Cochrane review of two studies8
No decrease in the number of episodes requiring oral corticosteroids, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, the frequency of wheezing, or duration of episodes
One RCT of a five-day course9
No significant difference in duration of hospitalization, interval between admission and discharge, mean seven-day symptom score reported by a parent, or hospital readmission for wheezing within one month compared with placebo
Cochrane review of two studies11
No more effective than placebo for cough
OTC antihistamine with decongestant
Cochrane review of two studies11
No more effective than placebo for cough
Cochrane review of three studies11
Vaccination is perhaps the best guard against influenza infection. Prophylaxis is the most commonly administered vaccination for influenza. However the kind of vaccination administered depends on the epidemiological context.
The effectiveness of Influenza vaccination lasts for around a year, after which fresh vaccination is required. The body develops immunity after round two weeks of vaccination. In addition, the vaccination is effective only against certain strains of influenza and may fail as new strains originate.
No information obtained on this site should be relied on as the basis for treating or diagnosing conditions, symptoms, or illness. All queries should be directed to your health professional.
Always see your practitioner concerning your treatment options if you are pregnant or if suffering an illness or injury resulting from an accident. Read: complete disclaimer.
Since July 2011, 345 people in the U.S. have reported infection with the H3N3v virus, and most human cases have been mild. Twenty of the cases were hospitalized, with only 1 reported death. For the most current information from CDC about the influenza A H3N2v virus and how best to prevent it, click here. OSHA will continue to work with the CDC and update recommendations based on the situation.
See also, OSHA Fact Sheet: Influenza in Workers and Pigs: Guidance for Commercial Swine Farmers and Pork Producers (October 2010), for protecting workers who may be exposed to known or suspected influenza infections in pigs.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
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Washington, DC 20210
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
Doctors, Army officers, and reporters wear surgical gowns and masks while making a tour of a hospital to observe influenza treatment of patients in 1918. Bettmann/Corbis hide caption
A flu virus that killed tens of millions worldwide after it appeared in 1918 has been recreated in the virological equivalent of the Jurassic Park story. Scientists rebuilt it from pieces of genetic material retrieved from the lungs of people who died 87 years ago. Researchers writing in the journals Science and Nature say the tightly guarded replica is even more virulent than they expected.
Yet public health officials aren't worried that the 1918 flu will again terrorize the population. It's no longer a new virus, and most people in the world have some immunity to the H1N1 virus family.
What if the virus that caused the 1918 flu, or one similar to it, re-appeared today?
The Bad News: The 1918 virus was a million times more potent than the average modern flu virus.
The Good news: Most people living today would have some immunity to viruses in the 1918 virus' family, called H1N1.
More Good News: The current bird flu virus, which the global public health community is watching, is mostly transmitted from bird to bird. It has infected about 120 humans, but rarely has it spread from human to human, making it not very infectious.
Mood swings can be quite severe early in a pregnancy, and may include feelings of euphoria followed by depression or sadness; again, many of these mood swings are similar to emotional changes that women experience during PMS. Pregnancy symptoms such as frequent urination, morning sickness and nausea, and odd food cravings generally begin around 2-3 weeks into the pregnancy; sometimes these symptoms do not occur until 4-6 weeks into the pregnancy.
Some women do not experience a missed period during the first few weeks of pregnancy; a period that occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy may be either normal or abnormal. Abnormal periods that occur during the first few weeks of a pregnancy can include a lighter than normal period, spotting, or a very short period. Of course, any bleeding that occurs when you may be pregnant needs to be checked by a doctor immediately.
If you are experiencing some of these symptoms, and there is a possibility that you can be pregnant, than you should take a pregnancy test as soon as possible. Over the counter urine tests and blood tests performed by a physician detect levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, (HCG), in your blood; this hormone is released by the developing placenta and begins to appear in the blood as little as 5 days after conception.
Over the counter urine tests are up to 97% accurate; these tests are usually not able to detect HCG in your urine until one week after your missed period. Blood tests are up to 99% accurate, and these tests can detect HGC in your blood as soon as 7 days after your ovulation.
It is important for you to confirm your pregnancy as early as possible so that you can begin your prenatal care. Early prenatal care is important to the health of your new baby and you during this time. Once you begin to notice any early pregnancy symptoms, and you believe that you may be pregnant, take a test as soon as you can. If you take an over the counter test and it is positive, have the test confirmed by your physician. Remember to stay relaxed during this time, and try to keep your stress levels down.
Asbestos symptoms are indicators of the serious adverse health problems that are caused by dangerous levels of asbestos exposure. The Occupational Health & Safety Administration estimates that 1.3 million people are exposed to the dangerous of asbestos exposure every year in the work place and should be aware of symptoms of asbestos exposure that may indicate serious underlying health problems. People who work, or have worked, in the shipyard, factory, railroad, construction, automobile, and building industries in the last 60 years may be susceptible to developing asbestos symptoms.
Most deadly diseases that are caused by asbestos exposure lie dormant for years, so it is possible to suffer from the ill effects of asbestos disease without any noticeable asbestos symptoms. Because of disease latency, asbestos symptoms might appear years - even decades - after initial asbestos exposure. Medical experts assign a latency period to malignant mesothelioma of thirty to fifty years. That’s one of the reasons the disease is so difficult to diagnose; the job where the exposure occurred in most instances ended decades prior to the health problems beginning.
The clinical manifestations for asbestos generally appear between twenty and forty years after the asbestos exposure has occurred, or begun. The fibrotic process that impacts the lung tissue in this disease maybe accelerated and is certainly exacerbated by smoking. Asbestosis, characterized by severe breathing restriction, develops in nearly half of all workers who have reached “occupational levels” of asbestos exposure.
The type of asbestos symptoms an individual experiences generally depends on the asbestos-related disease that has been developed. There are various types of asbestos-related conditions; the two most commonly associated with asbestos exposure are asbestosis and mesothelioma. However chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and is a condition that asbestos exposure has contributed to in thousands of cases.
Asbestosis symptoms commonly include these conditions:
- Shortness of breath
- Chronic cough
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Difficulty with physical exertion
Malignant mesothelioma generally develops in people over the age of sixty five and usually occurs in the chest cavity, arising in the pleura in sixty five to seventy percent of all cases. The other predominant location for mesothelioma cancer cases is the peritoneal lining of the organs in the abdominal cavity. It may also affect the pericardial lining of the heart, in rare cases.
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Tightness in the chest
- Persistent cough
- Weight Loss
Pleural effusion is also a common development with mesothelioma. This condition is caused by accumulation of excess fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall or diaphragm. It can be the cause of chest pain and reduced breathing capacity.
Peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by abdominal swelling and pain. This symptom can also be the result of fluid accumulation – in this case, within the abdominal cavity. Thickening of the peritoneal tissue can lead to additional symptoms:
- Weight loss
- Obstructed bowels
- Fever and/or night sweats
If you or someone you love is experiencing any symptoms of asbestos exposure, you should visit your doctor right away.
Amphetamine is a strong stimulant that has been used medically for situations when a person needs to be more alert, as in narcolepsy, a health problem that causes a person to fall asleep at any time. It has also been given to pilots and soldiers to keep them awake and alert for long hours. It does its job in these situations, but the side effects of this drug can be dangerous and damaging.
- high fever (39°C and above)
- muscle aches
Other common symptoms include:
- loss of appetite
- fatigue (tiredness)
- sore throat
- runny or stuffy nose
Some people, especially children, may also experience:
- a stomach ache
- nausea and vomiting
It takes 1 to 4 days for flu symptoms to appear after exposure to the virus.
Most people recover from the flu in 7 to 10 days. Others may develop serious complications, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), and may need hospital care.
A cold infects just your nose and throat, while the flu also affects your lungs.
Cold symptoms are unpleasant but are usually milder than the flu. They include:
Read more about how to tell if you have a cold or the flu.
One of the best ways to prevent seasonal influenza is through yearly immunization because the influenza virus changes each year.
As part of Alberta's influenza immunization program, Albertans 6 months of age and older are able to receive influenza vaccine, free of charge, at public health clinics, pharmacies and doctor’s offices.
- About immunization
- Where to get immunized
- Contact your local pharmacist or physician for details on vaccine availability
Alberta Health is offering Albertans one type of influenza vaccine free of charge. This vaccine, called Fluzone, is offered as an injection, contains 4 strains of influenza virus and is a safe and effective vaccine for all ages.
Having multiple types of vaccines increases the complexity of our immunization program. Offering one type of vaccine to Albertans at mass public clinics, pharmacies and doctor’s offices means we can offer a more efficient program where vaccine is available for everyone across the province when clinics open.
Alberta Health will not offer FluMist (the nasal spray) this season. In previous years, FluMist had been available for children between the ages of 2 and 17.
- In 2016, Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization removed its preferential recommendation for FluMist for children 2–17 years of age. The committee concluded that FluMist and injectable vaccines are equally safe and effective for children.
FLUAD is an influenza vaccine designed to boost the immune response in seniors. This year, FLUAD will not be available at public health clinics. Seniors living in long term care or supportive living will continue to be offered FLUAD free of charge.
- This aligns with recommendations from the National Advisory Committee on Immunization. The committee recommends either FLUAD or a regular four-strain vaccine for seniors.
- Some pharmacists may choose to offer FLUAD to Albertans age 65 and older at a cost. Seniors who wish to be immunized with FLUAD can contact their pharmacies for more information.
- In 2016/17, Canadian estimates on vaccine effectiveness show vaccine was 42% effective against the dominant strain, H3N2.
- This is slightly lower than in 2015/16 when the vaccine was 50% effective and the dominant strain of influenza was H1N1. Vaccine effectiveness is often lower against H3N2 strains of influenza, so this could explain why the vaccine was less effective.
- Even with an effectiveness rating of 42%, immunization is the best way for Albertans to protect themselves and others against influenza.
Vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year but immunization is still the best protection. We do not know how effective this year’s vaccine will be, but we do know that not being immunized offers no protection.
- Alberta has purchased 1.6 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2017/18 season. This is enough to immunize 35% of the population.
- Total cost: $12.1 million.
- In 2016/17, Alberta Health purchased 1.6 million doses of influenza vaccine.
- Total cost: $12.7 million
- 27% of Albertans (roughly 1.1 million people) received the influenza vaccine
- 64 people died and had lab-confirmed influenza
- 1,653 Albertans were admitted to hospital with lab-confirmed influenza.
- Alberta has offered universal influenza immunization free of charge to residents since 2009.
- The program before 2009 targeted those most at risk of disease and complications.
- 2016/17 – 27.0% (more influenza data is available on the Alberta Health Services influenza website )
- 2015/16 – 27.0%
- 2014/15 – 30.0%
- 2013/14 – 27.6%
- 2012/13 – 23.0%
- 2011/12 – 22.5%
- 2010/11 – 22.0%
Every year we hope to see more Albertans get immunized, and we encourage all Albertans age 6 months and older to be immunized when vaccine is available.