Mood swings can be quite severe early in a pregnancy, and may include feelings of euphoria followed by depression or sadness; again, many of these mood swings are similar to emotional changes that women experience during PMS. Pregnancy symptoms such as frequent urination, morning sickness and nausea, and odd food cravings generally begin around 2-3 weeks into the pregnancy; sometimes these symptoms do not occur until 4-6 weeks into the pregnancy.

Some women do not experience a missed period during the first few weeks of pregnancy; a period that occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy may be either normal or abnormal. Abnormal periods that occur during the first few weeks of a pregnancy can include a lighter than normal period, spotting, or a very short period. Of course, any bleeding that occurs when you may be pregnant needs to be checked by a doctor immediately.

If you are experiencing some of these symptoms, and there is a possibility that you can be pregnant, than you should take a pregnancy test as soon as possible. Over the counter urine tests and blood tests performed by a physician detect levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, (HCG), in your blood; this hormone is released by the developing placenta and begins to appear in the blood as little as 5 days after conception.

Over the counter urine tests are up to 97% accurate; these tests are usually not able to detect HCG in your urine until one week after your missed period. Blood tests are up to 99% accurate, and these tests can detect HGC in your blood as soon as 7 days after your ovulation.

It is important for you to confirm your pregnancy as early as possible so that you can begin your prenatal care. Early prenatal care is important to the health of your new baby and you during this time. Once you begin to notice any early pregnancy symptoms, and you believe that you may be pregnant, take a test as soon as you can. If you take an over the counter test and it is positive, have the test confirmed by your physician. Remember to stay relaxed during this time, and try to keep your stress levels down.

Asbestos symptoms are indicators of the serious adverse health problems that are caused by dangerous levels of asbestos exposure. The Occupational Health & Safety Administration estimates that 1.3 million people are exposed to the dangerous of asbestos exposure every year in the work place and should be aware of symptoms of asbestos exposure that may indicate serious underlying health problems. People who work, or have worked, in the shipyard, factory, railroad, construction, automobile, and building industries in the last 60 years may be susceptible to developing asbestos symptoms.

Most deadly diseases that are caused by asbestos exposure lie dormant for years, so it is possible to suffer from the ill effects of asbestos disease without any noticeable asbestos symptoms. Because of disease latency, asbestos symptoms might appear years - even decades - after initial asbestos exposure. Medical experts assign a latency period to malignant mesothelioma of thirty to fifty years. That’s one of the reasons the disease is so difficult to diagnose; the job where the exposure occurred in most instances ended decades prior to the health problems beginning.

The clinical manifestations for asbestos generally appear between twenty and forty years after the asbestos exposure has occurred, or begun. The fibrotic process that impacts the lung tissue in this disease maybe accelerated and is certainly exacerbated by smoking. Asbestosis, characterized by severe breathing restriction, develops in nearly half of all workers who have reached “occupational levels” of asbestos exposure.

The type of asbestos symptoms an individual experiences generally depends on the asbestos-related disease that has been developed. There are various types of asbestos-related conditions; the two most commonly associated with asbestos exposure are asbestosis and mesothelioma. However chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and is a condition that asbestos exposure has contributed to in thousands of cases.

Asbestosis symptoms commonly include these conditions:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chronic cough
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty with physical exertion

Malignant mesothelioma generally develops in people over the age of sixty five and usually occurs in the chest cavity, arising in the pleura in sixty five to seventy percent of all cases. The other predominant location for mesothelioma cancer cases is the peritoneal lining of the organs in the abdominal cavity. It may also affect the pericardial lining of the heart, in rare cases.

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Persistent cough
  • Weight Loss
  • Fatigue

Pleural effusion is also a common development with mesothelioma. This condition is caused by accumulation of excess fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall or diaphragm. It can be the cause of chest pain and reduced breathing capacity.

Peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by abdominal swelling and pain. This symptom can also be the result of fluid accumulation – in this case, within the abdominal cavity. Thickening of the peritoneal tissue can lead to additional symptoms:

  • Swelling
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea
  • Obstructed bowels
  • Anemia
  • Fever and/or night sweats

If you or someone you love is experiencing any symptoms of asbestos exposure, you should visit your doctor right away.

Amphetamine is a strong stimulant that has been used medically for situations when a person needs to be more alert, as in narcolepsy, a health problem that causes a person to fall asleep at any time. It has also been given to pilots and soldiers to keep them awake and alert for long hours. It does its job in these situations, but the side effects of this drug can be dangerous and damaging.

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  • 1. Loganathan A, Arumainathan UD, Raman R. Comparative study of bacteriology in recurrent tonsillitis among children and adults. Singapore Med J. 2006 Apr;47(4):271-5. PubMed
  • 2. Kocaturk S, Demiray T, Incesulu A, Kandirali E, Erkam U, Mert A. Comparison of adenoid and tonsil core cultures in chronic adenotonsillitis. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2003 Mar;10(3):105-9. PubMed
  • 3. Radosz-Komoniewska H, Rogala-Zawada D, Zientara M, Rudy M, Nowakowska M. Bacterial flora in pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 1998;50(1-2):63-8. PubMed
  • 4. Gudima IA, Vasil'eva LI, Bragina LE, Suchkov IIu. Viral-bacterial-fungal associations in chronic tonsillitis in children. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Sep-Oct;(5):16-9. PubMed
  • 5. Putto A, Meurman O, Ruuskanen O. C-reactive protein in the differentiation of adenoviral, Epstein-Barr viral and streptococcal tonsillitis in children. Eur J Pediatr. 1986 Aug;145(3):204-6. PubMed

Created: August 18, 2006
Last updated: February 24, 2016

Now that we talked about why you have sugar withdrawals, let’s talk about what the symptoms are. After coming off of sugar over 50 times myself and helping hundreds to the same, I have found that sugar addicts actually have different symptoms when they are coming off of sugar. And I don’t really like to give you a long list of negative things to “expect” because maybe none of these will happen to you, only one of them or a bunch of them. It can be helpful to be kind of prepared though so you don’t think something weird is happening while you are breaking this sugar addiction. Check out this one great tool, a free video that I made for you called The 3 Mistakes Sugar Addicts Make and How to Avoid Them. Here is a list of the sugar withdrawals I personally experienced and those I have seen come off sugar and keep in mind they usually only last for a few days if even that:

  1. Feeling sad or down. I will admit, this is then number one thing I would experience when I would come off sugar. But have hope, it would only last a few days, thank God! That is one thing that really motivated me to stay away from sugar because I hate feeling sad and it started to not be worth it, the trade-off of having sugar to being really down for a few days. For me I know this is a major sugar withdrawal because I do NOT experience sadness on a regular basis, only when I am coming off sugar. Its very important if you struggle with depression already, that you guard yourself against this and make sure are aware of this. The good news is, I have seen many people who struggle with moodiness and depression GREATLY improve when they no longer have a sugar addiction. Personally I think a lot of people who struggle with this would see an improvement when they break the sugar addiction.
  2. Headaches. I personally never had this sugar withdrawal but I have heard some say they do.
  3. Fatigue. If you have been jacked up on sugar all the time, your body is used to that rush but you have also really stressed out your adrenal glands, which can make you more tired. The ironic thing is, since I no longer am a sugar addict if I do have sugar, I am so tired that night, it literally puts me to sleep. I really can’t believe it! And when I wake up the next day, I almost feel hung over I am so tired. I never realized that as much when I ate sugar all the time.
  4. Sleep patterns affected. Remember you are detoxing off a poisonous substance that is toxic so you are going to be detoxing as it gets out of your body. If you were addicted to sugar, your body was all out of whack from having blood sugar spikes to insulin surges and your body needs some time to balance back out.
  5. Sugar cravings. Now this one is the obvious side effect. Once you stop eating sugar, one sugar withdrawal can be ridiculously intense cravings for it. Remember, you may be stopping something that has been a habit of yours for 20 years so give yourself a break! Its normal to crave something that has been a part of your life for so long not only mentally but physically as well. Be encouraged that sugar cravings DO go away.

Take “The Quiz” to self-diagnose whether you even are a sugar addict or not, click here.

One of the most important things about breaking a sugar addiction is learning how to think differently about sugar and how you resist temptation in your life. Because if you get off sugar but don’t know how to stay off it, that is something that can be very frustrating. If you want to check out a free internet seminar I am doing click here or go to http://sugaraddictionspecialist.com/internet-seminar/

Be on the lookout for your own sugar withdrawals and feel free to leave a comment and let us know what yours were so we can all know what to look out for.

Mold toxicity is often the end result with constant exposure to mold of a toxic substance. A common misconception among allergists who are untrained in this type of toxicity levels in humans, which is technically not their area of expertise unless they have trained specifically in environmental medicine with their background in immunology, is to do general allergen testing. Most tests usually result in an unequivocal result, a 2+ or less. This induces some physicians to order allergy shots, regardless. These shots are absolutely worthless (and could possibly be harmful) to a person who has been heavily exposed to these mycotoxins as they are already in a state of toxicity. If anything, this could exacerbate the problem. Because many doctors are not trained in this field, they may try to "guess" at a diagnosis.

In laymen's terms, molds produce mycotoxins. These substances, although unseen by the naked eye, are ingested and then enter the body through the skin, mucous and airways. Once ingested, mold has the requirements to colonize and spread. In doing this, it can compromise the immune system and damage everyday processes of the body. Mold and yeast are interchangeable only in their dimorphic state, which is often a big misconception, although both are fungi. There has been a theory of a connection between Autism Spectrum Disorder onset and Candida Albicans in the body. New studies are being conducted during the first quarter of 2006. Updates will follow.

Fungi, which include yeasts, moulds, smuts and mushrooms, are responsible for causing four types of mycotic (fungal) disease:

1. Hypersensitivity - an allergic reaction to moulds and spores;

2. Mycotoxicosis - poisoning by food products contaminated by fungi

3. Mycetismus - the ingestion of preformed toxin (toadstool poisoning)

4. Infection (systemic) - (Mycotoxicosis; the subject below)

The following are a list of the most common symptoms of fungal exposure (bear in mind, people never fit all of below criteria). Most people with some forms of Mycotoxicosis meet at least 8 (recent symptoms) of the following criteria:

  • Fibromyalgia/mps (and several correlated symptoms)
  • Respiratory distress, coughing, sneezing, sinusitis
  • Difficulty swallowing, choking, spitting up (vomiting) mucous
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Burning in the throat and lungs (similar to acid reflux and often misdiagnosed as such)
  • Asthmatic signs; wheezing, shortness in breath, coughing, burning in lungs, etc.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome, nausea, diarrhea, sharp abdominal pains, stomach lesions
  • Bladder, liver, spleen, or kidney pain
  • Dark or painful urine
  • Dirt-like taste in mouth, coated tongue
  • Food allergies/leaky gut syndrome/altered immunity
  • Memory loss; brain fog, slurred speech, occasionally leading to dementia
  • Vision problems
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Large boils on neck (often a sign of anaphylaxis )
  • Yellowing of nails, ridges, or white marks under nail
  • Thyroid irregularities, sometimes leading to complete dysfunction; adrenal problems
  • Headaches
  • Anxiety/depression, heart palpitations - confusion, PTSD
  • Extreme blood pressure, cholesterol, or triglycerides irregularities
  • Ringing in ears, balance problems (very common), dizziness, loss of hearing (aspergillus niger)
  • Chronic fatigue (also included under this classification directional confusion)
  • Intermittent face flushing; almost always systemic, Called the Mylar Flush (neurological))
  • Night head sweats, and drooling while sleeping, profuse sweating
  • Multiple chemical sensitivity; only upon exposure to Stachybotrys and Chaetomium
  • Nose bleeds (stachybotrys)
  • Bruising/scarring easily; rash or hives, bloody lesions all over the skin (Often systemic, see images; skin )
  • Reproductive system complications; infertility, changes in menstrual cycles, miscarriage
  • Sudden weight changes (Detoxifier genotypes tend to gain weight, non-detoxifier genotypes tend to lose weight)
  • Cancer
  • Hair loss, very brittle nails, temporary loss of fingerprints (in rare cases)
  • Joint/muscle stiffness and pain
  • Irregular heart beat/heart attack
  • Seizures, inadvertent body jerking, twitching, inadvertent facial movements or numbness in face
  • Hypersensitivity when re-exposed to molds, which can lead to anaphylaxis
  • Anaphylaxis upon re-exposure to mycotoxin producing molds
  • Death, in extreme cases

Note: despite inaccurate and misleading reports by theorists regarding immuno-compromised, babies, and the elderly being more susceptible, this is a big misconception as exposure to the T-2 mycotoxins found in many types of current indoor molds will poison anyone in time; no one is immune. The reason for this conflicting information is that studies have never been conducted to prove this. If so called experts are going to make such a broad and misleading statement, they may as well say that this same category of people is more susceptible to SARS, West Nile Virus, AIDS, and cancer. The T-2 mycotoxins found in many of these molds are the exact same T-2 mycotoxins that have killed widespread groups of innocent people with Yellow Rain, a biological warfare agent.

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Pneumocystis Carinii — This condition occurs when a fungus infects the lungs. Symptoms may include fever, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss, night sweats and fatigue.

It is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventative treatment may be administered when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Treatment is usually trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, also called Septra or Bactrim, dapsone or atovoquone.

Recurrent Pneumonia — People with AIDS are at risk for recurrent bacterial pneumonia. Bacteria can infect the lungs, which may lead to problems ranging from a mild cough to severe pneumonia. Recurrent pneumonia is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Tuberculosis (TB) — This is a serious, and often deadly, bacterial infection that primarily infects the lungs. TB is transmitted when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes, releasing microscopic particles into the air. If inhaled, these particles may transmit the condition.

Once infected by TB, most people remain healthy and develop only latent infection. People with latent infection are neither sick nor infectious. However, they do have the potential to become sick and infectious with active TB. It can occur at any CD4+ T cell level but especially when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 350 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma — Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a disease in which tumors develop from white blood cells in the lymphatic system. It is another common disease associated with AIDS. See AIDS-related lymphoma.

Candidiasis — This is the most common HIV-related fungus infection. It can affect the entire body, but most commonly occurs in the mouth (thrush) or vagina. An overgrowth of yeast causes white patches on gums, tongue or lining of the mouth, pain, difficulty in swallowing and loss of appetite. Candida in the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs is AIDS defining.

Herpes Simplex — This virus causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area. Chronic herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions and severe mucocutaneous HSV disease are common in the advanced stages of AIDS.

Kaposi's Sarcoma — This is the most common AIDS-related cancer. It causes reddish-purple lesions that usually appear on the skin. They also can appear on the lymph nodes, mouth, gastrointestinal tract and lungs.

Shingles — Shingles are caused by a reactivation of the chicken pox virus. It may cause a painful rash or blisters that follow the path of nerves.

Reviewed by health care specialists at UCSF Medical Center.

A sore throat is often the first sign of a cold and may get better after a day or two; other cold symptoms such as a runny nose and congestion may follow the sore throat. The primary symptom of tonsillitis is a moderate to severe sore throat lasting longer than 2 days and involves inflammation of the tonsils. Other symptoms of tonsillitis may include:

  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Swollen and tender glands (lymph nodes) on the sides of the neck
  • Bad breath
  • Fever and chills
  • Tiredness and headache
  • Stomach upset or pain
  • Enlarged and reddened tonsils with spots of white/yellow pus
  • Mouth breathing, noisy breathing, and/or snoring (due to enlarged tonsils blocking the airways).

Avoiding close contact with people who have tonsillitis is advisable to prevent passing on the infection. Children and other family members should be kept away from people with tonsillitis as much as possible. Hygiene measures should also be used to prevent spread of infection. These include:

  • Regular and thorough washing and drying of hands
  • Using a tissue to cover coughs and sneezes
  • Frequent and through washing and drying of hands
  • Not sharing foods, liquids, or eating utensils or drinking vessels
  • Frequent cleaning of surfaces particularly in the kitchen and bathroom.

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Die Grippe ist in Deutschland eine meldepflichtige Erkrankung. Deshalb wird der Arzt das Gesundheitsamt darüber informieren, dass in seiner Praxis ein Grippefall diagnostiziert wurde. Das Melden der Grippe dient vor allem der Kontrolle von Grippewellen oder Grippepandemien.

Die beste Therapie gegen Grippe ist Bettruhe. In den ersten Tagen der Infektion wird es vermutlich kein Problem für Sie sein, das Bett zu hüten – Fieber, Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen sowie Schwächegefühl werden es Ihnen einfach machen. Die Bettruhe sollte allerdings auch noch etwa bis drei Tage nach Ende des Fiebers eingehalten werden. Die Ruhezeit ist wichtig, um Ihrem Körper die notwendige Energie zu geben, sich gegen die Grippe zu behaupten.

Gegen die Schmerzen bei Grippe können Sie schmerzlindernde Medikamente einnehmen. Bestimmte Wirkstoffe helfen auch gegen Fieber (etwa Ibuprofen). Kinder und Jugendliche sollten nur nach Abstimmung mit dem Arzt Schmerzmittel bekommen. Medikamente mit dem Wirkstoff Acetylsalicylsäure dürfen von Kindern und Jugendlichen während einer Grippe keinesfalls eingenommen werden. Bei einer Grippeinfektion kann die Einnahme von Acetylsalicylsäure bei jungen Menschen zum Reye-Syndrom führen. Das Reye-Syndrom ist eine sehr schwere Erkrankung, die Leber und Gehirn schädigt und in etwa der Hälfte aller Fälle zum Tode führt. Anzeichen für das Reye-Syndrom sind Krämpfe, starkes Erbrechen, Körperstarre und bald einsetzendes Koma.

Gegen anhaltenden Husten bei Grippe können Mittel mit dem Wirkstoff Kodein verschrieben werden. Auch schleimlösende Medikamente helfen dabei, die Atemwegsbeschwerden etwas zu mindern. Auch, wenn es schwerfällt – achten Sie während der Grippe auf eine ausreichende Flüssigkeitszufuhr. Eine ausreichende Vitamin-Versorgung, vor allem mit Vitamin C, über die Nahrung oder mithilfe von Vitaminpräparaten, unterstützen Körper und Immunsystem zusätzlich.

Gelegentlich kommt es zu einer zusätzlichen Infektion mit Bakterien. Bei der sogenannten Superinfektion werden deshalb als Therapie zusätzlich Antibiotika gegeben. Die Superinfektion stellt eine Komplikation im Verlauf der Grippe dar. Die bakterielle Infektion in den Griff zu bekommen, ist sehr wichtig, da der Körper aufgrund der Viren schon geschwächt ist.

Je nach Schwere der Erkrankung dauert eine Grippe bei einem unkomplizierten Verlauf bis zu zwei Wochen an. Unkomplizierter Verlauf bedeutet, dass Sie ansonsten gesund sind, also nicht unter einer anderen Grunderkrankung leiden, nicht schwanger sind oder aus sonstigen Gründen Ihr Immunsystem schon vor der Grippe geschwächt war, und während der Grippe keine weiteren Krankheiten auftreten. Schwere Komplikationen können Lungenentzündung, Herzmuskelentzündung oder Herzbeutelentzündung, das Toxische Schocksyndrom oder das Reye-Syndrom (bei Behandlung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Acetylsalicylsäure) sein.

Leichtere, etwas häufiger vorkommende Komplikationen sind Mittelohr- und Nasennebenhöhlenentzündungen Sie kommen oft bei Kleinkindern und Kindern vor. Tritt eine Superinfektion – also eine zusätzliche Infektion mit Bakterien – auf, wird deshalb Antibiotikum gegeben. Die Grippe dauert dann meist etwas länger.

Normalerweise sind Sie nach ein bis zwei Wochen wieder gesund. Das Fieber tritt ganz am Anfang der Grippe auf und klingt nach einigen Tagen bereits wieder ab. Dann ist es empfehlenswert, dass Sie weiter das Bett hüten und sich weiter schonen, auch wenn Sie sich wieder „fit“ fühlen. Der Körper braucht seine Zeit, um sich gegen die Grippe wehren zu können.

Grippe vorbeugen: Wie man sich vor Influenzaviren schützen kann

Die Ansteckung mit den Erregern der Influenza, den Grippeviren, erfolgt durch Tröpfcheninfektion auf direktem Weg oder indirekt über Oberflächen, auf denen sich Grippeviren befinden. Wenn Sie einer Grippe vorbeugen möchten, versuchen Sie, während der Grippesaison hustenden Menschen aus dem Weg zu gehen. Wenn Sie selbst Grippe haben, seien Sie fair und bleiben Sie zu Hause. So schützen Sie andere davor, sich bei Ihnen mit Grippe anzustecken. Waschen Sie sich die Hände gründlich mit Wasser und Seife, wenn Sie nach Hause kommen. In den Wintermonaten schadet es auch nicht, sich die Hände noch etwas häufiger als sonst zu waschen. So vermeiden Sie, dass Grippeviren über Ihre Hände zu Ihren Schleimhäuten gelangen.

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Twin flame signs and symptoms – no matter how brief or how seemingly meaningless an encounter with another person, you must realize, there is no such thing as coincidence. Often this experience will unfold opportunities, explorations, and self-introspection. If you don’t just shuck it away or file it as some blip on the screen and start to discover there really is something there, you may also find yourself awakening to a new level of meaning and synchronicity.

Here are some twin flame signs and symptoms that you may have just experienced a meeting with your twin flame or twin soul.

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Action on Human System: Selectively toxic to rats; toxic to humans only in huge suicidal doses

  • Internal Exposure: Blue skin, labored breathing
  • External Exposure: Minimal
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Sulfur Dioxide, Formaldehyde, Chloropicrin, and Acrolein


Type of Pesticide: Fumigants

Action on Human System: Strong irritant of lungs and throat

  • Internal Exposure: Headache, dizziness, nausea, wheezing, cough
  • External Exposure: Severe irritation of eyes, nose, and throat. Blisters on skin
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Methyl Bromide, Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide


Type of Pesticide: Fumigants

Action on Human System: Serious injury to lungs; injures nervous system

  • Internal Exposure: Coughing of frothy fluid; severe shortness of breath, drowsiness, shaking, weakness
  • External Exposure: Irritates eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure: Lack of coordination


Type of Pesticide: Fumigants

Action on Human System: Injures heart muscles; also injures lungs, brain, liver and kidneys

  • Internal Exposure: Shock, drowsiness, shaking weakness
  • External Exposure: Irritates eyes, nose, throat. Blisters and redness on the skin
  • Chronic Exposure: Liver damage, weight loss, and jaundice


Type of Pesticide: Fumigants

Action on Human System: Injury to nervous system

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"There are many different opportunistic infections and each one can present differently," Dr. Malvestutto says. In Ron's case, it was Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), aka "AIDS pneumonia," which eventually landed him in the hospital.

Other opportunistic infections include toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection that affects the brain; a type of herpes virus called cytomegalovirus; and yeast infections such as thrush.

Photo: Getty Images

About half of people get night sweats during the early stages of HIV infection, Dr. Malvestutto says.

These can be even more common later in infection and aren't related to exercise or the temperature of the room.

Similar to the hot flashes that menopausal women suffer, they're also hard to dismiss, given that they soak your bedclothes and sheets.

Photo: Getty Images

Another sign of late HIV infection are nail changes, such as clubbing (thickening and curving of the nails), splitting of the nails, or discoloration (black or brown lines going either vertically or horizontally).

Often this is due to a fungal infection, such as candida. "Patients with depleted immune systems will be more susceptible to fungal infections," Dr. Malvestutto says.

Photo: Getty Images

Another fungal infection that's common in later stages is thrush, a mouth infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast.

"It's a very common fungus and the one that causes yeast infections in women," Dr. Malvestutto says. "They tend to appear in the mouth or esophagus, making it difficult to swallow."

Ron woke up one day to find white patches on his tongue. He had thrush. For him, "It was not bothersome other than I didn't like having it." The infection was hard to get rid of, but finally cleared up after Ron started taking drugs to combat HIV.

Photo: Getty Images

Cognitive problems could be a sign of HIV-related dementia, which usually occurs late in the course of the disease.

In addition to confusion and difficulty concentrating, AIDS-related dementia might also involve memory problems and behavioral issues such as anger or irritability.

It may even include motor changes: becoming clumsy, lack of coordination, and problems with tasks requiring fine motor skills such as writing by hand.

Photo: Getty Images

Cold sores (oral herpes) and genital herpes can be a sign of both ARS and late-stage HIV infection.

And having herpes can also be a risk factor for contracting HIV. This is because genital herpes can cause ulcers that make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sex. And people who have HIV tend to have more severe herpes outbreaks more often because HIV weakens the immune system.

Photo: Getty Images

Late HIV can also cause numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. This is called peripheral neuropathy, which also occurs in people with uncontrolled diabetes.

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If you're travelling with a child, make sure they're aware of the dangers, and that they should tell you if they've been bitten, scratched or licked by an animal. Check them for any wounds if they come into contact with an animal.

For information about areas where rabies is a risk, see:

If you've been bitten or scratched by an animal in an area with a risk of rabies:

  • immediately clean the wound with running water and soap for several minutes
  • disinfect the wound with an alcohol- or iodine-based disinfectant and apply a simple dressing, if possible
  • go to the nearest medical centre, hospital or GP surgery as soon as possible and explain that you've been bitten or scratched

If this happens while you're abroad, get local medical help immediately. Don't wait until you've returned to the UK.

If you've already returned to the UK without getting medical advice, it's still a good idea to get help – even if it's been several weeks since you were bitten or scratched.

It's unlikely you've been infected, but it's best to be safe. Post-exposure treatment is nearly 100% effective if it's started before any symptoms of rabies appear.

If you've been bitten, scratched or licked by an animal that might have rabies, you may need specialist medical treatment to stop you getting rabies. This is called post-exposure treatment.

Post-exposure treatment involves:

  • cleaning and disinfecting the wound
  • a course of the rabies vaccine – you'll need to have 5 doses over a month if you haven't been vaccinated before, or 2 doses a few days apart if you have
  • in some cases, a medicine called immunoglobulin given into and around the wound – this provides immediate but short-term protection if there's a significant chance you've been infected

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    There are 100 recognized species of the genus Mycoplasma. The overall of Mycoplasmosis Bacteria: Mycoplasma is the smallest of bacteria's and has the ability to enter any cell and alter itself, changing its cellular makeup with every cell division. It invades all systems of the human body, including the nerves. It lacks a cell wall and thereby are unaffected by many common antibiotics and penicillin.
    Transmission:
    Depends on species. E.g. cough, air, insects, sexual transmission, etc.
    Incubation: varies
    Found: Worldwide
    Rash: Sometimes
    Some diseases it causes: Blood and lung infection in newborn, neonatal meningitis, Infectious, Crohn’s Diseasearthritis/septic arthritis,Irritable Bowel Syndrome,Inflammation of the uterus,Pelvic inflammatory disease,Inflammation of the urethra, Disorders of the eye and ear, Periodontal disease and gingivitis,Kidney infection and Surgical wound infections
    Symptoms onset:
    Depends on species and some show no symptoms at all.
    Overall Mycoplasma Symptoms can be any of the following and more.
    Hair: Hair loss, Abnormal change of hair color
    Ears: Ringing in ears/tinnitus,Hearing loss,
    Eyes: Blurred vision,Double or wavy vision,Problems with eyeglasses prescription,Deteriorated night vision,Increased visual sensitivity to light,Black spots (floaters) in eyes,Bothersome eye twitching,Dry eyes,Itchy eyes,Watery eyes,
    Dental: Teeth easily chilled by cold foods, Teeth loose, Bleeding gums,Dental abscesses,Increased salivation,
    Nose/throat: Nasal congestion or stuffiness,Reduced sense of smell, mucus discharge,Sinus pain, Sore throat, shallow breathing,Wheezing,or Shortness of breath at rest, Frequent clearing of throat or coughing, thick saliva or phlegm,Excessive sneezing
    Mouth: White coated tongue Mouth sores Lip sores
    Increase in allergic sensitivities, Drooling,Numbness of lips,Dry "cotton" mouth, Weak voice or hoarseness, Excessive thirst
    Skin: Cracking, peeling of skin, cuts & wounds slow to heal, white "itchy scaly" between toes,Unusual skin rashes,Skin rashes, Reddening or flushing of skin,Skin itching, Yellowing color (jaundice-like) of skin,Skin sunburn-like sensation, Wart-like growths on skin, Genital itch,itchy scalp, Black & blue bruising more easily
    Immune and Endocrine: Sensitivity to cold (easily chilled),Frequent infections,Frequent colds or flu, Swelling of ankles,Swelling of body, swollen glands (neck, armpits, groin)Toenail or foot fungus, Night sweats,Intermittent fever at night,
    Sleep: Nightmares, Unrefreshed Sleep, Chronic fatigue, excessive tiredness, Difficulty waking up,Difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
    Digestive System: Change in, or lack of taste, Difficulty swallowing,Stomach cramps, Stomach pain,
    Diarrhea (Passage of stools of decreased form, watery)
    Gas (Passage of excess gas, flatus),Bloating, Episodes of blood in stools, Nausea,Vomiting, Regurgitate (throwing up) food,Less capacity for alcohol, Swollen abdomen, Excessive hunger,Loss of interest in food
    Cardio System: heart palpitations,Skipped or extra heartbeats, Racing pulse.
    Respiratory System: Chest pressure like band around chest
    Muscular/skeletal system: Reduced joint mobility,Joint pain or discomfort,Muscle spasms or cramps,Aching or burning muscles,Numb hands,Tingling hands, Other loss of strength/endurance,Other numbness or tingling (paresthesias),Trembling, shaking, or twitching, Aching joints, Pain in lower back, Pain in neck,
    Urinary system: Lack of bladder control (small volume),More frequent episodes of urination, Episodes of blood in urine
    Reproductive: Loss of sexual libido (sex drive)F.Frequent yeast infectionsIrregular menstrual periodsWorse PMSWorse menstrual crampsCervical pain, Endometriosis. M. Sexual impotence, Aching or swollen testicles
    Cognitive: Headaches,Short-term memory loss,Problems thinking and concentrating,Depression, Loss of interest or enthusiasm, Suicidal thoughts,Irritable, Mood swings nervousness, anxiety
    Neuro: Stuttering or stammering,Difficulty finding words, Poor balance or unsteadiness, Dizziness, Deteriorated penmanship,Lightheadedness

    Diagnosis:
    Since these organisms can be present without causing disease Mycoplasma detection is difficult, as well, it is found in various tissues (intracellular)and rarely is it found free in the blood. Often doctors make the diagnosis by eliminating other causes. Since Mycoplasma infection signs are highly variable it is not uncommon for a diagnosis to be entirely missed.
    Test:
    It is recommended that mycoplasmal infections be tested for in every case of Lyme Disease using the most sensitive PCR procedures to detect the mycoplasma DNA in white blood cells.
    Mycoplasma species are difficult to test for, and this usually requires a PCR test on blood leukocytes (white blood cells). Only a few commercial labs, such as VIP Labs of Reno, know how to test for Mycoplasma infections, and even labs that are very good at Lyme testing, such as Igenex Labs, can’t do the Mycoplasma testing. The following group may be able to direct you to good mycoplasma testing, as few Labs have proven able to do this type of testing. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MycoplasmaRegistry/
    To eradicate this bacteria:
    For eradicating any and all Mycoplasma's it can be done by making the body's environment where these wall lacking bacteria's can no longer sustain life in 14 days. More info.
    Medical:Antibiotics such as Doxycycline, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Minocycline, and Tetracycline are usually used to treat this infection, typically requiring a 6 month course of treatment with no break followed by several 6 week on, 2 weeks off antibiotic cycles. Long-term therapy is needed in cases of chronic illness (like Lyme disease). A long course of antibiotics and a change of antibiotics along the way, (more then a year).
    Other Mycoplasma eradicators: RIFE frequencies,energy medicines, natural plant antibiotics like olive leaf extract, Neem, Cinnamon leafn and uva ursi are also used. In this case additions of supplements are usually required to rebuild and support the immune system.
    With treatment the last symptoms to disappear are those of the central and peripheral nervous systems pain; skin sensitivity, burning and other nerve pain.

    Recovery:
    Many people recover from Mycoplasma infections and are fine for years when treated with antibiotics. They may later have an incident involving severe trauma or other significant life stressor and symptoms fully reappear within weeks to months. Not so with Rife frequencies or Cinnamon verum that have eradicated the Mycoplasma completely.
    Peripheral neuropathy requires time for full recovery.

    Difficulties: Medical: Reports have emerged, especially in Asia, showing that Mycoplasma pneumoniae may be developing resistance to macrolides such as Azithromycin and Clarithromycin.
    Lyme & CoInfections Symptoms Comparison Mycoplasma fermentans
    M. fermentans is the most common co-infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme Disease. Bacteria:
    Mycoplasma is the smallest of bacteria's and has the ability to enter any cell and alter itself, changing its cellular makeup with every cell division. Lacks cell wall. It can invade all systems of the human body.
    Transmission:
    Found in ticks with or without Borrelia. Those infected may not have symptoms or produce numerous symptoms that are similar to Lyme disease.
    Incubation:?
    Found: Worldwide
    Rash: none
    Symptoms onset:
    For those who do have symptoms Mycoplasma fermentans produces numerous symptoms very similar to Lyme disease and M.fermentans will manifest different symptoms for each individual person. Like Lyme, it is also multi-systemic, infecting any system in the body. From no symptoms to flu-like aches and pains to almost debilitating cramps and spasms.
    Body Temperature:
    Night sweats
    Gastrointestinal:
    Abdominal bloating, nausea, diarrhea.
    Eyes:
    Light sensitive, visual disturbances, floaters in the eyes, eye pain.
    Heart - organs:
    Blood pressure abnormalities, congestive heart failure.
    Immune-endocrine:
    Chemical sensitivities, lymph node pain, periodic fevers, headaches, skin rashes.Inflammation.
    Locomotor:
    Joint stiffness and pain, muscle spasms, balance problems.
    Neurocognitive:
    Memory loss, depression, irritability, loss of concentration, nervousness, and anxiety
    Neuro: Extremely sensitive "trigger spots" that come and go anywhere on the body.
    Respiratory:
    Chronic bronchitis, congestion, coughing, persistent coughing, chest pain, breathing irregularities.
    Sleep:
    sleep disturbances, Chronic fatigue
    Urinary:
    Problems with urination

    Diagnosis:
    Mycoplasma detection is difficult because it is found in various tissues and only rarely found in the blood. Since these organisms can be present without causing disease, diagnosis is challenging.
    Test:
    Usually require a PCR test on blood leukocytes (white blood cells). The following group may be able to direct you to good mycoplasma testing, as few Labs have proven able to do this type of testing. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MycoplasmaRegistry/
    To eradicate this bacteria:
    A long course of antibiotics and a change of antibiotics along the way, (more then a year).
    Other Mycoplasma eradicators: RIFE frequencies, herbs, energy medicines, other.etc. along with building up the immune system.

    The Mycoplasma bacteria must be eradicated. Treating symptoms does not prevent the Mycoplasma 's from multiplying or manifesting its many distressing symptoms.

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( Type strain: ATCC 15531, NCTC 10119 ) In North America, M. pneumoniae is the most common Mycoplasma seen in various diseases.

    Bacteria:
    M pneumoniae, is a pleomorphic organism that, unlike bacteria, lacks a cell wall, and unlike viruses, does not need a host cell for replication. L ikes to live on the surface cells (mucosa) of the respiratory tract and can cause inflammation of most structures there.
    Transmission:
    Incubation: 9- to 12-day incubation period
    Found: worldwide
    Rash: When the organism infects the skin, it creates non-specific rashes
    Symptoms: Typically causes mild, or even no, symptoms. Even if symptoms are mild, its tendency is to cause lingering after-effects, particularly joint and muscle pain, with full recovery potentially taking months.
    Symptoms onset:
    Cough, sore throat,earache, headache,fever, Chills, and malaise. The frequency and severity of cough may increase over next few days after onset and may become debilitating.
    Ears: inflammation of the eardrum
    Eyes:
    Sometimes double vision and decreased vision, eye infection.
    Head, neck, face:
    Scratchy sore throat, laryngitis, temporary paralysis, mainly in the face. Headache. Persistent, slowly worsening dry cough; absence of cough makes the diagnosis of M pneumoniae unlikely
    Immune-endocrine:
    Malaise
    Locomotor:
    Muscle and joint aches then lasting beyond infection
    Neuro:
    Confusion, acute psychosis secondary to encephalitis, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), aseptic meningitis, confusion, acute psychosis secondary to encephalitis, double vision and decreased vision, and temporary paralysis, mainly in the face.
    Respiratory:
    Pneumonia/pneumonitis, walking pneumonia, regular pneumonia, bronchitis,s ore chest and tracheal tenderness (result of the protracted cough). F lulike symptoms such as fever, nonproductive cough, generalized aches and pains, and nasal congestion. Typical pneumonia usually involves a productive cough and chest pain close to the site of the pneumonia.)Original symptoms persist, with a worsening and relatively nonproductive cough.

    Diagnoses:
    Medical- Chest x-ray,Complete blood count,Blood tests for antibodies to mycoplasma, Blood cultures, Bronchoscopy,CT scan of the chest, Sputum culture to check for mycoplasma bacteria. Open lung biopsy (only done in very serious illnesses when the diagnosis cannot be made from other sources)
    To eradicate this bacteria:
    Antibiotics such as Doxycycline, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Ciiprofloxacin, and Tetracycline typically requiring two to three weeks treatment, and long-term therapy may be needed in cases of chronic illness.
    Nathropatic remedies such as olive leaf extract, uva ursi and Neem have also been used and other.. RIFE along with natural supplements, minerals, etc. to rebuild the immune system.

    Mycoplasmal pneumonia is most common in people younger then forty years of age.
    * C. pneumoniae has been reported as a possible cause of atherosclerosis and central nervous system disorders.

    Symptoms Long term or complications:
    Skin problems, such as rashes.Eyes:optic nerve inflammation. Cardiac: Arrhythmia's, conduction defects,congestive failure, Pericarditis, Myocarditis, Endocarditis. GI symptoms. Facial paralysis, as in Bell's Palsy, Neurological: Aseptic meningitis Encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome,Renaud phenomenon, Peripheral neuropathies and radiculopathies, Brainstem dysfunction,Dysfunction of the pyramidal or extrapyramidal tract,Cerebellar dysfunction, Cerebral infarction, Musculoskeletal manifestations: Polyarthralgias,Acute arthritis (monoarticular or migratory), Digital necrosis, Hematologic manifestations: Immune hemolytic anemia, Pancytopenia, Splenic infarct, Hemophilialike illness Mycoplasma Hominis
    In Europe, M. hominis is the most prevalent mycoplasma. Incubation: Unknown
    Transmission:
    Principally transmitted by sexual contact and cervical and vaginal contact during birth

    M. hominis is also suspected to be the cause of

    • pelvic inflammatory disease
    • ectopic pregnancy
    • postpartum fever
    • endometritis inflammation of uterus
    • neonatal infections
      • conjunctivis
      • respiratory distress
      • meningitis
      • abscesses, and congenital
      • pneumonia, which occurs a few hours after birth.
    • pharyngitis
    • septicaemia
    • lung infections
    • central nervous system infections
    • other respiratory tract infections
    • joint infection, and wound infections
    Mycoplasma hominis is a living organism common in almost all humans. It resides in the urinary and genital tracts.
    A few weeks after contracting Mycoplasma hominis infections it causes in men and women:
    • Painful urination
      Strange unusual discharges, often foul smelling.
    Mycoplasma genitalium, spermatophilum, M. penetrans, and Ureaplasma species and other.
      Each species cause different symptoms and can vary widely. Some infect specific parts or systems of the body. Here are some examples of what these can cause.
    • Kidney infection
    • Surgical wound infections
    • Infectious arthritis/septic arthritis
    • Disorders of the eye and ear
    • Periodontal disease and gingivitis
    • Crohn’s Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrom


    Do your own Research
    Here YAHOO or here GOOGLE
    Chlamydial infections can cause disease in many organ systems, including the genitourinary tract. Chlamydiae are small gram-negative obligate intracellular microorganisms that preferentially infect squamocolumnar epithelial cells. They include the genera Chlamydia (of which the type species is Chlamydia trachomatis(sexually transmited) and Chlamydophila (eg, Chlamydophila pneumoniae(respiratory droplets) and Chlamydophila psittaci(spread by bird droppings and aerosols.)
    To eradicate:
    See how to eradicate completely in 33 days


    Chlamydophila Pneumoniae
    (Chlamydia Pneumonia)two isolated strains

      Bacteria:Gram-negative obligate, intracellular bacterium associated with a wide variety of acute and chronic diseases.
      Transmission:via respiratory droplets
      Incubation:
      Found:
      Rash
      Symptoms onset:
      Some may have no symptoms or only mild symptoms and therefore goes untreated, later becoming chronic.
      • Malaise
      • fatigue
      • lack of appetite
      • fever
      • chills
      • headache
      • sore throat
      • hoarse voice
      • cough lasting many weeks (yellow or green mucus)
      • difficulty breathing
      • may have runny nose
      • and rapid breathing.
      • Some people have chest pain, often sharp, when taking a breath or coughing.
      • A severe sinusitis


      Diagnoses:
      To eradicate this bacteria:
      See here for eradicating in 33 days.

  • clomid grossesse jumeaux

    • high fever (39°C and above)
    • cough
    • muscle aches

    Other common symptoms include:

    • headache
    • chills
    • loss of appetite
    • fatigue (tiredness)
    • sore throat
    • runny or stuffy nose

    Some people, especially children, may also experience:

    • a stomach ache
    • diarrhea
    • nausea and vomiting

    It takes 1 to 4 days for flu symptoms to appear after exposure to the virus.

    Most people recover from the flu in 7 to 10 days. Others may develop serious complications, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), and may need hospital care.

    A cold infects just your nose and throat, while the flu also affects your lungs.

    Cold symptoms are unpleasant but are usually milder than the flu. They include:

    Read more about how to tell if you have a cold or the flu.

  • quel suivi avec clomid

    First discovered in the late 1970’s, it’s similar in structure to the feline parvovirus, differing by only two amino acids. It effects most types of canids, including wolves and foxes. 2 strands are the most common, but a third strand has supposedly been discovered in Italy, Vietnam, and Spain.

    There are two types of infection of parvo a dog can acquire, intestinal or cardiac, and the severity varies greatly. Some dogs show no symptoms, yet die within 72 hours. More commonly, in less volatile strains, the mortality rate is just 10%.

    Along with contact with other infected dogs, parvo can get caught from oral ingestion of infected feces or soil. Other animals may also be carriers, even if they themselves cannot be affected by the virus. It has a high climate tolerance, and so can survive in almost any condition, shrugging off sunlight and moisture.

    Dog parvo partly causes so many problems, even with modern veterinary medicine, because it has a high rate of evolution, unlike the feline variety. It mimics RNA virus like influenza. New vaccines have to be developed for the flu every year because of the changes, and parvo is no different.

    Fortunately, a dog who survives a parvo infection is generally immune for life, similar to our chicken pox, so no silent carrier dogs exist.

    The cardiac form of dog parvo is the least common form, and the most deadly. The virus directly attacks the muscles of the heart, then blood vessels, leading to hemorrhaging.

    This form is not passed orally, but usually infect puppies in utero or shortly after birth. Unfortunately, it is hard to catch and sometimes there no symptoms at all before the puppy dies suddenly. The only thing to watch out for is difficulty breathing, but by then it might be too late. The obvious signs of the intestinal form are often missing with this type of infection.

    Thankfully, widespread vaccination of breeding dogs has cut the occurrences of this form so it’s not something you should be worried about. You have a better chance of being struck by lightening. Better to be on the lookout for the symptoms of the intestinal strain.

    Some dogs after they have received the Parvo vaccination still get the disease any way. The reason for this is that the virus has several different strains that seem to reinvent itself as soon as there is a vaccine for it. The veterinary community and physicians have been up to date on the changes and the effects of the vaccination on the virus and are doing as much as they can to educate themselves on the situation.

    In particularly, most vaccines target only the 2a and 2b strains of the virus. The 2c strain was discovered as recently as 2006, and is far more aggressive and fast acting than other strains. Since most vaccinations do not target this version, a vaccinated dog can still get sick.

    Bottom line: don’t assume that just because your puppy has been vaccinated, they are safe. It is still best to take the normal precautions to minimize the risk of catching the disease.

    Parvo virus is a highly contagious disease that is common among puppies under the age of 6 months. Some professionals believe that even after being vaccinated the disease still gets into the system of puppies, possibly due to the insufficient antibodies produced in the mother’s milk. The virus can be spread through fecal matter, vomit, and from insects, rodents and from bedding, dishes and the floor. The symptoms of Parvo are severe vomiting, diarrhea, fever, dehydration and bloody or dark feces.

    The diagnosis of Parvo can only truly be done by a veterinarian, through a physical examination, blood test and examination of the animal’s fecal matter. Once detected the veterinarian will administer antibiotics, electrolytes, and a possible liquid diet for a while and a deworming agent. The bottom line for Parvo is that even after a dog is vaccinated it is possible for the animal to contract the disease. In most cases this does not happen but the best way to be safe is to have your pet tested and regularly tested and monitored on a regular basis, and if any unusual behavior occurs contact your veterinarian.

    Natural solutions are also available that have had great success. Learn more about Parvo-K.

    Parvo is a highly contagious disease commonly found in puppies but it has been seen on rare occasions in adult dogs. Keep pet belongings cleaned, bleached and sanitary. As well as keeping the pet well cleaned, taken care of and visiting the veterinarian on a regular, consistent basis. Also another thing to look out for is the type of breed of the dog will make it more prone to contacting the disease, so be aware of your dogs breed and characteristics. After a dog has been properly vaccinated it usually does not have an occurrence of the Parvo virus for the lifetime of the dog or at least for up to a year after the vaccination. Every dog adult and puppy reacts differently to vaccinations.

    Many viruses develop and grow stronger over time, and the vaccines have to keep up with viruses and sometimes the vaccines are strong enough for the particular new strain of the virus and the animals suffer with the disease even after a vaccination, but it is up to the veterinarians to keep up on the latest changes and medical documentation to ensure that your pet lives a long and healthy life. Prevention and maintenance is key to having a healthy pet, as well as vigilance and perseverance to make sure that your veterinarian is aware of what is going on in the drug and medication world.

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    Für die saisonale Influenza ist der Mensch das einzige Reservoir und damit die einzige Infektionsquelle. Ansteckend sind vor allem Erkrankte während der ersten 4-5 Tage, da sie dann große Mengen von Viren aushusten. Bei Kindern, schwer Erkrankten und insbesondere bei stark Abwehrgeschwächten kann die Ausscheidung von Viren auch länger anhalten (bis zu 2 Wochen, in Einzelfällen mehrere Monate). Eine Ausscheidung ist auch schon 1-2 Tage vor Symptombeginn möglich.

    Die Übertragung von Influenzaviren erfolgt überwiegend durch Tröpfchen, die insbesondere beim Husten oder Niesen entstehen und über eine geringe Distanz auf die Schleimhäute der Atemwege von

    Kontaktpersonen gelangen können. Selbst beim normalen Atmen oder Sprechen können solche infektiöse Tröpfchen entstehen und länger in der Luft schweben. Darüber hinaus ist eine Übertragung auch durch direkten Kontakt der Hände zu Oberflächen, die mit virushaltigen Sekreten kontaminiert sind, und anschließendem Hand-Mund-/Hand-Nasen-Kontakt möglich (z.B. durch Händeschütteln).

    Die Inkubationszeit, also die Zeit von der Infektion bis zum Ausbruch der ersten Krankheitsanzeichen, beträgt bei der Grippe meist nur ein bis zwei Tage. Typisch für eine Influenza ist der plötzliche Beginn der Erkrankung Die Hauptsymptome sind:

    • hohes Fieber bis zu 41°C, häufig mit Frösteln
    • trockener Husten und Heiserkeit
    • Halsschmerzen
    • Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen
    • schweres Krankheitsgefühl

    Weitere häufige Symptome sind allgemeine Schwäche, Appetitlosigkeit, Schweißausbrüche, Schnupfen und Augenschmerzen. In einigen Fällen können auch Schüttelfrost, Lichtscheu und Geräuschempfindlichkeit hinzukommen. Bei einem Teil der Patienten liegt auch eine Beteiligung des Magen-/Darmtrakts vor mit Übelkeit/Erbrechen und Durchfall.

    Allerdings können auch viele weitere, meist virale Atemwegserreger einige dieser Symptome verursachen. Gerade anfangs kann man die Grippe leicht mit einer Erkältung verwechseln, für die ebenfalls mehrheitlich Viren verantwortlich sind. Der Unterschied zwischen Influenza und Erkältung zeigt sich meist im Verlauf und in der Schwere der Erkrankung (siehe Unterschiede zwischen Grippe und Erkältung). Abhängig von einer vorbestehenden Immunität, vorliegenden Grunderkrankungen aber auch von der individuellen Konstitution erkranken nicht alle Influenza-Infizierten mit den typischen Symptomen. Als Faustregel kann gelten, dass es bei etwa einem Drittel der Infektionen zu einem hochfieberhaften, einem weiteren Drittel zu einem leichteren und dem letzten Drittel zu einem Verlauf ohne Symptome kommt.

    Das hohe Fieber dauert meist 3 bis 4 Tage. Ein erneuter Fieberanstieg kann auf den Beginn einer zusätzlichen bakteriellen Infektion (Superinfektion) der Atemwege hinweisen. Die Krankheitsdauer liegt in der Regel bei 5 bis 7 Tagen, kann im Einzelfall jedoch auch deutlich länger sein, insbesondere bei Komplikationen und Risikofaktoren. Der quälende Reizhusten hält nicht selten über Wochen an. Einige Patienten leiden noch Wochen nach Abklingen einer Influenza an einer ausgeprägten allgemeinen Leistungsschwäche, Appetitlosigkeit und Unwohlsein bis hin zur Depression. Schwerwiegende Komplikationen treten zwar nur bei einem kleinen Teil aller Infizierten auf, in Anbetracht der meist sehr großen Zahl von Erkrankten während der jährlichen Grippesaison sind sie dennoch relativ häufig.

    Experte: Wissenschaftliche Beratung und Ausarbeitung: Prof. Dr. Thomas Löscher, München

    Literatur:
    Lehnert R et al. Antivirale Arzneimittel bei saisonaler und pandemischer Influenza. Ein systematisches Review. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016; 113: 799
    Rationelle Diagnostik und Therapie in der Inneren Medizin in 2 Ordnern; Meyer, J. et al. (Hrsg.); Elsevier 11/2016
    Salzberger B, Schmidt B: Neues zur Influenza. Dtsch med Wochenschr 2016; 141: 1451

    Dizziness, a feeling of being off balance or lightheaded, is a common symptom in people with MS. A less common symptom for people with MS is vertigo, which causes the sensation that they or their surroundings are spinning or that the ground suddenly rushes upwards. Vertigo can be exacerbated by lying down or inclining one’s head or in situations where vision cannot be used, such as in a darkened room.

    The symptoms of dizziness and vertigo result from lesions (damaged areas) on the nerve pathways responsible for transmitting input from the inner ear to the brain for the purpose of maintaining balance or equilibrium. Damage to the eighth cranial nerve, which serves both the balance (vestibular) and acoustic processes of the ear, can cause dizziness or vertigo.

    If dizziness or vertigo become significant problems for you or continue for a long time, your doctor may be able to give you a medication to help resolve the symptom.

    Medications for treating motion sickness, including antihistamines such as Antivert ® (meclizine), Dramamine® (dimenhydrinate), and Benadryl (diphenhydramine), may be useful, as well as select drugs in the benzodiazepine family, including Valium (diazepam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), and Xanax (alprazolam). A drawback with both antihistamine and benzodiazepine medications is that they can make you feel drowsy. So, you should work with your doctor to find the lowest dosage that resolves your symptoms.