Spread by fomites (e.g. human clothing, footwear or injection needles) or by biting insects is also possible.
Pig movements have been significant in the UK outbreaks, particularly in the early outbreaks. Local spread (particularly to pigs within 1 km of infected farms) has also been important.
East Anglia has a large population of birds, deer, dogs and foxes which might be mechanically spreading the CSF virus. This is also a time of year for spreading pig manure on the land. "Local spread" (to farms within 1 km) was a significant factor in the huge Dutch CSF epidemic of 1997-8. Attempts to spread the virus experimentally via rats have been unsuccessful.
Outbreaks have occurred widely in the world. The disease is enzootic in some European countries, South America and the Far East.
In the European Union (EU) CSF is enzootic in the wild boar populations of Germany & Italy (Sardinia).
In the year 2000 there have been outbreaks in Bulgaria and Thailand. Most of us assume that virus is enzootic in China. In 1999 there were outbreaks reported in Argentina, Croatia, Germany, Italy and Luxembourg.
The island of Sardinia had 17 outbreaks of classical swine fever in 1998 and 6 in 1999. African swine fever is also enzootic (endemic) in Sardinia. In March 1999 four CSF outbreaks occurred in the regions of Piedmont and Emilia-Romagna in Italy.
CSF was eradicated from Britain in 1966, although there have subsequently been limited outbreaks in 1971, 1986 and 1987 as a result of infected meat being fed in swill (waste food feeding).
Eradicated from the USA in 1978 after a 16 year programme.
In herds with suspicious clinical symptoms, diagnosis can be confirmed by:
- RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)
positive results available in 24 hours
- serology (blood antibody tests):
takes 24 hr for ELISA, 5 days for serum neutralisation test (SNT)
- fluorescent antibody test on cryostat sections of autopsy tissues
from pigs with clinical symptoms of CSF (24hr for result)
- virus isolation from affected pigs: 3-5 days for result.
- RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)
Travelers who return from a place where they may have been bitten by a mosquito carrying Zika, but do not have symptoms, can ask their doctor to be tested, but they will likely be low priority. Typically if a person does get sick, the symptoms will last for several days to a week.
- Angioedema AND Flu-like symptoms - Causes of All Symptoms
- Angioedema OR Flu-like symptoms - 232 causes
Results: 232 causes of Angioedema OR Flu-like symptoms
Research the causes of these more general types of symptom:
- Swelling symptoms (3730 causes)
- Skin symptoms (5992 causes)
- Skin problems (3422 causes)
- more symptoms. »
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The lungs of infected monkeys were destroyed in just days as their immune systems went into overdrive after a Canadian laboratory rebuilt the virus.
The reason for the lethal nature of the 1918 flu was never fully understood.
But the experts behind this test say they have found a human gene which may help explain its unusual virulence.
They are hoping to help control any future pandemic and believe that the strain may hold clues that will help them.
Despite the large number of casualties at the time, doctors had no way to preserve tissue samples taken from infected patients, so researchers used an ingenious method to overcome this.
The preserved body of a flu victim buried in Arctic permafrost was exhumed, and they painstakingly extracted the genetic material needed to work out the structure of the H1N1 virus.
Then, in a maximum "biosafety" facility at Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory they reconstructed a fully functioning virus, and infected macaque monkeys to see what would happen.
Writing in the journal Nature, they reported that the results were startling. Symptoms appeared within 24 hours of exposure to the virus, and the subsequent destruction of lung tissue was so widespread that, had the monkeys not been killed a few days later, they would literally have drowned in their own blood.
I haven’t heard that it causes a low WBC count but mine has been low for years. It will be interesting to see if it’s changed the next time I go to the doctor. I haven’t had anything diet in about 7 weeks.
Congratulations. You’ve given yourself a wonderful gift. May you keep feeling better and better.
I gave up all aspartame products back in September and lasted almost 4 months then my parents visited end of December and I was back on it!
All was going ok til about a month ago and now I am back to an odd feeling in my ears, my allergies are worsened, my stomach is ultra sensitive, my legs ache and have weird bruises, my fingers ache, I get tingling and numbness in my hands and feet, depression and anxiety.
This time I need to quit for good!!
Sarah I have had swelling in the legs, headaches, ringing in the ears,aching joints, bad skin, tingling and numbness in my hands and feet, depression, anxiety at times..I hope you can stay off it, I have been off it for 3 weeks and I will never go back, it is far to frightening-I want to live a long life, I wish you the same GIVE IT UP GIRL and good luck
4 days off the evil stuff, have not had many withdrawal symptoms just nausea, lack of appetite, trouble sleeping, lethargy and mood swings but my raynauds is gone, my joints are feeling better, the tingling in my leg has gone and a lot of the other aches and pains are disappearing!
Hi Gwenda, your post has inspired me. I am totally addicted to diet coke and I want so badly to be able to quit and trying to prepare myself to try again. I know I am unhealthy and I know I am probably slowly killing myself. I am wondering if you were able to continue being free from the addiction and how your symptoms are now. Did the ringing in the ears stop? Thanks so much!
I just quit aspartame because I’ve been trying to get pregnant for the last year and I’ve succeeded a few times. But, unfortunately it never lasts longer than 6 weeks. I started taking progesterone to help. But, then I remembered someone mentioning aspartame to me about five years ago and I blew off the warning. So, I looked it up and sure enough, I found it causes miscarriage and birth defects. I’m now convinced that the reason such a HUGE number of children are born with autism these days and an even larger number are diagnosed with ADHD and it’s because of aspartame, along with the rest off the artificial sweeteners. I’m including those “made from real sugar” like Splenda. I was drinking diet caffeine free Dr Pepper. So, I’m thinking maybe the withdrawal everyone’s complaining about are caffeine withdrawals. I have been drinking purely soda as my only fluid since high school at the latest. I can’t remember when I started on sodas and I can’t remember ever drinking anything but. So, since at least 1987, when I was 12. I quit caffeine in 12 days by drinking caffeine free Dr Pepper and when I’d start getting a headache, I would drink one of the caffeinated cans that are like 8 ounces, tiny. But, I haven’t had any soda in five days. No withdrawal. I miss the sharp carbonation on my throat, but my future baby is more than worth it.
What I’m trying to find out is how long before the aspartame is out of my system? If you know that, please email me.
Thanks for all this info. I want to see the long list of the complications of aspartame too. I’m 38 and have had tendonitis for years, along with joint pain, hair loss, major memory problems, etc.
I just quit Diet Coke, after a friend telling me about aspartame.
I was telling him how bad my finger joints had gotten in the past few weeks. I had gotten to where I had to quit my business because I could not use my fingers. Swollen joints, high pain from joint movement, and excruciating pain when I would even just move my fingers. Many things just got impossible to do.
26th December, The Island of Martinique becomes the latest country in the region to confirm reports of the autochthonous or local transmission of the mosquito borne Zika virus. The Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), says the French speaking Caribbean nation is the 11th country in the Americas to report the virus this year and the 12th to report local transmission.
The Puerto Rico Department of Health reported today the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection in Puerto Rico. Zika was confirmed in a resident of Puerto Rico with no known travel history.
Barbados, Haiti and Guyana have all confirmed cases of Zika Virus in their respective countries. On Thursday 14th January 2016 Haiti and Guyana confirmed cases of Zika Virus and on Friday 15th January, Barbados also confirmed 3 cases of Zikv.
The Center for disease control issues advisory to pregnant women and those trying to conceive to postpone travel to countries that are experiencing Zika virus outbreaks in South America and The Caribbean. The countries mentioned are: Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
The World Health Organisation director Margaret Chan has declared that the Zika virus constitute a public health emergency of international concern.
The first case of Zika Virus transmission was reported in Texas, USA this week. It is likely that the virus was contracted through sexual contact, said local health officials.
Health officials in Colombia have announced the deaths of three people who had been infected with the Zika Virus and subsequently developed Guillain-Barre syndrome. Alejandro Gaviria, the Colombian health minister, stated that there was a "causal connection" between Zika, the Guillain-Barre disorder and the three deaths. Six further deaths are under investigation for a possible link to Zika Virus.
Physicians in Crop Sprayed Towns (PCST), a group of physicians in Brazil, have claimed that the Zika Virus is not responsible for the dramatic rise in cases of Microcephaly. The tenfold increase of newborn babies with Microcephaly in Brazil, has alarmed Health officials around the world. Although the Zika Virus has never been officially linked with Microcephaly, there was strong suggestion from the World Health organisation and the CDC that the virus was the culprit.
The U.S Centers for Disease Control have advised pregnant women or women trying to conceive to avoid areas with Zika Virus outbreaks. They have also advised pregnant women to reconsider going to the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil if they had planned to do so. Both women and their partners should be very cautious concerning the Zika Virus after it was discovered that the virus may be also be passed through sexual contact as well as the traditional route via the aedes aegypti mosquito.
On 14th April 2016 Dr Tom Frieden, the head of the CDC, confirmed that the Zika Virus does indeed cause Microcephaly and several other birth defects in babies. He stated that 'This study marks a turning point in the Zika outbreak. It is now clear that the virus causes microcephaly'. The Zika virus was previously beleived to have caused the birth defects seen in newborn babies, characterized by unusually small heads, and this has now been confirmed by the CDC.
Flu Treatments and Natural Remedies. In the United States, October through May is flu season. In the month of February you in the peak season for the flu. When people start getting runny noses and cough, they often pray they are not getting the more serious of the two illnesses.
Both the flu and common cold start with similar symptoms, but there is a distinct difference between the two. OK, so you don’t feel good. You have a sore throat, you are achy, stiff and feel like you are getting a fever. Knowing the difference between the common cold and the flu will make the difference in both prevention and treatment.
You may have a persistent cough with no fever and no other symptoms. This may be anything from allergies to an ado-virus. Though the flu and a cold are similar, they are very different. Many people have had the flu and initially thought it was cold. How often have you been sick and three days later you felt much better and decided to go back to work? You don’t know what you had, but you were so glad whatever it was, it left!
The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. The onset of Flu symptoms is usually more sudden and more violent. Coughing, aches, fever, chills are all possible symptomes of the flu. Every year thousands of people die each year from the flu and complications such as pneumonia. The flu can be extremely dangerous for the elderly, babies, those with the auto-immune or respiratory disease. Flu symptoms most always include low to high-grade fevers. Children who get the flu tend to have those higher grade fevers.
Symptoms of the Flu.
- Body aches and joint pain
Zur Verhinderung oder Therapie von Sekundärinfektionen kann der Einsatz von Antibiotika sinnvoll sein. Bei sehr hohem Fieber ist zudem die Gabe von Antipyretika (z.B. Paracetamol) zu erwägen.
Die Wirkung einer vorbeugenden oder therapeutischen Gabe von Vitamin C ist umstritten.
Der Krankheitsverlauf ist sehr unterschiedlich, meist relativ harmlos ohne Folgen, z.T. aber auch lebensgefährlich (v.a. bei Kindern und älteren immungeschwächten Personen).
Die akute Erkrankung klingt in der Regel etwa nach 5 bis 7 Tagen ab. Einzelne Symptome (z.B. Husten, Abgeschlagenheit) können jedoch noch über einen längeren Zeitraum weiter bestehen. Je nach Schwere der durchgemachten Erkrankung ist eine Rekonvaleszenz über Tage, aber auch über Wochen möglich.
Eine mögliche Komplikation der Influenza, der bei bestimmten Virusstämmen auftritt, ist der so genannte Zytokinsturm. Dabei versagt die adaptive Immunantwort und es kommt zu einer Überreaktion des Immunsystems im Sinne einer sich selbst verstärkenden Kaskadenreaktion. Die dazu fähigen Zellen des Immunsystems (T-Zellen, Makrophagen) schütten große Mengen an Zytokinen aus, die eine massive Entzündungsreaktion hervorrufen. Sie tritt klinisch als schwere, perakute Influenzapneumonie mit Dyspnoe, Lungenblutungen und möglichem Organversagen in Erscheinung.
Bestimmte Erregervarianten des Influenzavirus begünstigen die Entstehung eines Zytokinsturms. Sie bilden Proteine, auf die das Immunsystem offensichtlich besonders empfindlich reagiert. Häufig unterscheiden sie sich nur in einigen wenigen Genabschnitten von weniger pathogenen Stämmen.
Egg allergy is common in babies and toddlers - occurring in 1 -2 % of pre-school children.
This page answers the following questions:
What are the symptoms of egg allergy in infants and toddlers?
The symptoms include:
- skin reactions with urticaria (also known as hives) - this is the most common reaction. Read more
- tummy upset and vomiting - even if the egg makes contact with the skin and is not ingested
- anaphylaxis which is a serious allergic reaction with breathing difficulty and shock - this is much less common than with other foods such as peanut, other nuts and milk. Read more
The allergic reactions may be:
- immediate - which occur within a few minutes to an hour of ingesting the egg. These are IgE mediated reactions, so caused by a particular antibody (called IgE) in the body. Read more
- delayed - which may occur up to 24 hours after ingesting the egg. These are usually non-IgE mediated reactions, so they are caused by an immune response but it doesn't involve IgE