Pour consulter l’activité hebdomadaire des principaux indicateurs:

Parmi les principaux indicateurs, on trouve les suivants:

L’indice d’activité grippale ainsi que le nombre et la proportion de résultats positifs par rapport aux tests de détection de l’influenza effectués par les laboratoires sentinelles du Québec sont publiés de façon hebdomadaire ici même, sur le site Web du MSSS. De plus, lorsque les virus de l’influenza circulent de façon soutenue, le DSV produit un graphique de l’activité virologique relatif aux saisons antérieures. Ce bilan est lui aussi mis à jour une fois par semaine, pendant la saison grippale.

Assurée en partenariat avec les directions de santé publique, la surveillance des éclosions d’influenza dans les centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) est basée sur le signalement volontaire, par ces centres, des éclosions d’au moins deux cas d’infection au même type d’influenza survenus dans les dix jours, dont un a été confirmé par un test d’amplification des acides nucléiques. Cette surveillance est continue et effective toute l’année.

La surveillance de l’activité grippale à l’urgence se fait à partir des données consignées dans la Console provinciale des urgences, une base de données administrée par la Direction générale des services de santé et médecine universitaire (DGSSMU). Elle s’appuie sur deux indicateurs: les consultations pour « Fièvre et toux » ainsi que les diagnostics de « Grippe/Influenza » qui ont été posés au terme de cette consultation.

La surveillance des admissions dans les centres hospitaliers après un diagnostic de « Pneumonie/Influenza » est assurée à partir des données inscrites dans le Relevé quotidien de la situation à l’urgence et au centre hospitalier, une base de données gérée par la Direction générale des services sociaux.

Autres indicateurs et projets spéciaux de surveillance

Le DSV, de par son partenariat avec la DGSSMU et l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec, analyse les données relatives à des indicateurs secondaires qui ne font pas l’objet d’une publication régulière. Figurent parmi ces indicateurs:

  • la surveillance des syndromes d’allure grippale (SAG) par les groupes de médecine de famille sentinelles;
  • la surveillance, dans certains hôpitaux, des admissions attribuables à une infection grippale confirmée par laboratoire;
  • la surveillance des appels pour un SAG au service Info-Santé et Info-Social;
  • la veille épidémiologique et scientifique effectuée par différents partenaires.

En plus des indicateurs de l’activité grippale définis par le DSV, des données et des renseignements sont recueillis auprès de diverses sources aux fins des objectifs du système de surveillance de la grippe. Ces données et renseignements concernent notamment:

  • l’identification des virus de l’influenza dans les laboratoires du Québec
    Au Québec, une quarantaine de laboratoires effectuent une surveillance continue des virus de l’influenza et d’autres virus respiratoires. Ce réseau de laboratoires sentinelles est coordonné par le Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ). Toutes les semaines, ce dernier reçoit les données de surveillance recueillies par les laboratoires hospitaliers membres du réseau et publie les résultats des analyses. Dans ses rapports, le LSPQ indique, notamment, le nombre d’analyses effectuées, le nombre de cas de grippe confirmés par groupe d’âge ainsi que la distribution géographique des cas.

Le bulletin Flash Grippe est une production de la Direction de la vigie sanitaire (DVS) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux.

Son contenu est le reflet d’un effort concerté entre service Info-Santé, les directions de santé publique, le Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec, l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec et l’ensemble des laboratoires sentinelles du Québec, que nous remercions pour leur contribution.

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Discoloured lips can indicate a lung infection, which poses a serious health risk. Be sure to seek medical attention immediately.

With news spreading that this year's flu virus may be more severe than in years past, it's understandable to feel some anxiety. In fact, the CDC is reporting that 29 states are experiencing a more widespread and virulent flu than last year's strain, though doctors suggest that the actual strains are not so different from each other.

“Reports of influenza-like-illness (ILI) are nearing what have been peak levels during moderately severe seasons,” Dr. Joe Bresee, Chief of the Epidemiology and Prevention Branch in CDC’s Influenza Division, said in a statement. “While we can’t say for certain how severe this season will be, we can say that a lot of people are getting sick with influenza and we are getting reports of severe illness and hospitalizations."

The measure used by the CDC to determine prevalence of ILI is based on reports from a sample of around 3,000 health care providers of how many patients are visiting them with flu-like symptoms. So far, about 5.6 percent of Americans have come in with some type of flu symptom. As Slate points out, that's fewer than the six percent who appeared in doctors' offices during the 2007/2008 season and definitely fewer than the 7.7 percent of those who appeared at doctor's offices during 2009's H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic.

It's important to look closely at that metric: people with symptoms that could be attributed to flu, who went to the doctor. Higher numbers may indicate a more widespread virus -- or more widespread concern over the virus, leading to more hospital visits. ILI is also not the same as confirmed flu cases -- many of the symptoms that can indicate flu could also be signs of a cold or another type of virus.

"Think of the flu as a respiratory infection that causes systemic effects," explains Dr. Travis Stork, ER physician and co-host of "The Doctors." "In addition to a dry cough you can also have fever, body aches, chills, and a headache. The flu can make you feel miserable 'all over' and in some cases, can lead to serious illness in susceptible individuals. A cold on the other hand is a localized upper respiratory infection primarily with symptoms from the neck up."

With that in mind, what are the symptoms of flu? And when is it time to see the doctor?

The flu virus is a respiratory illness and can cause many of the symptoms that everyone has experienced at one time or another: fever, body aches, coughing, congestion and fatigue. Most of the symptoms that are caused by the flu virus could also just as easily be the result of a cold virus infection, according to the CDC.

Some differences: the flu virus is more likely to cause fever -- and a higher fever, at that. Flu sufferers have more severe symptoms overall and are more likely to face fatigue, body aches and a dry cough. Cold sufferers, by contrast, more commonly have a stuffed or runny nose and respiratory congestion. Some flu sufferers also have intestinal symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea.

Despite concerns about the gravity of illness, the truth is that most flu cases are mild and do not require treatment or hospitalization. Flu, unlike cold, can in rare instances lead to serious conditions like pneumonia and bronchitis, and it can even lead to death in vulnerable populations. People with a higher than average risk for complications include children under five years, pregnant women, those with compromised immune systems and senior citizens. Asthmatics, those with blood disorders, congestive heart failure and even those who are morbidly obese are also at greater risk, according to the CDC.

If you're in one of the high-risk groups listed by the CDC (check here), it may be a good idea to check with a healthcare professional if you begin to experience flu-like symptoms.

"Reasons to visit the ER include severe dehydration, lethargy, confusion, or any other truly concerning symptom," Stork says. "What seems like the flu is not always the flu and vice versa and sometimes a visit to the ER is needed to properly diagnose and treat."

Watch The Doctor's discuss the cold vs. the flu in this clip:

La grippe est une infection des voies respiratoires qui se transmet très facilement. Elle est causée par le virus de l’influenza.

Ce virus circule chaque année au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Au Québec, il circule surtout pendant la période allant de la fin de l’automne au début du printemps.

La durée de la saison de la grippe peut varier. Ainsi, elle peut commencer plus ou moins tôt et durer plus ou moins longtemps selon les années.

Les symptômes de la grippe, qui débutent soudainement, et leur gravité peuvent varier en fonction de l’âge et de l’état de santé. Les principaux symptômes sont les suivants:

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  • Bettruhe
  • Körperliche Schonung
  • Ausreichende Flüssigkeitszufuhr

In der Frühphase der Infektion können wie bei anderen Influenza-Formen antivirale Medikamente eingesetzt werden. Dazu zählen unter anderem:

Die Wirksamkeit dieser Medikamente gegen einen bestimmten isolierten Erregerstamm ist sehr variabel. Punktmutationen im Virusgenom können bei Neuraminidase-Hemmern zu einer Veränderung der Resistenzlage, d.h. zur Unwirksamkeit der Medikamente führen. Wie bei bakteriellen Erregern nehmen Resistenzen durch den breiten Einsatz antiviraler Substanzen zu.

Zur Verhinderung oder Therapie von Sekundärinfektionen kann der Einsatz von Antibiotika sinnvoll sein. Bei sehr hohem Fieber ist zudem die Gabe von Antipyretika (z.B. Paracetamol) zu erwägen.

Die Wirkung einer vorbeugenden oder therapeutischen Gabe von Vitamin C ist umstritten.

Der Krankheitsverlauf ist sehr unterschiedlich, meist relativ harmlos ohne Folgen, z.T. aber auch lebensgefährlich (v.a. bei Kindern und älteren immungeschwächten Personen).

Die akute Erkrankung klingt in der Regel etwa nach 5 bis 7 Tagen ab. Einzelne Symptome (z.B. Husten, Abgeschlagenheit) können jedoch noch über einen längeren Zeitraum weiter bestehen. Je nach Schwere der durchgemachten Erkrankung ist eine Rekonvaleszenz über Tage, aber auch über Wochen möglich.

Eine mögliche Komplikation der Influenza, der bei bestimmten Virusstämmen auftritt, ist der so genannte Zytokinsturm. Dabei versagt die adaptive Immunantwort und es kommt zu einer Überreaktion des Immunsystems im Sinne einer sich selbst verstärkenden Kaskadenreaktion. Die dazu fähigen Zellen des Immunsystems (T-Zellen, Makrophagen) schütten große Mengen an Zytokinen aus, die eine massive Entzündungsreaktion hervorrufen. Sie tritt klinisch als schwere, perakute Influenzapneumonie mit Dyspnoe, Lungenblutungen und möglichem Organversagen in Erscheinung.

Bestimmte Erregervarianten des Influenzavirus begünstigen die Entstehung eines Zytokinsturms. Sie bilden Proteine, auf die das Immunsystem offensichtlich besonders empfindlich reagiert. Häufig unterscheiden sie sich nur in einigen wenigen Genabschnitten von weniger pathogenen Stämmen.

Surprisingly, there are no symptoms of hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) itself. However, chronically (long-term; several decades’ worth) elevated levels of serum cholesterol when not diagnosed can result in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD, is the narrowing of the blood vessels caused by the build-up of fats such as cholesterol. The formation of fat-comprised plaques in the arteries continues to pile up, resulting in the progressive stenosis (narrowing) and ultimate occlusion (blockage) of the affected arteries.

(If you live in Florida, you might be interested in learning about our high cholesterol clinical trial in DeLand, FL.)

Hypercholesterolemia results in extra cholesterol being left in the bloodstream by low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). It is the job of the high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) to clean up the cholesterol deposits in the bloodstream. If the HDLs cannot clean up all the cholesterol left by the LDLs, the cholesterol will build up in the arteries as plaque, resulting in atherosclerosis stenosis or even occlusion.

Atherosclerosis may lead to tissue and organ ischemia (blood supply restriction). Organs and tissue that receive nutrient-rich blood via the clogged arteries suffer diminishing blood distribution, because less blood can be transferred through the arterial stenosis or blockage. Ischemia causes harm to the functioning of organs and tissues.

Hypercholesterolemia can result in the following:

  • atherosclerosis, including the following:
  • arterial stenosis
  • arterial occlusion
  • tissue and organ ischemia, resulting in the following:
  • injury to organ and tissue function

Upon the ischemia-induced tissue or organ impairment, a variety of medical conditions can result, including the following: temporary ischemia of the brain (transient ischemic attack), ischemia of the heart, and ischemia of the eye.
Atherosclerosis in the brain can result in stroke. Signs and symptoms of temporary ischemia of the brain include:

  • temporary loss of vision
  • dizziness
  • balance impairment
  • aphasia (difficulty speaking)
  • weakness
  • numbness or tingling in the body (usually on one side)

The organ most affected by atherosclerosis is the heart. Atherosclerosis in the heart or in a blood vessel that carries blood to the heart (coronary artery) can result in coronary heart disease and result in heart attack or cardiac muscle death. Ischemia of the heart may present in the following ways:

  • chest pain
  • difficulty breathing
  • shortness of breath
  • rapid or irregular heartbeats
  • dizziness
  • light-headedness
  • extreme anxiety
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • indigestion or heartburn
  • pain or discomfort in areas in the upper body, including the arms, back, stomach, left shoulder, jaw or neck
  • cold sweat
  • extreme weakness

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So, what are the symptoms of walking pneumonia? Most of the symptoms of walking pneumonia are very similar to what a person gets when they have a cold or a flu. They could have: a sore throat, a fever, malaise, a dry cough and a headache. What makes the symptoms of walking pneumonia different from the symptoms associated with a bad cold or flu? Two words can answer that question: timeframe and severity. When a person is suffering through the symptoms of walking pneumonia, they will suffer a lot longer than if they were simply experiencing the typical problems of a cold or a flu. Additionally, the treatment methods that work for colds and flus won’t work for alleviating the symptoms of walking pneumonia.

The only real way to get rid of the symptoms of walking pneumonia is to either wait for the disease to go away on its on or get medical attention. The latter is recommended, since there are rare cases where the disease can become something more serious. And even when it doesn’t, it can take up to a month for the body to get rid of the disease on its own. That is way to long to be suffering with these types of symptoms. But if you go to the doctor once the symptoms appear, you can get antibiotics. With antibiotics the symptoms of walking pneumonia will clear up in a week or less. In addition, you will be monitored to make sure the disease doesn’t get any worse. Sure, such things are not very common for people with healthy immune systems, but since it can happen it’s best you don’t take any chances.

Once you get on antibiotics, you do not necessarily need bed rest to help speed up the recovery process. As long as walking pneumonia is medically treated, you can do what you would normally do without fear of infecting other people. However, even while you are on antibiotics, you will still suffer through the symptoms of walking pneumonia, even if it’s for a small period of time. You may want to wait for your symptoms to clear up before you return to work, since they can still make you feel miserable.

In conclusion, don’t ignore the symptoms of walking pneumonia because they are not in the same league as traditional pneumonia. True, they are not as extreme, but they are still indicative that things are not completely normal with your body.

When someone says, "I have a cold," what he or she means is, "There is something in my body that is causing me to have the set of symptoms that we call a 'cold.'" The set of symptoms normally includes things like a runny nose, sneezing, coughing, "chills" and a headache. It does not include a fever -- normally, if there is a fever it's called "the flu."

There are many different viruses that can cause cold symptoms, but about half of the time a cold is caused by a class of viruses called rhinoviruses.

The rhinovirus gets into the cells lining your nose and starts reproducing. It arrives from other people -- it is not cold weather that causes a cold, but the fact that cold weather causes people to congregate together indoors, which makes transmission of the virus easier. The virus generally moves from someone else's hands to your hands (either directly or through some intermediate surface like a door knob), and from your hands into your nose or eyes.

Your body reacts to the presence of the virus with its immune system. The article How Your Immune System Works talks about infectious diseases and how your immune system deals with them. In the case of a cold, the immune system opens up blood vessels through inflammation and also increases mucus secretions. These two processes give you the runny nose and the stuffy feeling. The irritation caused by the virus and all of the fluid causes sneezing. If the virus makes it into the cells lining the lungs, then they start producing fluid and mucus as well, which produces the cough.

As the immune system gears up over several days and fights the virus, the mucus thickens and changes color with dead cells (a form of pus, really). Eventually, the immune system eliminates the virus completely and you are well again!

For more information, see the links on the next page.

Malaria can occur despite taking anti-malarial drugs and symptoms of malaria infection usually occur within 9 to 14 days.

The general symptoms include:

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Für die saisonale Influenza ist der Mensch das einzige Reservoir und damit die einzige Infektionsquelle. Ansteckend sind vor allem Erkrankte während der ersten 4-5 Tage, da sie dann große Mengen von Viren aushusten. Bei Kindern, schwer Erkrankten und insbesondere bei stark Abwehrgeschwächten kann die Ausscheidung von Viren auch länger anhalten (bis zu 2 Wochen, in Einzelfällen mehrere Monate). Eine Ausscheidung ist auch schon 1-2 Tage vor Symptombeginn möglich.

Die Übertragung von Influenzaviren erfolgt überwiegend durch Tröpfchen, die insbesondere beim Husten oder Niesen entstehen und über eine geringe Distanz auf die Schleimhäute der Atemwege von

Kontaktpersonen gelangen können. Selbst beim normalen Atmen oder Sprechen können solche infektiöse Tröpfchen entstehen und länger in der Luft schweben. Darüber hinaus ist eine Übertragung auch durch direkten Kontakt der Hände zu Oberflächen, die mit virushaltigen Sekreten kontaminiert sind, und anschließendem Hand-Mund-/Hand-Nasen-Kontakt möglich (z.B. durch Händeschütteln).

Die Inkubationszeit, also die Zeit von der Infektion bis zum Ausbruch der ersten Krankheitsanzeichen, beträgt bei der Grippe meist nur ein bis zwei Tage. Typisch für eine Influenza ist der plötzliche Beginn der Erkrankung Die Hauptsymptome sind:

  • hohes Fieber bis zu 41°C, häufig mit Frösteln
  • trockener Husten und Heiserkeit
  • Halsschmerzen
  • Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen
  • schweres Krankheitsgefühl

Weitere häufige Symptome sind allgemeine Schwäche, Appetitlosigkeit, Schweißausbrüche, Schnupfen und Augenschmerzen. In einigen Fällen können auch Schüttelfrost, Lichtscheu und Geräuschempfindlichkeit hinzukommen. Bei einem Teil der Patienten liegt auch eine Beteiligung des Magen-/Darmtrakts vor mit Übelkeit/Erbrechen und Durchfall.

Allerdings können auch viele weitere, meist virale Atemwegserreger einige dieser Symptome verursachen. Gerade anfangs kann man die Grippe leicht mit einer Erkältung verwechseln, für die ebenfalls mehrheitlich Viren verantwortlich sind. Der Unterschied zwischen Influenza und Erkältung zeigt sich meist im Verlauf und in der Schwere der Erkrankung (siehe Unterschiede zwischen Grippe und Erkältung). Abhängig von einer vorbestehenden Immunität, vorliegenden Grunderkrankungen aber auch von der individuellen Konstitution erkranken nicht alle Influenza-Infizierten mit den typischen Symptomen. Als Faustregel kann gelten, dass es bei etwa einem Drittel der Infektionen zu einem hochfieberhaften, einem weiteren Drittel zu einem leichteren und dem letzten Drittel zu einem Verlauf ohne Symptome kommt.

Das hohe Fieber dauert meist 3 bis 4 Tage. Ein erneuter Fieberanstieg kann auf den Beginn einer zusätzlichen bakteriellen Infektion (Superinfektion) der Atemwege hinweisen. Die Krankheitsdauer liegt in der Regel bei 5 bis 7 Tagen, kann im Einzelfall jedoch auch deutlich länger sein, insbesondere bei Komplikationen und Risikofaktoren. Der quälende Reizhusten hält nicht selten über Wochen an. Einige Patienten leiden noch Wochen nach Abklingen einer Influenza an einer ausgeprägten allgemeinen Leistungsschwäche, Appetitlosigkeit und Unwohlsein bis hin zur Depression. Schwerwiegende Komplikationen treten zwar nur bei einem kleinen Teil aller Infizierten auf, in Anbetracht der meist sehr großen Zahl von Erkrankten während der jährlichen Grippesaison sind sie dennoch relativ häufig.

Experte: Wissenschaftliche Beratung und Ausarbeitung: Prof. Dr. Thomas Löscher, München

Literatur:
Lehnert R et al. Antivirale Arzneimittel bei saisonaler und pandemischer Influenza. Ein systematisches Review. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016; 113: 799
Rationelle Diagnostik und Therapie in der Inneren Medizin in 2 Ordnern; Meyer, J. et al. (Hrsg.); Elsevier 11/2016
Salzberger B, Schmidt B: Neues zur Influenza. Dtsch med Wochenschr 2016; 141: 1451

Dizziness, a feeling of being off balance or lightheaded, is a common symptom in people with MS. A less common symptom for people with MS is vertigo, which causes the sensation that they or their surroundings are spinning or that the ground suddenly rushes upwards. Vertigo can be exacerbated by lying down or inclining one’s head or in situations where vision cannot be used, such as in a darkened room.

The symptoms of dizziness and vertigo result from lesions (damaged areas) on the nerve pathways responsible for transmitting input from the inner ear to the brain for the purpose of maintaining balance or equilibrium. Damage to the eighth cranial nerve, which serves both the balance (vestibular) and acoustic processes of the ear, can cause dizziness or vertigo.

If dizziness or vertigo become significant problems for you or continue for a long time, your doctor may be able to give you a medication to help resolve the symptom.

Medications for treating motion sickness, including antihistamines such as Antivert ® (meclizine), Dramamine® (dimenhydrinate), and Benadryl (diphenhydramine), may be useful, as well as select drugs in the benzodiazepine family, including Valium (diazepam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), and Xanax (alprazolam). A drawback with both antihistamine and benzodiazepine medications is that they can make you feel drowsy. So, you should work with your doctor to find the lowest dosage that resolves your symptoms.

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Les tests de diagnostic rapide de la grippe sont utilisés en milieu clinique mais présentent une sensibilité moindre par rapport aux méthodes de RT PCR et leur fiabilité est fortement tributaire des conditions d’emploi.

Les patients atteints de grippe saisonnière sans complications

Les patients qui ne font pas partie d’un groupe à haut risque devraient recevoir un traitement symptomatique et rester chez eux afin de minimiser le risque d’infecter la collectivité. Le traitement consiste à soulager les symptômes de la grippe comme la fièvre. Les patients devraient suivre par eux mêmes l’évolution de la situation afin de déceler si leur état se détériore et de consulter. Les patients dont on sait qu’ils risquent fortement de développer une maladie grave ou des complications (voir ci dessus) devraient être traités dans les meilleurs délais par des antiviraux en plus du traitement symptomatique.

Les patients souffrant de maladie grave ou de maladie clinique évolutive liée à une infection grippale suspectée ou confirmée (syndromes cliniques de pneumonie, d’état septique ou d’aggravation d’une maladie chronique latente) devraient être traités par des antiviraux dans les meilleurs délais.

  • Les inhibiteurs de la neuraminidase (oseltamivir) devraient être prescrits le plus tôt possible (idéalement, dans les 48 heures qui suivent l’apparition des symptômes) afin d’optimiser les bienfaits thérapeutiques. L’administration du médicament devrait aussi être envisagée chez les patients consultant plus tardivement c’est à dire pendant la maladie.
  • Le traitement est recommandé pour un minimum de cinq jours, mais peut-être prolongé jusqu’à ce qu’il y ait une amélioration clinique satisfaisante.
  • Les corticostéroïdes ne devraient pas être utilisés de manière systématique à moins qu’ils ne soient indiqués pour d’autres raisons (par exemple pour le traitement de l’asthme et d’autres affections spécifiques), car leur utilisation a été associée à une élimination virale prolongée et à une immunosuppression entraînant une surinfection bactérienne ou fongique.
  • Tous les virus grippaux actuellement en circulation sont résistants aux antiviraux appartenant à la classe des adamantanes (par exemple, l’amantadine et le rimantadine), dont l’administration par monothérapie n’est donc pas recommandée.

Le système mondial OMS de surveillance de la grippe et de riposte (GISRS) surveille la résistance aux antiviraux parmi les virus grippaux en circulation afin de fournir des orientations en temps opportun concernant l’utilisation des antiviraux dans la prise en charge clinique et éventuellement dans la chimioprophylaxie.

Le moyen le plus efficace de se prémunir contre la maladie est la vaccination. Des vaccins sûrs et efficaces existent et sont utilisés depuis plus de 60 ans. L’immunité que procure la vaccination s’estompe à travers le temps; c’est pourquoi la vaccination annuelle est préconisée pour se protéger contre la grippe. L’injection de vaccins antigrippaux inactivés est très répandue dans le monde entier.

Chez les adultes en bonne santé, le vaccin antigrippal assure une protection même lorsque les virus en circulation ne correspondent pas exactement à ceux du vaccin. Chez les personnes âgées, en revanche, le vaccin antigrippal peut être moins efficace pour prévenir la maladie mais amoindrit sa gravité et l’incidence des complications et des décès. La vaccination est particulièrement importante pour les personnes présentant un risque élevé de complications grippales et pour celles qui vivent avec des sujets à haut risque ou qui s’en occupent.

L’OMS recommande la vaccination annuelle pour:

  • les femmes enceintes à n'importe quel stade de leur grossesse;
  • les enfants de 6 mois à 5 ans;
  • les personnes âgées (à partir de 65 ans);
  • les personnes souffrant d’affections chroniques;
  • les agents de santé.

La vaccination contre la grippe est surtout efficace lorsque les virus vaccinaux correspondent bien aux virus en circulation. Comme les virus grippaux évoluent constamment, le système mondial OMS de surveillance de la grippe et de riposte (GISRS) ‒ réseau réunissant les centres nationaux de la grippe et les centres collaborateurs de l’OMS dans le monde entier ‒ surveille continuellement les virus grippaux qui circulent chez l’être humain et actualise deux fois par an la composition des vaccins grippaux.

Depuis de nombreuses années, l’OMS met à jour ses recommandations sur la composition du vaccin (trivalent) qui cible les 3 types de virus en circulation les plus représentatifs (2 sous-types du virus A et 1 virus du type B). Depuis la saison grippale 2013 2014 survenue dans l’hémisphère Nord, les recommandations portent aussi sur l’adjonction d’un quatrième élément entrant dans la composition de vaccins quadrivalents.

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I feel awful for all of these commenters!! I went through awful anxiety/depression myself, took various meds (xanax, clonopin, and others that I don't recall now because I was in such a brain fog). I felt detached and suicidal on the meds. I changed my diet dramatically, switched to organic food (from cherrios and poptarts!). I found Dr Atkins vita nutrient solution book and took amino acids, b vitamins, GABA, Sam-e, valerian root, as much as I could afford because I felt.so awful! And those things worked for me! It took about 3-4 weeks. I remember waking up one morning and consciously thinking "I don't feel so bad!" And I never looked back. I suffered from anxiety for at least 20 years, starting at age 13. Did you know low thyroid can cause anxiety? Sure enough I had low thyroid! I also treat that naturally. I'm on this thread now because my teenage daughter has severe depression, and she doesn't want to try my therapies. She has it in her head that she just wants a drug. I found these threads taking about horrible withdrawal and I feel terrible for everyone, and sure that I don't want her on this drug. My advice to every one, eat real food! Our food supply is nothing like what got us here over hundreds of thousands of years. I was eating the standard American diet (acronym is SAD) and I was paying the price. You can't eat sugar and poptarts and spaghetti and expect your body and brain to function properly. Yes, it's more expensive, but if you look at it the other way, cheap food is a rip off, because it's not giving you what you need to be healthy, and illness stinks!

I was on lexapro for 5 days for anxiety.it made most of my symptoms worse and I had to stop given that I'm self employed and was risking the loss of major contracts due to its side effects. This may sound odd but for years I was on a drug called Dexedrine(dates back to the turn of the century)for mild ADHD.it may sound(as it did to me)counter intuitive given that it's an amphetamine but this drug really helps calm the mind and it does it almost instantly.ive tested this on over half a dozen people who at one point were struggling with mild(divorce)to major depression(my wife)and everyone had good to great things to say about it.it was perceived by a psychiatrist and I can't thank him enough it literally saved lives.after 10 years I started weaning myself off with few side effects(I started on a large dose 15mg x 2) if any because of a back injury.i was fine till last year when I started experiencing chest pain and a year later after a ton of tests and a bit of a breakdown with realized it was anxiety. I made sure I had a bit of a stock pile of the drug just in case and would use it on occasion when I needed a mental/physical boost or to help a friend in dire straights. with the green light from their doctor. Now here is my point,if you research this drug it isolates the same protein as amphetamines and cocaine. this apparently makes it the latest greatest drug for depression,I couldn't disagree more. there's no money to be made on Dexedrine therefore doctors are leds by the nose and prescribe the latest greatest. Within 45 minutes of taking the first dose I was a changed person(a bit of euphoria but hey who doesn't enjoy that,especially after feeling like crap for whatever amount of time prior)happy,up lifting thoughts concentration(I know I use a lot of brackets. I'm still in a fog from this drug)this is still the drug of choice for the us Air Force when on bombing missions. You have to ask yourself,why in the world the most advanced military on earth use such an "out dated drug"?Because it works,fast with no or little side effects. a B2 bomber is worth 2 billion dollars,they certainly aren't skimping on the price of drugs.im currently using 5mg twice a day to counteract the drug(otherwise I'm useless at this point)and will up the dose accordingly over the next few days and hopefully feel normal again. Oh yeah I forgot my side effects. tons of energy,laser focus,happy,slight decrease in appetite for the first week or so,positive /creative thoughts and it(according to everyone who's used t around me who has used it,seems to lift the heavy vail like feeling associated with depression and some if not most anxieties. All this being said,this is not a silver bullet or cure all for everyone and your doctor(who in all likely hood will be ill informed on the subject)may not want or know how to prescribe it but it's worth a shot and if not a psychiatrist would be more willing to given that my doctor was almost opposed to it from the start.Bare in mind I've tried other drugs pre and post Dexedrine and one I tried that was "non addictive" had again terrible side effects and had me back on Dexedrine within a few weeks.ok one history lesson your doctor won't want to here,the only reason hitler was able to convince his army to go deep into Russia with heavy loses,frostbite and starvation was do to a form of Dexedrine. He and his doctors were fully aware of the psychological effects of this drug given that he himself was an amphetamine user.

Well I hope this helps someone if not many people but I must state that this is what I and others in my inner circle have experienced when in their darkest hours and maybe something you would want to explore. yes it's an amphetamine and with over 11 years full time experience at a high dose then another 2 at lower I can personally report no ill side effects just like the few long term studies have shown.

Good luck to everyone and please do your research before you approach your doctor. be armed with concrete research(all of the above and more)and your doctor maybe willing to give it a try. it's not for everyone but it is for most. and remember it targets the same area of the brain as lexapro. oh yeah cognitive behavioural therapy should be accompanied with any of these drugs for long term success.

I took Lexapro @ 20mg daily for 6 years. I weaned off by decreasing to 15mg for a month, then 10mg for a month and finally, 5mg for a month. I have been off for two weeks now. The past week, my skin will start feeling like fire ants have bit me. It starts on my face and travels to my arms, then chest and stomach and then finally my legs. Also itching. I am sleeping about 4-5 hours a night (Not all at once) but I awake several times a night. I have NO anxiety. Is anyone else suffering from the stinging nerve issue?

Did they finally go away? I am having that exact same feeling for a month now.:(

I have just started reducing my amount from 5MG to.25MG - I understand just how you feel, I've been on Lexapro for 6 years. Ugh.. Ugh. Ugh. Do you every get the feeling of feeling out of you body. So hard to explain.

I'm also cutting down my clonazepam (Good God).

I don't even know what feeling normal is like.

Stay strong. I'm in the same boat.

Yes I am getting those out of body sensations too! I thought I was going completely insane. I'm weaning off lexapro at this time and just stopped cold turkey after only three days of weaning off. The next day I felt like my brain lagged behind my body movements by maybe a couple of milliseconds. It's like my proprioception went offline for a bit, and then a moment later I'm back. Even breathing felt alien to my brain.

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    Fever seizures can be frightening but they are not usually harmful to the child and do not cause long-term problems, such as brain damage, mental retardation, or learning problems.

    M., I am going through the EXACT same thing with my 17 month old right now. He has had the flu for 10 days now with a fever for the majority of that time. I've been alternating Motrin and Tylenol and it brings the fever back down to normal but it's been anywhere between 102 and 103. Each day is getting better and we have to give less and less medication. I think we've kicked the fever today but like I said it's been 10 days. We took him in when it had been a week because the fever came back and was around 103 again and I was a nutcase because I thought it was something worse. They checked him for pnemonia and ear infections and everything else and he was okay. This strain of the flu is just horrible. I had it as well and I got a fever and it broke three different times. Its been two weeks for me and I'm still coughing. Our pediatrician told me that children this age get it way worse and for a lot longer than we do. Keep her hydrated. Pedialyte has worked well for us. I am sleeping with him and we have the mattress elevated and a humidifier in the room. Hang in there you're doing everything right. Use your mommy instinct, you know when something is not right. Take her in if you're too worried. Stear clear of the ER, if you can. Its full of germs that she doesn't need to catch on top of what she's already go though. It's so difficult to watch your baby suffer like this, I know. IT's been the longest week and a half of my life and I feel so helpless. Fortunately it won't last forever (although it feels like it). Good luck and hopefully our children will get well soon!

    have you had your doctor check to see if she has a urinary tract infection?

    I really wouldn't worry yet. A temperature of 103 is really not that high and means her body is trying to fight an infection (usually viral). The increase in body temperature makes the environment unfriendly for the infection, which is what you want. The vast majority of fevers are caused by viral infection and last no longer than 3 days. If the temperature gets to 105 then it could be bacterial. Fevers cause no harm, such as brain damage, when it is less than 107. Fortunately, the brain's thermostat keeps untreated fevers resulting from infection below 106. If she has convulsions, these are generally harmless (although very scary), but there is a need to rule out a more serious condition (especially meningitis).
    You do need to see a doctor if:
    a. the fever gets above 105
    b. if it gets hard to wake him up
    c. if her neck gets stiff (associated with meningitis)
    d. she starts getting convulsions
    See a doctor within 24 hrs:
    a. the fever gets above 104
    b. burning or pain with urination
    c. if the fever "breaks" and then returns within 24 hrs
    d. the fever lasts for longer than 3 days
    The best thing you can do for her is to try and make her comfortable. Make sure he is getting liquids. Boil a chicken with lots of vegetables and feed him the strained broth. Don't use broth you buy at the store. It's really not a problem that he doesn't have an appetite, but he does need fluids.

    DON'T GIVE HER ASPIRIN. Several studies have linked aspirin and viral illnesses with Reye syndrome.

    If you have to give her anything give her acetaminophen. This should reduce the fever by 1-2 degrees in a couple of hours. Keep in mind though that the fever is helping her fight the infection, so why try to help the enemy?

    Good luck and I hope he feels better soon.

    Most of the info above comes from "Current Pediatric Diagnosis & Treatment" by Hay, Hayward, Levin, and Sondheimer 15th Edition.

    I am sorry to hear your daughter is ill. When I worked at Spears Chiropractor Hospital many years ago we would take Rubbing Alcohol & rub under their armpits & between their thighs with it. It did bring down their fever. I was working in the Pediatric Floor at the time.
    C.

    I'm NOT a Dr. I'd suggest you go to a second pediatrician if you don't like what yours has to say.

    However, what our Dr. told us was that as long as it's not a constant temp for days and it does go down(night or day) that it's ok and just helping her get rid of the infection. As far as it being high at night, we had a Dr. who also told us to make sure not to overdress them. that they aren't covered in tons of covers.

    I think you're totally sane to be nervous. what parent wouldn't be - and feel free to go to the Dr. more (rather than less). I had a pediatrician tell me a LONG time ago that mother's instinct is often much better than Dr's. So if you're really really worried go in and insist on even seeing another Dr.

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    Why does my child's eczema get worse after eating eggs?

    Most children with eczema do not get worsening eczema when they eat eggs.

    However, some children (particularly babies with severe eczema) do have a delayed reaction to egg where the eczema gets worse. In these cases, removing egg from the diet does improve the eczema. This is likely to be a non-IgE mediated reaction.

    Over time, it is likely that your child will tolerate egg without it worsening the eczema so it is worthwhile trying egg again every six months or so.

    Should I avoid egg if I am breast-feeding my baby with eczema?

    It is not clear whether removing egg from your diet if you are breast-feeding will improve the eczema, but if your baby has severe eczema, you could try for 2 - 4 weeks and see if it makes a difference for her.

    What foods should be avoided if my child is allergic to egg?

    If your child is allergic to egg, she should avoid foods containing the following:

    • egg
    • eggnog
    • albumin (albumen)
    • mayonnaisse
    • meringue
    • surimi
    • pasta (if made with egg)
    • lysozyme

    As mentioned already, some children can tolerate cooked egg but not raw egg or they can tolerate egg yolk but not egg white.

    Children who have had an anaphylactic reaction to egg will require epinephrine (adrenaline) which can be given in an auto-injector (such as EpiPen or AnaPen). If your child has just had a skin reaction or swelling of the lips with egg, but has not had any problems with breathing or shock, she will not generally need Epinephrine (Adrenaline).

    Generally, if the initial reaction to egg is mild then it is unlikely there will be a future serious reaction such as anaphylaxis.

    Children can be allergic to the proteins in the white and the yolk (yellow) of the egg. However, allergy to the white (albumin) of the egg is more common. If you are introducing egg to your infant or toddler, generally start with the yolk (yellow).

    Can my child have the MMR vaccine if she is allergic to egg?

    Yes. In the past, there was some controversy over MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine and egg allergy. However, it is now agreed that being allergic to egg is not a reason to miss the MMR vaccination.

    Are there any vaccines that need to be avoided in egg allergic children?

    Yes. The influenza vaccine may cause a reaction in children with egg allergy and so it must only be given with caution. If your child has had an anaphylactic reaction to egg, influenza vaccine would be generally avoided all together. If it is absolutely necessary to give influenza vaccine to an egg allergic child, there are guidelines on how it should be given.

    Most children do grow out of egg allergy.

    Most will do so by school-age and some children take a little longer. Only a small number of children will have life-long egg allergy.

    Once your child has shown she can tolerate eggs, it is important that there is continued exposure to egg to ensure she remains able to eat it without problems, so it's important that there is a regular "dose" of egg.

    Will avoiding egg during pregnancy reduce the risk of egg allergy in my child?

    No, there is no evidence that you can prevent egg allergy in your child by avoiding egg during pregnancy. During pregnancy, it is important to have a healthy well-balanced diet.

    Will delaying introduction of egg beyond 12 months of age reduce the risk of egg allergy in my child?

    There is no evidence to support the delaying of allergenic foods, like egg, beyond 12 months. Some studies even suggest that delay beyond 12 months increases the chance of allergy.

    Best evidence at the moment is that egg can be introduced at the usual time, so start giving egg yolk around 7 - 8 months.

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    Influenza A symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, sneezing, coughing, and runny nose. Influenza virus type A is the most common type of the flu, and its symptoms are typically more severe than symptoms of type B or type C. Influenza A symptoms are similar to the symptoms of a cold, except that fever is rare with a cold and common with the flu. Flu symptoms tend to be more severe than cold symptoms, as well. Flu symptoms also tend to come on very quickly.

    The best way to prevent influenza virus type A is to get a flu shot. Despite what some people think, you cannot get the flu from getting a flu shot because the shot is not made from live virus. Some people may have a minor reaction to the shot, though, that can cause some flu-like symptoms like muscle aches and a low fever. Such reactions are relatively rare, though. Getting a flu shot does not guarantee you won't catch the flu anyway, but it definitely lowers your risk significantly.

    The next best way to prevent the flu is to wash your hands a lot with soap and water, especially when you've been around someone who is sick. But since you might not always know when you've been around someone with the flu, frequent washing all the time is your best bet.

    There is a homeopathic remedy you can take to help prevent the flu. It is called Instant Immunity, and we'll tell you more about that in a moment.

    Some people take extra vitamin C to help prevent or treat the flu, but there is no evidence that this actually works.

    Treatment is usually aimed at relieving influenza A symptoms. There are a variety of over-the-counter medications you can take for relief. For instance, you can take Tylenol for fever and headache, antihistamines for a runny nose, decongestants for a stuffy head, and a cough suppressant if you have a cough. These medications don't cure influenza virus type A, they just help with the symptoms. They may have side effects, such as causing drowsiness or insomnia.

    There are antiviral medications that are available by prescription that may help speed the process of recovery from the flu. Doctors don't always prescribe these because flu symptoms usually go away on their own in time without treatment, but if you see your doctor for the flu you might be given a prescription. There are some side effects associated with antiviral medications. For instance, Tamiflu can cause nausea and vomiting, confusion, mental status changes, and skin reactions.

    Some people prefer to use natural treatments for relief from influenza A symptoms.

    There are a couple of homeopathic remedies you might want to try for dealing with influenza virus type A. Both of these products contain 100% all natural ingredients:

    • A new product that we have seen a lot of success with is Instant Immunity. It works to protect against the flu. It may also help speed recovery if you do get the flu, and can help prevent secondary complications from the flu. To learn more, just follow the link.

    See a doctor in mid-fall if you want to get vaccinated against influenza virus type A. You normally don't need to see a doctor for influenza A symptoms, but if your symptoms last longer than a week, if they are really severe, if you have a very high fever, or if you have trouble breathing, you should see a doctor. In rare cases, the flu can be very serious, even deadly, so see a doctor if you have any concerns.

    Patient is a certified member of
    The Information Standard

    Reviewed by:
    Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE, 25 Sep 2017

    Many viruses can cause a flu-like illness. There is usually a seasonal outbreak of flu (influenza) in the UK each winter. Flu-like illnesses typically cause a high temperature, aches and pains in muscles and joints, a cough and various other symptoms.

    • arrow-downWhat are flu and flu-like illnesses?
    • arrow-downFlu symptoms
    • arrow-downHow do you catch flu?
    • arrow-downSerious illnesses that are similar to flu
    • arrow-downFlu treatment
    • arrow-downComplications of flu

    Dr Roger Henderson, GP

    Flu (influenza) is caused by the influenza virus. However, many other viruses can cause an illness similar to flu. It is often difficult to say exactly which virus is causing the illness, so doctors often diagnose a flu-like illness.

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    The study, in the journal Science Translational Medicine, showed that the older people are, the fewer antibodies they have and they have fewer different types.

    That may help explain why people have a weaker immune response to vaccines as they get older, and why they get sicker once they are infected.

    Flu kills anywhere between 4,000 and 49,000 people a year, CDC says. Every year is different. But this year is shaping up to be at the high end of that scale.

    “I do think in years where you have a virus that impacts the older adults particularly hard, the number of total deaths tends to be higher. I would expect that this year we’d be on the high range of deaths,” said Duchin.

    “It’s hard to tell because the flu season is not over, but we are having a moderately severe season that is an H3N2 predominant season,” Finelli said.

    H3N2 is one of the different strains of flu virus circulating, and for some reason when there is lots of H3N2, more people get seriously ill and die. Ninety percent of these deaths are in people over the age of 65.

    That’s not always the case. In 2009-2010, a new strain of H1N1 swine flu emerged and it was the dominant strain that year. People over 65 seemed to have extra protection against that one, perhaps because they’d been infected by an ancestor of the virus in their youths. That year, flu killed more young adults and children.

    CDC doesn’t have precise numbers of deaths among adults. “The flu is so common that we don’t have deaths in adults as a reportable condition because states would be overwhelmed by counting them,” Finelli says. The CDC will calculate deaths later, after the season’s over, by comparing mortality rates overall to years past and using death certificate data.

    So what can people do? “It’s not too late to get vaccinated,” Finelli advises. “There is still vaccine out there.”

    Several strains of flu are circulating, and sometimes a B strain comes along after an A strain like H1N1 or H3N2 and sickens people in a new wave of illness. This year’s vaccine protects against an H1N1 strain, and H3N2 strain and one B strain of influenza.

    “Now we are down the the final number of doses that have been distributed,” Finelli added. Manufacturers made about 140 million doses this year.

    “We are also telling people to stay home when they are sick, so they are not spreading flu everywhere,” Finelli added. “We are also telling people that if they are elderly, to avoid other people who are sick. If your grandkids are sick, don’t volunteer to mind them.”

    People over 65 should also avoid places where sick people may be. “They should also ask that all their caretakers be vaccinated for the flu,” Finelli added.

    Studies have shown that if children are vaccinated against disease, it protects the rest of the population. This may be true for flu, too, says Duchin. “By vaccinating children we decrease the amount of pneumoccal pneumonia in older adults, which is a tremendous thing,” Duchin said.

    “You can protect older adults in the population by vaccinating the children.”