• Children between the ages of 0 and 4 are deemed a high risk group for swine flu, meaning they have the highest chances of contracting the disease.
  • The CDC estimates that 22.9 out of every 100,000 kids between 0-4 years may contract swine flu. This is the second highest risk-percentage according to age group in the US.
  • The CDC also estimates that 4.5 children out of every 100,000 between the ages of 0-4 who have contracted swine flu will need to be hospitalized as a result of the disease.
  • Swine flu may be responsible for the deaths of 2% of children who are between the ages of 0 and 4 years.

Flu season typically lasts from October to February, so as a parent or child minder you need to be especially vigilant about watching out for signs and symptoms of swine flu. Since the symptoms are similar to regular influenza, they can be especially hard to identify and isolate. Here are some signs you should watch for in toddlers:

  • Sudden fever
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Dry cough
  • Headaches, body aches, and muscle aches
  • Chills and fatigue

While the above symptoms are common with regular flu, swine flu may additionally cause vomiting and diarrhea.

Although most of the above symptoms may be treatable with over-the-counter medication and at-home care, parents should know the warning signs for when emergency medical treatment is required. You should rush your child to the hospital if symptoms include:

  • A rash accompanying the fever
  • Fast labored breaths or trouble breathing
  • Lethargy and disinterest in normal routine
  • Bluish skin color
  • Dehydration or visible lack of thirst
  • Constant irritability and not wanting to be held
  • Temporary improvement in flu symptoms followed by a high fever and cough

Since swine flu is transmitted via airborne droplets in the air and contracted virally, it is essential that everyone follow basic hygiene practices for its prevention. Adults need to inculcate the following habits in kids to reduce the chances of contracting swine flu:

  • Regular hand-washing with soap and water, especially before eating and after using the bathroom. Alcohol-based hand washes are also effective.
  • Avoiding close contact with visibly sick people (especially those sneezing and coughing openly).
  • Coughing or sneezing in the crook of your arm (not in the palm) or using a tissue to cough or sneeze into and discarding the tissue immediately after use.
  • Using a face mask or respirator to prevent inhaling the flu virus.
  • Not touching your eyes, nose, and mouth frequently since the flu spreads through inhalation or contact with facial cavities.
  • Staying away from crowded places such as cinemas, shopping malls, and other places where large groups of people may congregate.

Swine flu vaccinations are the recommended form of preventing swine flu; however, they are not fail-safe. Swine flu is typically treated with anti-viral drugs like Tamiflu or Relenza.

Currently, 250 million doses of flu vaccine are being rolled out for America's 2009-2010 flu season since officials expect more cases of swine flu this year than any previous year. The CDC recommends that anyone who falls in the high-risk categories should get vaccinated. Certain factors, such as asthma, diabetes, a weakened immune system, severe anemia, chronic heart, or kidney disease put children at even higher risk of developing swine flu related complications, and as such these kids should be placed on a priority vaccination schedule.

There are two types of vaccinations currently being offered: a flu shot (needle injected into skin) and a nasal spray flu vaccine (inhaled directly through the nose). The injection can be administered in kids older than 6 months, while the nasal spray may be used for kids above age 2.

For more information on the closest clinic to get vaccinated, use the Flu Shot Locater.

With news spreading that this year's flu virus may be more severe than in years past, it's understandable to feel some anxiety. In fact, the CDC is reporting that 29 states are experiencing a more widespread and virulent flu than last year's strain, though doctors suggest that the actual strains are not so different from each other.

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Lexapro is a medication that is used to treat anxiety and various forms of depression. It is formally classified as one of the widely accepted and used serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Lexapro is effective by altering the levels of serotonin in the brain, which can balance the levels in most people. It is important to know that they don’t work for everyone and you can still have the Lexapro withdrawal symptoms if it has not worked but you have been taking it for more than a couple weeks. Doctors can prescribe Lexapro for other disorders outside of anxiety and depression, but it is not approved for use besides these two conditions.

Almost 1 in 3 people that stop taking an SSRI, such as Lexapro, suffer one or more of the following withdrawal symptoms. By tapering off the dose with your physician you can minimize the likelihood of this happening. Common Lexapro withdrawal symptoms include: flu-like symptoms, fatigue, nausea, sleep interruption, dizziness, uncontrollable shaking, sensory alterations, increased anxiety, and headaches. One of the more rare, but more intense, Lexapro withdrawal symptoms is a sensation that is often referred to as a “brain shock”- a feeling that the head is being electrocuted. Most withdrawal symptoms disappear after a few days, but there have been cases where they have lasted over a month.

Discussing the discontinuation or change in dosage with your physician is the most effective way to reduce and even prevent the withdrawal symptoms. They will usually prescribe a gradual dosing down that will stretch over a few months, allowing your brain to adjust slowly to this change. The slower that you can let your brain adjust the less Lexapro withdrawal symptoms that you will have to experience.

I have been on Lexapro for 4 years. only 10mg. I have been taking about 4 or 5 pills a week. or every other day. but I feel weak and bad like flue symptons. Dr. said I could cut back on these I am 70 years old in Farley good shape, I also take a blood pressure pill. so am I messing up not taking them every day?

I thought I would answer as we are about the same age. I was taking Lexapro 10m.g for about two years, then after telling my doctor how depressed I felt it was increased to 20 m.g. One day I realized I was not feeling anything I wasn't sad I wasn't happy just blah and no ambition. So, started to wean myself off. After being a caregiver for years I knew how this should be done. However, I was impatient and now believe I did it too fast. I had most of the withdrawal signs listed. Flu-like symptoms, headaches. hot flashes, dizzy, couldn't eat because of stomach upset. this went on for about three weeks. I have felt very well now for about three days and forgot what the real me was like. I'm not giving medical advice here but for myself I am glad to be off the stuff and really wish I had never started it. I know now I should have gone very, very, very, slowly giving it up. I feel so good without it, wished I had done it sooner.

Weaning off off Lexapro is not a wonderful experience. The flu like symptoms are really strong. Headaches and head shakes as if I have fibromyalgia. It has been two weeks so far and the symptoms are still there! It is horrible! If you plan on weaning of the medication, please make sure you have nothing big going on in your life because you need to plan on the side effects.

I have weaned down from 20mg slowly over two months and have been on no lexapro for 3 weeks. I am 41, feel emotionally stable but the physical side effects are horrific. I have brain flashes, tingles in my face and hands, flu like lethargy and then insomnia, dry mouth and twitches in my neck. I was on lexapro for 3 years after post natal depression. I cannot believe how awful it is to try and work (I'm a contract chef/single parent supporting 3 children) and function in this state. I wish my doctor had no been so blasé as to using these tablets in the first place, let alone coming off them. I've read that fish oil supplements may help so have been taking those for 2 days. Good luck to anyone else experiencing this. I really hope it eases soon.

Jessica, When you say "Brain Flashes" do you mean you will have a Flash Mental image or thought then you can't figure out what it was?

I DEVELOPED A CARDIAC ARRHTHYMIA DUE TO A SIDE EFFECT OF LEXAPRO. THE CARDIOLOGIST FELT IT WAS MORE IMPORTANT TO STOP THE LEXAPRO ABRUPTLY. (I WAS TAKING 40MG DAILY FOR 10 YEARS). MY SIDE EFFECTS ARE HORRIFIC TO SAY THE LEAST. 'IRRITABLE' IS AN UNDERSTATEMENT. MY POOR DAUGHTER; IT DOESN'T TAKE MUCH FOR ME TO SNAP, THEN THE TEARS FROM GUILT ARE HORRIBLE. I AM HAVING A HARD TIME CONVIENCING MYSELF THAT THIS WILL PASS AND KEEPING BELIEVING THAT LIFE WITHOUT ME WOULD BE MUCH BETTER FOR MY FAMILY. I'M NOT GOING TO TAKE MY LIFE I SIMPLY FEEL LIKE I'M HURTING THE PEOPLE I LOVE THE MOST. I'M A REGISTERED NURSE BUT AM ON A LEAVE OF ABSENCE UNTIL STABLE. I THOUGHT I SUFFERED FROM DEPRESSION, BUT RIGHT ABOUT NOW FEEL LIKE A PSYCHOPATH. MY SIDE EFFECTS INCLUDE: FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS, SHAKING, INSOMNIA, ANXIETY (WITH SEVERE HEART PALPATATIONS), AND IRRITABILITY. I WANT TO BE ABLE TO CONTROL HOW I FEEL AND ACT LIKE SO MANY TELL ME I CAN, BUT I CAN'T. MAYBE SOMEONE CAN GIVE ME WORDS OF ENCOURAGMENT THAT THIS WILL PASS. FOR THE PRAYFUL PLEASE KEEP ME AND MY FAMILY IN YOUR PRAYERS.

my heart and prayers for you. iam sad that they write scrips for this all the time.I work with people in recouvery.and see this allways

It will get better,,

After 6 yrs of 10 mg day i stopped due to low sodium. It was my dr idea to take this junk but she is a pill pusher with a license. Considering talking to a lawyer. Well after losing 11 lbs in 10 days from puking and nausea at 14 days it got better and taking a anti nausea med still lott of nausea and forgetfulness headaches but beteer than first weeks SO glad i quit feel better and life is real. Thats something nwo type drug and i do not believe in conspiracy theory but this. Has me thinking twice lol

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Menschen mit einer Virusgrippe sind typischerweise stark geschwächt, sodass Bakterien ein leichtes Spiel haben. Darum entwickeln sie oft gleichzeitig bakterielle Infektionen (sog. Zweitinfektionen oder Superinfektionen), was die mit der Grippe verbundenen Symptome zusätzlich verstärkt. So kann es bei einer Influenza zum Beispiel zu Entzündungen des Nervensystems und zu Lungenentzündungen kommen.

Die Grippe (Influenza) entsteht durch sogenannte Influenza- beziehungsweise Grippeviren der Typen A, B und C. Vor allem das Influenza-A- und das Influenza-B-Virus können beim Menschen zu schweren Atemwegserkrankungen führen. Das Grippevirus vom Typ C verursacht bei Erwachsenen selten und bei Kindern gelegentlich milde Erkrankungen.

Influenza-A- und Influenza-B-Viren sind demnach die wichtigsten Auslöser der Grippe. Beide Erreger besitzen bestimmte Oberflächenmerkmale, nach denen sich ihre Klassifikation richtet.

Grippeviren vom Typ A und B haben an ihrer Oberfläche sogenannte Spikes aus verschiedenen Eiweißen (Glykoproteine, Hämagglutinin und Neuraminidase), die unterschiedlich ausgeprägt sind und deren Kombination die Klassifizierung ermöglicht. Bisher sind 16 verschiedene Hämagglutinine (H) und neun verschiedene Neuraminidasen (N) bekannt.

  • Während man das Influenza-A-Virus in Typen und Subtypen (wie H1N1, H2N2, H3N2 oder H5N1) unterteilt,
  • unterscheidet man beim Influenza-B-Virus nur den Typ, ohne ihn weiter in Subtypen zu unterteilen.

So ist für die Spanische Grippe ebenso wie für die Neue Grippe (sog. Schweinegrippe) beispielsweise der Influenza-A-Subtyp H1N1 verantwortlich, für die Asiatische Grippe H2N2 und für die Hongkong-Grippe H3N2.

Durch das Influenza-A-Virus kommt es immer wieder zu größeren Ausbrüchen von Grippe. Ursache hierfür ist, dass der Erreger eine sehr veränderliche Erbanlage besitzt: Diese sogenannte genetische Variabilität befähigt das Grippevirus dazu, unsere Immunabwehr immer wieder zu überwinden.

Dass die Erreger der Grippe eine so große genetische Variabilität aufweisen, hat zwei Ursachen: Erstens können die unterschiedlich ausgeprägten Eiweiße an der Virusoberfläche miteinander verschiedene Neukombinationen bilden (sog. Antigen-Shift), zweitens können sie auch ihre jeweilige Struktur verändern (sog. Antigen-Drift). Dies führt dazu, dass jedes Jahr eine neue Variante des Influenza-A-Virus auftaucht

Diese neue Variante des Influenza-Virus kann auch Menschen krank machen, die im Jahr zuvor geimpft wurden oder schon eine Grippe durchgemacht haben. Darum ist jedes Jahr ein neuer Impfstoff für die Grippeimpfung nötig.

Die Antigen-Drift beim Influenza-A-Virus ist verantwortlich für die Grippewellen (bzw. Epidemien), die in Abständen von 2 bis 3 Jahren auftreten. Hingegen verursacht der Antigen-Shift die etwa alle 10 bis 20 Jahre auftretenden Grippe-Pandemien (eine Pandemie ist eine auf große Gebiete übergreifende Grippewelle). Grippeviren der Typen B und C machen sich eher durch vereinzelte Grippefälle bemerkbar.

Die Übertragung der Grippe kann verschiedene Ursachen haben. Die Ansteckung mit Grippeviren kann.

  • . über die sogenannte Tröpfcheninfektion geschehen, also durch Niesen, Husten und Sprechen. Sogar beim Atmen können Infizierte Grippeviren in die Umgebungsluft abgeben und so andere anstecken.
  • . durch direkten Kontakt mit Infizierten passieren, zum Beispiel beim Händeschütteln oder Küssen.
  • . über Gegenstände stattfinden, an denen die Grippeviren haften: So können sich die Viren über eine Schmierinfektion verbreiten, wenn jemand beispielsweise die verunreinigte Oberfläche berührt und die Hand anschließend an Schleimhäute (von Mund, Nase, Auge) führt.

Den Zeitraum zwischen der Infektion und dem Ausbruch einer Erkrankung nennt man Inkubationszeit. Bei der Grippe ist die Inkubationszeit recht kurz: Sie beträgt wenige Stunden bis drei Tage. Während dieser Zeit vermehren sich die ursächlichen Grippeviren in den Schleimhautzellen des Nasen-Rachen-Raums.

Die Grippe ist schon während der Inkubationszeit ansteckend. Nach dem Ausbruch der Influenza besteht die Ansteckungsgefahr dann noch etwa drei bis fünf Tage weiter. Kinder können das Grippevirus sogar bis zu sieben Tage nach dem Auftreten der ersten Symptome weitergeben.

Bei Verdacht auf Grippe (Influenza) liefern eine körperliche Untersuchung und die Angaben der Betroffenen (sog. Anamnese) wichtige Hinweise für die Diagnose. Dabei prüft der Arzt auch, ob die Beschwerden für eine echte Virusgrippe oder eher für eine gewöhnliche Erkältung (grippaler Infekt) sprechen.

Ist bekannt, dass sich Grippeviren in der Region ausbreiten beziehungsweise dass eine Grippewelle grassiert, kann der Arzt die Grippe in den meisten Fällen ohne Labordiagnostik recht sicher diagnostizieren. Laboruntersuchungen sind allerdings sinnvoll, wenn die Influenza schwer verläuft oder (z.B. wegen einer Grunderkrankung) ein erhöhtes Risiko für einen schweren Krankheitsverlauf besteht. Dann kann es zudem ratsam sein, sofort mit einer gegen Viren wirkenden Behandlung zu beginnen, ohne erst die weiteren Untersuchungsergebnisse abzuwarten.

Für die Laboruntersuchungen ist eine Blutprobe nötig. In Ausnahmefällen (z.B. bei vorbestehender Lungenerkrankung) lässt der Arzt bei einer Grippe auch den Speichel untersuchen. Dauert die Influenza schon ungewöhnlich lange, sind Lungenerkrankungen im Vorfeld bekannt oder besteht der Verdacht auf eine Lungenentzündung (Pneumonie), ist außerdem eine Röntgenaufnahme vom Brustkorb diagnostisch hilfreich. Um abzuklären, ob eine andere Krankheit der Atemwege vorliegt, kann außerdem eine Lungenfunktionsprüfung, eine Bronchoskopie oder Computertomographie zum Einsatz kommen.

Bei einer Grippe (Influenza) besteht die Behandlung oft nur darin, die Grippesymptome zu lindern. Unter bestimmten Umständen ist es jedoch bei einer Virusgrippe ratsam, spezielle Grippemittel oder Antibiotika einzusetzen:

  • Milde Grippe bzw. kein erhöhtes Risiko für schwere Grippe: Beschwerden lindern (sog. symptomatische Behandlung)
  • Schwere Grippe bzw. erhöhtes Risiko für schwere Grippe: evtl. Grippeviren durch Grippemittel (sog. Virostatika) bekämpfen
  • Zusätzliche Infektion mit Bakterien: mit Antibiotika behandeln

Wann ist das Risiko für eine schwere Grippe erhöht?

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Influenza B is a type of flu that is similar to influenza A. However, while A usually afflicts people in the early winter, influenza B can infect any time of the year. Another difference between the two, according to Dr. Vincent Racaniello, a professor at Columbia University, and author of "The Virology Blog," is that type B can only pass from human to human unlike type A bird flu or swine flu. However, researchers have found that gray and harbor seals can contract influenza B as well.

Type A and B share many symptoms.

One of the earliest symptoms of type B influenza is a fever. The National Institute of Health reports that the fever can come on quickly and go as high as 106 degrees. However, according to the Penn State College of Medicine, while A and B influenza share the same symptoms, type B generally produces much milder symptoms, so the fever will not be as acute. Also, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports that adults usually have a lower fever temperature than children do. The fever is often accompanied by body aches and fatigue.

Penn State Medical Center also reports that as the fever begins to leave, respiratory symptoms begin to develop. These symptoms are a stuffy or runny nose, cough and sore throat. These symptoms can become worse over time, and even turn into bronchitis or pneumonia if not treated. While these symptoms will usually disappear within a week, the cough can remain for several weeks.

There are times when type B influenza can affect the stomach also, which is why some people refer to it as the "stomach flu." The stomach flu is not a different type of flu virus; it is simply symptoms of the flu that affect the stomach. Some of these symptoms, as listed by the NIH, include vomiting, nausea and loss of appetite.

Influenza B symptoms, while the same as influenza A symptoms, are not quite as severe in their intensity. When you get a flu shot, it is meant to protect you from both influenza A and B strains.

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The parainfluenza virus is often referred to by other names, such as canine influenza virus, greyhound disease and race flu. This virus used to affect only horses and is believed to have adapted to become contagious to dogs as well. Currently, no other species are at risk of this particular strain of the virus. Parainfluenza virus is easily spread from dog to dog and causes symptoms which may become fatal. The highest instances of this respiratory infection are seen in areas with high dog populations, such as race tracks, boarding kennels and pet stores, but it remains highly contagious to any dog of any age.

Symptoms of parainfluenza virus include many general symptoms seen in other infections, viruses and diseases. Symptoms can vary in intensity and commonly affect younger puppies and aging dogs the worst. This virus is commonly mistaken for kennel cough, as the symptoms between the two are similar. It's important to keep in mind that kennel cough usually produces no additional symptoms, other than the cough. Symptoms to look for when parainfluenza virus is suspected are as follows:

  • Dry or hacking cough that may worsen with activity
  • Fever
  • Difficulty with breathing, wheezing
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Runny eyes, eye inflammation or conjunctivitis
  • Possible pneumonia with depression, loss of appetite and lethargy

When parainfluenza virus is suspected but only a cough exists, certain tests will be required to differentiate between kennel cough and the more serious parainfluenza virus. A chest x-ray can help to determine the presence of pneumonia. Blood testing may also be important to rule out other possibilities and to inspect over a period of weeks to determine the actual cause of illness. Quickly discovering a proper diagnosis can be helpful when deciding if the dog must be quarantined or to begin effective treatment as soon as possible.

Treatment options for parainfluenza virus vary based upon a number of options. One of the most important factors is to contain the virus and treat it before it can spread to other dogs. Many dogs can recover from this virus naturally, but they remain contagious and the virus can easily spread through respiratory secretions and through the air. For this reason, the virus is usually treated aggressively with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. If necessary, a cough suppressant may be used. Intravenous fluids may help to keep the dog hydrated and strengthen the immune system, preventing secondary bacterial infections or other complications.

It's not recommended to treat parainfluenza virus in dogs from your home, but the following tips may help if you decide this is the best option for your family. Likewise, you may find this information beneficial for home care after hospitalization and treatment for the virus:

  • Limit your dog's exercise and play or rest quietly with the dog
  • Keep the dog away from other dogs in the household during treatment and for at least one week following
  • Feed soft food if throat irritation is present
  • Encourage sufficient fluid intake by providing adequate water at all times
  • Avoid exposure to loud noises, chemical fumes or other events that may cause undue stress
  • Remove collars to encourage sufficient air intake
  • Set up a humidifier

Avian influenza (bird flu) in feral pigeons - what are the risks?

Bird flu, fowl plague, bird influenza, Asian bird flu, HPAI, LPAI, H5N1, H7N2, H7, H5N2

Influenza has been known about since 1878 and is caused by a type ‘A’ influenza virus. It has historically been known as ‘fowl plague’. There are three types of influenza virus: type A, type B and type C. Most forms of influenza are solely associated with humans, but the type A influenza virus has been found in pigs, horses and occasionally in birds and other mammals. Types B and C are human-specific and are not found in animals, mammals or birds. The type associated with recent outbreaks of avian influenza (bird flu) in south-east Asia is the type A influenza virus.

Thousands of influenza viruses, belonging to many sub-types, have been found in both domesticated and wild birds all over the world. Currently, avian influenza is recognised in two forms:

  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
  • Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)

The highly pathogenic form ('pathogenic' refers to the ability of an infecting agent to produce disease - hence, a virus that is highly pathogenic is capable of producing severe disease) is the most virulent form of the disease and can spread rapidly, particularly when found in intensively farmed domestic poultry. The mortality rate for birds infected with the highly pathogenic form can be up to 100% and the disease can develop so fast that in some cases birds will die without ever having showed any signs that they had contracted the disease. The highly pathogenic form is so virulent that one gram of infected chicken excrement can contain enough highly pathogenic virus to infect 100,000 birds. Conversely, the low pathogenic form results in a milder, less significant form of the disease with infected birds rarely becoming ill or demonstrating symptoms, but they still have the potential to pass the disease on to other birds or animals. Certain low pathogenic forms can, however, mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

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If you are at high risk, have your vaccinations updated every year, as directed by your physician.

La grippe est une infection des voies respiratoires qui se transmet très facilement. Elle est causée par le virus de l’influenza.

Ce virus circule chaque année au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Au Québec, il circule surtout pendant la période allant de la fin de l’automne au début du printemps.

La durée de la saison de la grippe peut varier. Ainsi, elle peut commencer plus ou moins tôt et durer plus ou moins longtemps selon les années.

Les symptômes de la grippe, qui débutent soudainement, et leur gravité peuvent varier en fonction de l’âge et de l’état de santé. Les principaux symptômes sont les suivants:

  • fièvre soudaine, entre 39 °C et 40 °C (102 °F et 104 °F);
  • toux soudaine;
  • mal de gorge;
  • douleurs musculaires ou articulaires;
  • fatigue extrême;
  • maux de tête.

Des symptômes comme des nausées, des vomissements, de la diarrhée et des douleurs au ventre peuvent aussi être présents. Ces symptômes sont plus fréquents chez les enfants.

Les personnes âgées peuvent se sentir faibles et être parfois confuses sans présenter d’autres symptômes.

La grippe est souvent confondue avec d’autres infections respiratoires comme le rhume. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la page Différences entre la grippe et le rhume.

Généralement, la grippe se soigne à la maison. Dans certaines situations, cependant, il faut consulter un médecin.

Vous devez consulter un médecin le jour même si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe et que vous présentez aussi l’un des symptômes suivants:

  • douleur qui augmente ou qui persiste lors de la respiration;
  • fièvre qui augmente ou qui persiste depuis plus de 5 jours.

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Die Inkubationszeit, also die Zeit von der Ansteckung bis zum Ausbruch der Grippe, beträgt zwischen 18 Stunden und drei Tagen. Bereits in dieser Zeit besteht Ansteckungsgefahr, auch wenn sich noch keine Symptome einer Grippe zeigen. Bis zu einer Woche nach der Ansteckung lassen sich bei Erwachsenen – bei Kindern bis zu zwei Wochen – noch Viren im Auswurf (Sekret) nachweisen. Selbst bei einem günstigen Verlauf und wenn die Grippebeschwerden bereits abgeklungen sind, können Betroffene noch andere Menschen mit Grippe anstecken.

Ursache der Grippe ist eine Infektion mit Influenzaviren. Es werden drei Gruppen von Grippeviren unterschieden: Influenza A, B und C. Influenzaviren der Gruppe C bedingen nur eine milde Grippe, die häufig gar nicht als Grippe, sondern eher als Erkältung wahrgenommen wird. Viren der Gruppe B sind hingegen für die jährliche, saisonale Grippe in den nasskalten Jahreszeiten verantwortlich. Influenza-A-Viren bedingen schwere Grippeerkrankungen, die sich zu Grippewellen oder Pandemien ausweiten können.

Die Ansteckung mit den ursächlichen Grippeerregern erfolgt sehr häufig durch Tröpfcheninfektion beim Niesen oder Husten (direkte Ansteckung). Auch über indirekten Kontakt ist eine Ansteckung mit Grippe möglich. Der Grund: Grippeviren können auch außerhalb des Körpers noch einige Tage infektiös sein. Über Handinnenflächen (nach dem Hineinniesen in die Hand) werden Grippeviren beispielsweise oft weiter verbreitet. Über Türgriffe, Tische, Haltestangen in öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln und alle Gegenstände, die von vielen Menschen berührt werden, kann man sich deshalb mit Grippe anstecken. Die Erreger müssen dann nur noch über die eigenen Hände durch Nase und Mund in die Schleimhäute gelangen.

Entgegen der weitverbreiteten Regel „Hand vor den Mund“ ist es sinnvoll, wenn Sie beim Niesen oder Husten den Arm vor dem Mund halten. So vermeiden Sie, dass sich andere Menschen durch indirekten Kontakt bei Ihnen mit Grippe anstecken. Außerdem vermindern Sie trotzdem das Risiko für eine Tröpfcheninfektion, da Sie nicht in den Raum husten, sondern in Ihre Armbeuge.

Kontakt mit Influenzaviren muss nicht zwangsläufig zu einer Grippe führen. Schwere und Verlauf der Grippe sind von Mensch zu Mensch verschieden, auch wenn die Grippe durch den gleichen Erregertyp verursacht wurde. Dabei spielt auch das Immunsystem eine große Rolle. Häufig ist das Immunsystem in Stresssituationen, bei länger anhaltender, nährstoffarmer Ernährung, in der Schwangerschaft oder bei Erkrankungen geschwächt – dann hat die Grippe leichteres Spiel.

Mit zunehmendem Alter und durchgemachten Influenza-Erkrankungen werden Sie in der Regel auch widerstandsfähiger gegen eine Grippe. Obwohl sich Grippeviren ständig verändern (sie mutieren), gibt es doch Verwandtschaften zwischen den einzelnen Typen. Ihr Immunsystem erinnert sich an die Erreger der bereits durchgemachten Grippe-Erkrankungen und baut somit eine sogenannte Teilimmunität auf. Unter Umständen kann diese Teilimmunität dazu beitragen, dass bei bestimmten Grippeviren die Grippe nicht mehr so schwer verläuft oder es gar nicht erst zum Ausbruch der Grippe kommt.

Die Immunsysteme von Babys und Kleinkindern haben noch keine oder sehr wenige Grippe-Erkrankungen durchgemacht. Deshalb stecken sie sich auch besonders schnell mit Grippe an. Im hohen Alter nimmt der im Laufe des Lebens aufgebaute Immunschutz durch das bei alten Menschen schwächere Immunsystem wieder etwas ab, sodass die Grippe bei älteren Menschen schwerer verlaufen kann.

Influenza-Diagnose: Andere Erkrankungen ausschließen

Wenn Sie mit den typischen Symptomen einer Virusgrippe zum Arzt gehen, wird dieser häufig schon nach einem ausführlichen Gespräch (Anamnese) und gegebenenfalls einer körperlichen Untersuchung die Diagnose Grippe stellen. Typische Grippe-Beschwerden sind:

Um die Grippe zweifelsfrei zu diagnostizieren, wird der Arzt bei Ihnen einen Nasen- oder Rachenabstrich durchführen. Dabei nimmt er mit einem langen Wattestäbchen von der Schleimhaut an Nase und Rachen einen Abstrich. Das mit dem Abstrich entnommene Sekret wird im Labor virologisch untersucht. Der Abstrich wird durchgeführt, wenn eine eindeutige Diagnose nötig ist, zum Beispiel bei Schwangeren oder Menschen mit einer Grunderkrankung, oder um den Virustyp eindeutig festzustellen. Das Entnehmen des Abstrichs ist etwas unangenehm, in der Regel aber nicht schmerzhaft.

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    Nights sweats are one of the best-known symptoms associated with menopause. Many women who are experiencing perimenopause or who are menopausal experience these nocturnal hot flashes, which are likely to wake you up drenched in sweat with your heart pounding. This can thoroughly interrupt a good night’s sleep and make it hard to settle back down.

    Irregular periods are often one of the first signs of perimenopause, or the transition between a woman’s reproductive years and menopause. As her ovaries begin to produce less estrogen, menstrual cycles can become irregular. Over time, her ovaries will gradually stop releasing eggs, and her cycles will eventually stop altogether. Irregular periods can begin when a woman is in her 30s or even earlier, but they are most common once a woman reaches her 40s.

    Perimenopause and menopause can create a host of symptoms both physical and emotional. These are largely caused by the loss of estrogen and testosterone, which can lead to hot flashes, cold flashes, sleep disturbances and more.

    The vaginal dryness that often accompanies menopause or perimenopause is uncomfortable and can cause a strain on relationships. Caused by declining estrogen, this dryness can indicate vaginal atrophy, or a thinning of the vaginal walls. Normally, the vaginal walls are coated by a thin layer of moisture. During sexual arousal, blood flows into the pelvic region, which increases the amount of lubrication present. During menopause, however, the amount and consistency of lubrication can change and decrease dramatically, leading to vaginal dryness.

    Vaginal atrophy often affects women who are nearing menopause or in menopause, a condition which can lead to uncomfortable or painful sexual activity. As many as half of all menopausal women experience vaginal atrophy, but with proper treatment, they can once again enjoy a healthy sex life free of discomfort or pain. Lifestyle changes can help reduce the discomfort associated with this condition, maintain healthy tissue function and improve vaginal tone.

    Menopause can bring numerous physical changes and leave you feeling unfamiliar with your own body. Unfortunately, it can also bring changes that leave you feeling unfamiliar with your own reflection. Apart from the missed periods, the mood swings and the night sweats, many women also experience dry, wrinkled or sagging skin. Lifestyle and menopause treatment products may be able to help relieve many of the symptoms associated with menopause, including dry skin.

    Many women are familiar with more common menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. Fewer are familiar with dry eyes as a symptom of menopause. However, this condition can be not just uncomfortable but also potentially dangerous. Chronic dry eye can increase a woman’s risk of visual impairment. More than 60 percent of women experience eye discomfort during menopause or perimenopause, but few of them are aware the dryness is linked to their hormonal changes.

    Mood swings are commonly associated with menopause and perimenopause. The link between irritability and menopause appears to be primarily hormonal in nature. The hormonal changes of menopause can trigger mood swings and a tendency to quick anger, particularly in women who are already susceptible to hormone-induced moodiness. In some cases, night sweats, anxiety and other conditions triggered during menopause can exacerbate emotional instability and leave women feeling even more frustrated and anxious.

    Weight gain is so common during menopause that it has been given its own name: the middle-aged spread. The increased weight associated with menopause is frequently caused by hormonal changes, which are also behind most other menopause symptoms. Additionally, muscle mass is lost during menopause, which reduces the metabolic rate. If you continue to eat the same number of calories you always have, you will gain weight. You can also suffer from weight redistribution, or gain weight around your abdomen rather than around the thighs and hips.

    Many women in menopause are familiar with the traditional menopausal symptoms of hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness, but they may be less aware that bloating is also a symptom. However, water retention is a hallmark of menopause that can leave you uncomfortable as you reach for elastic-waisted pants.

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    Although it may make you feel miserable, the common cold is usually a mild illness that goes away relatively quickly. On average, adults get two to four colds each year, and young children experience about twice that many.

    What Causes the Common Cold?

    When you get a cold, you've probably been infected by one of more than 200 different viruses. These viruses are easily spread through droplets of fluid from a cough, sneeze, or runny nose. Cold viruses often circulate by touch, but they can also be inhaled if they become airborne.

    People with colds are most contagious during the first few days after they have been infected with a virus. Spending a lot of time around other people indoors can help spread colds — a common occurrence for schoolchildren. Also, low humidity, as during the winter months, makes an ideal living environment for viruses.

    What Are Cold Symptoms?

    Cold symptoms usually develop one to three days after exposure to a virus. Symptoms may include:

    • Scratchy, sore throat
    • Sneezing and coughing
    • Runny nose or nasal congestion
    • Reduced sense of taste and smell
    • Fatigue
    • Headache
    • Fever up to 102 degrees Fahrenheit (more common in infants and young children)

    If you are continuously exhibiting some of these symptoms, this may be a sign of allergy rather than virus. Visit your doctor if you suspect allergies are the cause of your runny nose and watery eyes — allergy tests examine your body's reaction to common allergens to determine what may be causing your discomfort.

    Should You Call the Doctor?

    In most cases, you don't need to see a doctor when dealing with a cold. Call your doctor if you are experiencing:

    • Severe symptoms or symptoms that last for about two weeks
    • High fever
    • Severely swollen glands in your neck or jaw
    • Ear pain
    • Sinus headache
    • Fainting, dizziness, or confusion
    • Severe and persistent cough
    • Chest pain or pressure
    • Problems breathing
    • A sudden outburst of asthma or other pre-existing lung condition
    • Severe or continuous vomiting

    Children may exhibit additional symptoms that should be brought to a health care provider's attention. Call your doctor if the child has a cold and experiences a fever above 103 degrees Fahrenheit, bluish skin, behavioral changes, worsening of pre-existing conditions, vomiting, or abdominal pain.

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    I believe it must really weaken your immune system in order for this to happen.

    The first week was great. I could think clearer. Tasks and university work began to become easier to do due to being able to think more in depth and sequentially.

    I may have to redo my units but if I am able to think as clear as the first week I am willing to make that sacrifice.

    Does anyone who has gone cold turkey after long periods on Lexapro as to how long the withdrawals symptoms last?

    i too am weened off lexapro.. this is my 5th day off of my 10mg of 8 months not long i know.

    but i don't want to be on these any more as me and my partner are trying to conceive i think this med is blocking it and keeping is from conceiving so if we get what we want at the end its the only thing giving me hope from these horrendous side effects.

    I really hope i can push from it but all people blog about is how bad the side effects are and the beginning stage. what about after the withdrawals.. is there hope?

    my symptoms are feeling faint light headed migraine sweats shivers and shaking cant concentrate and patchy skin if this is it then fine i can get over this.. but how long will it last? also i am extremely tired won't stop sleeping and signed off from work due to nearly collapsing..:(.

    Hey I have only been on for 9 months at 10 mg and I dosed myself down to 5mg for the past 3 days. I am experiencing pain in my neck but nothing else anyone has been talking about. Did you have any physical pain?

    Just wondering if your neck pain went away? I was only on 10mg of lexapro for 7 weeks, and now have neck and shoulder stiffness with being on this drug and coming off of it.

    To Denice and others with neck pain.

    I am so happy someone finally mentioned the neck pain! I am being weaned off Lexapro, too. I also have fibromyalgia.. I always thought the Lexapro helped me control my fibro pain as much as helped with depression. As I am discontining the Lexapro, my fibro pain has increased. BUT now I also have a severe "pins and needles" neck pain, almost like a herniated disc. Is this the type pain you are speaking of?

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    Extremely high Eosinophil count

    Enlargement of liver and spleen

    Central nervous system lesions can also occur sometimes

    Granulomatous reactions and fibrosis in the affected organs can lead to

    Colonic polyposis with bloody diarrhea mostly in Schistosoma mansoni;

    Portal hypertension with hematemesis and splenomegaly in Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum;

    Cystitis and ureteritis with hematuria leading to bladder cancer in Schistosoma haematobium; Pulmonary hypertension in Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and even Schistosoma haematobium;

    Glomerulonephritis; and central nervous system lesions.

    Eggs of the infecting parasite can be identified in the stool or urine of the patient under a microscope. Examination of stool for the identification of the parasites is more common. An egg per gram (epg) is the scientific unit used to measure the eggs in the feces of the affected patient. Stool examination is recommended to patients affected with schistosoma mansoni or schistosoma japonicum; and urine examination for schistosoma haematobium.

    Sometimes the Kato-Katz technique (20 to 50 mg of fecal material) or the Ritchie technique is also used for field surveys and investigational purposes.

    A team led by Dr. Russell Stothard, head of the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative at the Natural History Museum, London, recently conducted a field evaluation, which reported that even if stool or urine examinations are negative, a tissue biopsy might reveal eggs. Detection of antibody might as well be useful for epidemiological surveys as well as clinical research and management.

    Schistosomiasis can be successfully treated using an oral drug Praziquantel. Though a single dose of this drug can cure the infection, it is not effective in preventing re-infection of the patient, which is highly probable in an affected area. Researches are presently being carried on to develop a vaccine for this disease.

    The toxic metalloid, antimony was initially used in low doses to treat schistosomiasis, but this is not used in present days. Another drug called Oxamniquine is used outside the U.S to treat Schistosoma mansoni.

    Investigations are being carried on a new Egyptian drug, Mirazid for the treatment of this disease.

    Other forms of oral medication that are being experimented with are medicinal castor oil, Gopo Berry (by Dr Chidzere of Zimbabwe in 1980s), etc.

    Acrolein, copper sulfate, and niclosamide can be used to eliminate the fresh-water snails that cause the disease.

    Crayfish breeding can also be helpful for the purpose though it must be done with caution.

    Avoiding water bodies previously detected with snails.

    Use of sapindus plant(Phytolacca dodecandra) to prevent the disease by controlling snails. Aklilu Lemma and Legesse Wolde-Yohannes received the Right Livelihood Award in 1989 for their research.