a healthy pregnancy.

These cravings or aversions can occur early in pregnancy or anytime throughout your pregnancy.

Darkening of the Areolas: Some people lump darkening of the areolas into the symptom of pregnancy referred to as breast changes. That’s alright, it is important to note that if the areolas, area around your nipples, darkens, that is normal. It is a common occurrence within those who are expecting.

Mood Swings: Expecting mothers frequently experience mood swings. This believed to be primarily caused by the hormonal changes that affect the neurotransmitters of the brain. The types of mood swings can vary from woman to woman. Some may experience elevated highs and lows, whereas others alternate between states of happiness to states of depression or anxiety.

It is important to note that mood swings are normal; however, if you find yourself struggling with depression or extended periods of sadness, you should contact your healthcare provider. Some women prefer to go directly to a counselor or mental health professional.

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Although it may make you feel miserable, the common cold is usually a mild illness that goes away relatively quickly. On average, adults get two to four colds each year, and young children experience about twice that many.

What Causes the Common Cold?

When you get a cold, you've probably been infected by one of more than 200 different viruses. These viruses are easily spread through droplets of fluid from a cough, sneeze, or runny nose. Cold viruses often circulate by touch, but they can also be inhaled if they become airborne.

People with colds are most contagious during the first few days after they have been infected with a virus. Spending a lot of time around other people indoors can help spread colds — a common occurrence for schoolchildren. Also, low humidity, as during the winter months, makes an ideal living environment for viruses.

What Are Cold Symptoms?

Cold symptoms usually develop one to three days after exposure to a virus. Symptoms may include:

  • Scratchy, sore throat
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • Runny nose or nasal congestion
  • Reduced sense of taste and smell
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Fever up to 102 degrees Fahrenheit (more common in infants and young children)

If you are continuously exhibiting some of these symptoms, this may be a sign of allergy rather than virus. Visit your doctor if you suspect allergies are the cause of your runny nose and watery eyes — allergy tests examine your body's reaction to common allergens to determine what may be causing your discomfort.

Should You Call the Doctor?

In most cases, you don't need to see a doctor when dealing with a cold. Call your doctor if you are experiencing:

  • Severe symptoms or symptoms that last for about two weeks
  • High fever
  • Severely swollen glands in your neck or jaw
  • Ear pain
  • Sinus headache
  • Fainting, dizziness, or confusion
  • Severe and persistent cough
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Problems breathing
  • A sudden outburst of asthma or other pre-existing lung condition
  • Severe or continuous vomiting

Children may exhibit additional symptoms that should be brought to a health care provider's attention. Call your doctor if the child has a cold and experiences a fever above 103 degrees Fahrenheit, bluish skin, behavioral changes, worsening of pre-existing conditions, vomiting, or abdominal pain.

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If you're travelling with a child, make sure they're aware of the dangers, and that they should tell you if they've been bitten, scratched or licked by an animal. Check them for any wounds if they come into contact with an animal.

For information about areas where rabies is a risk, see:

If you've been bitten or scratched by an animal in an area with a risk of rabies:

  • immediately clean the wound with running water and soap for several minutes
  • disinfect the wound with an alcohol- or iodine-based disinfectant and apply a simple dressing, if possible
  • go to the nearest medical centre, hospital or GP surgery as soon as possible and explain that you've been bitten or scratched

If this happens while you're abroad, get local medical help immediately. Don't wait until you've returned to the UK.

If you've already returned to the UK without getting medical advice, it's still a good idea to get help – even if it's been several weeks since you were bitten or scratched.

It's unlikely you've been infected, but it's best to be safe. Post-exposure treatment is nearly 100% effective if it's started before any symptoms of rabies appear.

If you've been bitten, scratched or licked by an animal that might have rabies, you may need specialist medical treatment to stop you getting rabies. This is called post-exposure treatment.

Post-exposure treatment involves:

  • cleaning and disinfecting the wound
  • a course of the rabies vaccine – you'll need to have 5 doses over a month if you haven't been vaccinated before, or 2 doses a few days apart if you have
  • in some cases, a medicine called immunoglobulin given into and around the wound – this provides immediate but short-term protection if there's a significant chance you've been infected

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  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Mild irritant to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Irritant and skin sensitizer
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Fungicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Skin irritant
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Dinitroaniline Compounds - trifluralin(C), Treflan(T)


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Slightly to moderately irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Irritating to skin and eyes
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Picolinic Acid - triclopyr(C), Garlon(T)


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

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Surprisingly enough, one of the largest sources of body toxins is the drugs people take to fight disease (or so they think). Medicinal drugs are very strong—they have to be to overcome the body’s natural defense system.

When such drugs are taken, they must either be eliminated from the body or stored within it for later elimination.

As a person’s health improves and all such medicines and drugs are discontinued, the old toxins may enter the bloodstream for elimination. The circulation of these old drug toxins in the system may produce bewildering symptoms that could alarm the health seeker.

For example, an elderly man had been taking a form of digitalis (a heart stimulant) for several years. He discontinued the drug as he improved his health through exercise.

After a few days off the drug, he experienced erratic heart beats, a racing pulse and chest pains. He was frightened and wondered if he should take his old drug again.

He was reassured that these symptoms were due to his body trying to renormalize itself and eliminate the old toxins from the heart drug. Sure enough, after a few days his heartbeat became steady and regular as the drug toxins were finally eliminated.

Every drug used, whether legal or illegal, leaves its mark upon the body. As the body regains health, the drug deposits are put into circulation for elimination. Since a combination of past drug deposits may enter the Bloodstream at once disconcerting symptoms may arise. Drug detoxification can be a lengthy process, but it will be aided by fasting and a diet high in fresh fruits.

Be forewarned: Old drugs that were taken even many years ago may reappear in the bloodstream as they leave fatty tissues and the organs. Drug toxin elimination may express itself in a series of rashes as they leave the body through the skin.

Heavy smokers or coffee drinkers may experience similar symptoms when they withdraw from their drug. Nervous irritability and emotional outbreaks are common symptoms of these drug addicts when they are detoxifying.

Nicotine and caffeine damage the nervous system and upset the vascular system, so symptoms such as headaches, edginess, and extreme lassitude may be expected. Such symptoms from these drugs usually lessen after three to ten days.

Once salt use is stopped and the health improves, old salt deposits in the body exit through the skin and kidneys. Sometimes the elimination is so intense that a person may have a continual salty taste in the mouth for days. The skin may become crusted with salt or it may smell of the particular condiment that is being eliminated (such as onions, peppers, or vinegar).

In Mexico, corpses have been found in the desert that were untouched by buzzards and hyenas. The reason? The people had eaten such large quantities of hot peppers all their lives that their skins were actually too spicy for the scavengers to eat. Condiments can never be used by the body, and so they must either be stored or eliminated when the health is improved.

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If you are mildly ill, stay home and avoid contact with other people until your symptoms are gone. This will help prevent the spread of the virus.

If you are a person at high risk of flu-related complications, contact your health care provider. Tell them about your symptoms.

See a health care provider immediately if you develop any of these symptoms:

  • shortness of breath
  • fast or trouble breathing
  • pain in your chest
  • blueish or grey skin colour
  • bloody or coloured mucous in your mouth or spit
  • sudden dizziness or confusion
  • severe or ongoing vomiting
  • a high fever (39°C and above) that lasts more than 3 days
  • low blood pressure

Tell your health care provider about your flu symptoms over the phone before your appointment. That way, they can arrange to see you without exposing other people to the virus.

Also see a health care provider if you are caring for a child who is sick with the flu and is:

  • not drinking or eating as usual
  • not waking up or interacting with others
  • irritable (not wanting to play or be held)

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This means the T cell must have vitamin D or activation of the cell will cease. If the T cells cannot find enough vitamin D in the blood, they won’t even begin to mobilize.”

This is troubling given that vitamin D levels were reported by the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2009 to have plummeted for every single age, race, and ethnic group in the United States over the past two decades.

Vitamin D deficiency is such that it can lurk unnoticed until it is too late and you are already sick. Another challenge is that it takes time, usually at least several weeks, to raise vitamin D levels. As a result, a few days of taking supplements is not going to cut it. This is true especially if you have a serious deficiency challenge to overcome or already have the flu.

Below are 10 signs that vitamin D is likely a problem and potentially a serious deficiency that needs to be addressed immediately. If any of these symptoms are an issue for you, a simple and inexpensive vitamin D blood spot test can be ordered online. It can be used in the privacy of your home to determine if your vitamin D levels are in the danger zone (source).

If low levels do indeed need to be addressed, the best whole food based supplement to bring vitamin D levels into optimal range without the danger of overdosing (like with prescription vitamin D drops) is unheated, unprocessed cod liver or skate liver oils (where to find).

Two foods extremely high in Vitamin D include fish roe and lard from pastured animals. Roe contains about 17,000 IU of Vitamin D per tablespoon and pastured lard has 10,000 IU per tablespoon according to tests conducted by the Weston A. Price Foundation.

Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms Usually Blamed on Something Else

Bone pain and chronic pain in general is a subtle symptom of serious vitamin D deficiency. Don’t take this symptom lightly! Get your vitamin D levels checked and address the problem.

A study conducted by Greg Plotnikoff, MD, senior consultant with the Allina Center for Health Care Innovations, makes the point. 150 people living in Minneapolis who came to a health clinic complaining of chronic pain were tested for vitamin D levels. Virtually every single one, 93%, suffered from extremely low vitamin D. “The group with the lowest levels of vitamin D were white women of childbearing age,” Plotnikoff says.

Here’s a shocker most folks don’t realize: most muscle weakness issues are low vitamin D related. The National Institutes of Health reports that a person suffering from a vitamin D deficiency will have trouble with proper muscle function.

This extremely common skin issue is an autoimmune disorder that many don’t realize can be vitamin D related. This nutrient plays an important role in the treatment of psoriasis. Psoriasis gets worse over time and spreads, so even if you only have a little spot on your elbow or knee, get your vitamin D levels checked and be sure to be taking a daily dose of fermented cod liver oil.

Vitamin D is necessary for the body to produce energy. If you are constantly tired or must lean heavily on that morning cup of Joe to get going in the morning, best to play it safe and get your levels checked.

No, it’s not all in your head! Feelings of hopelessness can be related to nutritional D deficiency. The Vitamin D Council reports that vitamin D is critical for the brain to produce the happy hormone seratonin. Some folks only suffer from depression during winter months, known as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). This condition is caused by lack of sun exposure and hence vitamin D during this time of year.

This is quite possibly the weirdest symptom of vitamin D deficiency. Old time doctors apparently used to ask new mothers if their heads were sweatier than normal in order to pinpoint a lurking vitamin D deficiency as reported by NDHealthFacts. A sweaty head is also a subclinical symptom of rickets, possibly the most prominent and dangerous form of vitamin D deficiency in children.

This warning symptom is related to flu as a vitamin D deficiency disease. If low vitamin D puts people at risk for flu, it stands to reason they would be at risk for other respiratory problems too and possibly on a chronic basis. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D protects against respiratory illness particularly in children, who require hospitalization most frequently due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

Scared of Enterovirus D68? The most proactive step you can take is to make sure your children are taking a daily dose of cod liver or skate liver oil!

8. Hypertension and/or Cardiovascular Disease

My mother helped resolve high blood pressure issues with a daily dose of fermented cod liver oil. Her success in this regard is in line with the Vitamin D Council which recommends adequate vitamin D levels in order to avoid this silent, symptomless killer. 1 out of every 3 Americans and 4 in 10 worldwide suffer from this serious condition.

In addition, the National Institutes of Health has identified vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor which can lead to congestive heart failure.

Chronic kidney disease is a growing health concern. It is a primary and powerful predictor for premature cardiovascular disease.

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    © 2012 iScience Times All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

    The 9 Very Best Essential Oils For Treating Colds And Flu

    Image source: essentialhealth.com

    You know the feeling. It may start with a scratchy throat or with a few more aches and pains than normal. Or it could begin with a runny nose and a feeling of exhaustion. Yes, it’s a cold coming on — or maybe worse — the flu. Before you reach for the antihistamine, however, why not try an effective natural remedy instead?

    Essential oils have been used for centuries to fight the symptoms of the common cold. You can add them to your bathwater, diffuse them in the air you breathe or even apply them directly to your skin. Essential oils help the body fight off infection and serve to strengthen the immune system. In her book The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Julia Lawless explains that essential oils can boost the body’s defense system against bacteria, fungi and infections.

    Here is our list of essential oils and essential oil blends that will help you stay healthy this cold and flu season. If you are unfamiliar with essential oils, please seek the advice of a qualified aromatherapist before using them. Be sure to use in moderation and to dilute or blend the essential oils correctly. Also, realize that some oils are contraindicated in certain conditions.

    1. Tea Tree Essential Oil

    Extracted from the tea tree (Melaleuca), which is native to Southeast Queensland and New South Wales, Australia, tea tree oil has antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiseptic and antiviral properties.

    Used in an inhaler or in a bath, tea tree oil helps you fight the congestion and the resulting discomfort caused by the cold or the flu.

    2. Pine Essential Oil

    Pine essential oil, derived from the pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris), helps to clear the nasal passages. It also can be helpful in relieving sore throat pain.

    3. Lavender Essential Oil

    Lavender essential oil (Lavandula Angustifolia) has antiseptic and antimicrobial properties, and it is gentle enough for use with children.

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      • Notes marked (A) are for Lactose Intolerance
      • Notes marked (B) are for Casein allergy

    Video: Inflammatory Symptoms Caused By Food Intolerance

    Dairy intolerance is increasing due to very effective marketing of milk products - and the mass production of foods containing low-cost dairy derivatives.

    A. Lactose Intolerance: Recent evidence indicates that up to 75% of the world’s population is Lactose Intolerant to some extent*. That is, three quarters (¾) of all people have difficulty digesting lactose. Depending on cultural background it can be higher or lower (90% of African Americans are Lactose Intolerant - and around 25% of Northern Europeans.)

    B. Casein Allergy: Many people are also allergic to Casein (the protein found in milk). One study gives prevalence as 2 - 3% of the general population. Casein allergy is usually detected in babies by projectile vomiting, colic or other troublesome conditions. "Colicky" babies are often regarded as a nuisance and some doctors even think colic is 'normal'. But a screaming baby suffering colic frequently indicates nothing more than allergy to cow's milk. Casein allergy leads to chronic disease - especially later in life from autoimmune diseases.

    Comments: Dairy intolerance is responsible for symptoms like Stomach Bloating, and Flatulence, and Diarrhea and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in millions of people and appears more frequently now that thousands of processed foods contain dairy derivatives. Heavily subsidised dairy farming now produces millions of tons of milk derivatives (like milk solids, whey protein isolate, skim milk powder and lactose) - delivering cheap ingredients for making processed foods.

    Could you have Dairy Intolerance? To learn more – sign up for the free e-book‘How To Tell If You have Food Intolerance’

    A. Symptoms of Lactose intolerance:

    B. Symptoms of Casein allergy:

    To learn more – sign up for the free e-book ‘How To Tell If You have Food Intolerance’

    Comments: The symptoms of Dairy intolerance are just like symptoms of Fructose intolerance and Gluten intolerance, they all overlap. All food intolerance symptoms - if left untreated - become worse with age. so just because you have these symptoms - it does not mean you have Dairy intolerance. The way to find out which you have is via Journal Method - as used in the Healing Program.

    A. Lactose Intolerance: Some people get clinical tests including the Hydrogen breath test and stool acidity tests. Unfortunately most clinical testing for food intolerance is not reliable. In fact breath tests are amongst the least trusted methods. Types of Testing

    However the Journal Method easily identifies and Food Intolerance.

    B. Casein allergy is often apparent with very young babies when they are first given cow's milk formula. But the intolerance can remain undiagnosed until adulthood. Symptoms including hives, eczema, projectile vomiting, asthma and diarrhea are common. Again - the Journal Method easily identifies casein allergy.

    A. Lactose Intolerance: All food intolerance is genetic. You got it from your parents, grandparents and other ancestors - it’s in your genes. If your ancestry is Northern European (eg. Dutch or Scandinavian) the chance of Lactose Intolerance is only 25%. If not - then generally you have a 75% chance of being Lactose Intolerant*.

    B. Casein Allergy: Milk protein allergy is also genetic.

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    As a caring cat owner the best thing to do is to try and keep your cat as comfortable as possible.

    • Make sure they have a warm and comfortable place to sleep

    Once a cat has cat flu they may become a carrier of the disease which may either make them sick again in the future even if they have not come in to contact with another sick cat, or they may infect other cats.

    This is one of the main reasons for having your healthy cat vaccinated against the disease, as you can never be sure which cats they come into contact with, you may even inadvertently spread the disease yourself by stroking a seemingly healthy cat who may be carrying the illness.

    The vaccine for cat flu can be given either separately or as a combined vaccine for other infectious diseases.

    Your vet will discuss this with you at your visit. See our page regarding cat vaccinations in general for more information.

    I'd love to hear what you think of this page or my site. Let me know if you like what you have read or if it has helped you with a problem.

    It's easy to do just leave a comment in the box below and click the like / share or +1 to let others know about my site. Thank You It really is most appreciated.

    Opiate withdrawal refers to a wide range of symptoms that can occur once opioid intake is interrupted or reduced. The amount, length and intensity of the symptoms vary from person to person. For some individuals, it can be a natural process, and for others, withdrawal can be severe. Opiate withdrawal occurs because it takes time for the body to regulate to no longer having the drug in the system.

    An opioid is synthetic narcotic works similarly to naturally occurring opiates. These opiate-like substances bind to the opioid receptor sites in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. Once the drugs attach to these receptor sites, they immediately exert their effects. The brain manufactures its own opioids which are responsible for a host of physical responses. Some of these reactions are the decrease of pain, a slower respiratory rate, and sometimes even used to control anxiety or depression. However, the body does not produce the number of opioids needed to manage high levels of pain. Taking prescription or illicit opioids can reduce adverse effects caused by pain, but with an array of dangerous side-effects.

    Opiate withdrawal symptoms can be harsh to surpass if not correctly treated. The fear of going through withdrawal is what keeps many people dependent upon drugs like Heroin and Oxycodone. They don’t want to stop using opiates because they fear a return of pain and withdrawal symptoms that can resemble the worst imaginable flu. Symptoms can affect the individual both physically and emotionally.

    An important fact to keep in mind is that different opioids remain in your system for various lengths of time what can affect the withdrawal syndrome onset. The amount of time your symptoms last depends on a combination of factors including frequency and amount of the use, length of the addiction, as well as individual factors like your health and emotional status.

    Opiate withdrawal symptoms can include

    • Strong cravings
    • Nausea
    • Cramps
    • Sweating
    • Chills
    • Goosebumps
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Shakes
    • Irritation
    • Agitation
    • Anxiety
    • Muscle aches
    • A runny nose
    • Yawning
    • Insomnia
    • Dilated pupils.

    In most cases, these symptoms can be managed by a specialized medical treatment facility Opiate withdrawal can be a long and painful process and very hard to get through. For health compromised patients, untreated and unmonitored withdrawal can lead to unnecessary medical complications such as nausea, rapid heart-rate, elevated blood pressure and dehydration. The consecutive loss of fluids & electrolytes can cause abnormal heart rate and low potassium levels, which can lead to blood circulation issues or even a heart attack.

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    • Internal Exposure:
    • External Exposure: Moderately irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Table modified based on similar table in "Applying Pesticides Correctly", USDA, USEPA, written by Sally McDonald.

    Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning – Self Study Questions

    1. Are the symptoms of pesticide poisoning very different from all other types of poisoning?
    2. Does a person who has been continuously exposed to smaller quantities of toxic material over long periods of time usually show the same symptoms of poisoning as a person exposed suddenly to large quantities of toxic materials?
    3. Are the symptoms for all cases of pesticide poisoning the same?
    4. What are some of the symptoms of mild poisoning?
    5. Are the symptoms for mild poisoning similar to the early symptoms of acute poisoning?
    6. What are some of the signs for severe or acute poisoning?
    7. Does each pesticide in a chemical family require the same treatment and antidote in case of poisoning?

    Answers to Self Study Questions - Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning

    1. No. Symptoms of pesticide poisoning are similar to those of other types of poisoning or other diseases.
    2. No.
    3. No. Each chemical family can attack the human body in a different way.
    4. Headache, fatigue, soreness in joints, irritation of nose and throat.
    5. Yes.
    6. Fever, intense thirst, vomiting, muscle twitches, pinpoint pupils, unconsciousness.
    7. Yes.


    Disclaimer: Please read the pesticide label prior to use. The information contained at this web site is not a substitute for a pesticide label. Trade names used herein are for convenience only; no endorsement of products is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products implied. Most of this information is historical in nature and may no longer be applicable.

    Die Influenza ist eine Viruserkrankung, die ein häufiger Auslöser von Atemwegserkrankungen ist. Die Grippewellen treten hierzulande jährlich in den Wintermonaten auf, in tropischen Ländern hingegen das ganze Jahr über. [1] Der Virus-Typ B ist seltener, nimmt im Vergleich zur Influenza A einen leichteren Verlauf und führt meist bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu Infektionen.

    Nachfolgend wird darüber informiert, welche Vorgänge während der Inkubationszeit bei einer Infektion mit der Influenza B ablaufen und wie viel Zeit bis zum Ausbruch der Krankheit vergeht.

    Die Influenza-Viren gehören der Familie der Orthomyxoviridae an. Ihnen werden die 3 Virus-Typen Influenza A, Influenza B und Influenza C zugeordnet. Die umhüllten Viren enthalten segmentierte RNA Einzelstränge von negativer Polarität. [2]

    Die Influenza B ist im Gegensatz zum Typ A nur für den Menschen relevant.

    Die Inkubationszeit beträgt im Durchschnitt 1-3 Tage [3] und wird als die Dauer bezeichnet, die vom Zeitpunkt der Infektion mit dem Virus bis zu dem Ausbruch der Krankheit vergeht.

    Die Influenza ist hoch virulent (sehr krankmachend). Bereits eine geringe Dosis der Krankheitserreger kann eine Infektion einleiten. [4]

    Die Viren gelangen auf die Schleimhaut (Mucosa) des Atmungstraktes (Apparatus respiratorius) über Mund und Nase, wo sie Epithelzellen (Zellen des Deckgewebes) infizieren. [5]

    Während der Inkubationszeit, das heißt während der ersten 24-72 Stunden, werden von dem Infizierten noch keine Anzeichen für die Erkrankung wahrgenommen. Innerhalb dieser Zeit laufen die ersten Vermehrungszyklen (Replikationszyklen) der Viren ab.

    Zentrale Rolle im Genom der Influenza-Viren spielen die Glykoproteine (Eiweiße mit Zuckergruppen) Hämagglutinin und Neuraminidase. Hämagglutinin dient dem Anheften der Viren an Rezeptoren der Wirtszellen, Neuraminidase spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Freisetzung neuer Viren.

    Hämagglutinin bindet an spezifische Rezeptoren der Epithelzellen und bewirkt so die Aufnahme des Virus in die Wirtszelle über Endocytose (Einstülpungsvorgang der Zellmembran, bei der ein Teil des Außenmediums in das Zellinnere aufgenommen wird). Hämagglutinin bewirkt weiterhin eine Verschmelzung der Virushülle mit der Zellmembran und das Viruscapsid (Virus-RNA mit Eiweißschutzhülle) wird in die Wirtszelle freigegeben (Uncoating). Dieser Vorgang ist bereits 30 Minuten nach dem Anbinden an die Zelle abgeschlossen. Im weiteren Prozess werden das virale Genom im Zellkern der Wirtszelle kopiert (repliziert) und neue Viruspartikel im Cytosol(flüssige Matrix der ausfüllenden Grundstruktur der Zelle) fertiggestellt. Diese gelangen wieder zur Zellmembran, welche die Viruspartikel umschließt und aus der Zelle transportiert (Exocytose). Die neu entstandenen Viren werden durch die Neuraminidase von den Zellen abgetrennt und können nun weitere Zellen infizieren. [6] Dieser Vorgang ist nach 6 Stunden abgeschlossen. [7]

    Die Inkubationszeit ist im Wesentlichen von 2 Punkten abhängig:

    • Dosis der Viruspartikel: Je nach Menge der Viruspartikel kann die genannte Inkubationszeit variieren. Eine sehr hohe Dosis kann somit die Inkubationszeit verkürzen.
    • Verfassung des Infizierten: Der Gesundheitszustand des Betroffenen kann Einfluss auf die Inkubationszeit haben. Bei einem sehr effizienten Immunsystem mit entsprechenden Antikörpern kann der Ausbruch der Krankheit in dieser Zeit sogar noch abgewendet werden. In diesem Fall ist es möglich, dass die Infektion mit dem Virus gar nicht registriert wird.

    Histamine intolerance is the intolerance towards “normal” levels of histamine in food caused by a decreased activity of the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) or histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT). In the gut the main enzyme is DAO while in other parts of the body like the skin and brain the enzyme HNMT degrades histamine.