• l'abattage est coûteux,
  • il ne sera probablement pas efficace,
  • les oiseaux infectés risquent de se disperser sur une zone plus étendue,
  • on risque de tuer ou de déstabiliser les espèces non ciblées,
  • on devra utiliser des fonds qui pourraient être affectés à des moyens plus efficaces pour lutter contre le virus (amélioration de la biosécurité ou lutte contre les mouvements illégaux ou non réglementés des volailles d'élevage)

Il n'existe aucune technique d'abattage pour éliminer un nombre suffisant d'oiseaux sauvages aussi rapidement que possible pour éviter qu'ils ne soient remplacés par de nouveaux venus qui entreraient en contact avec les poches d'infection existantes ou introduiraient eux-mêmes le virus.

  • manque de coordination (y compris incapacité de tenir droit ou de marcher),
  • plumage ébouriffé,
  • troubles respiratoires,
  • perte d'appétit,
  • dépression et apathie,
  • coloration violacée de la crête et des barbillons,
  • odème et gonflement de la tête, des paupières, de la crête, des caroncules, des barbillons,
  • diarrhée liquide,
  • pétéchies (visibles surtout au niveau des pattes et des barbillons),
  • écoulement de liquide ou de sang par le bec ou le nez,
  • baisse soudaine du taux de ponte,
  • coquilles d'oufs molles ou déformées.

Un grand nombre de ces symptômes sont proches de la maladie de Newcastle. Il est donc conseillé de consulter un vétérinaire pour déterminer la pathologie exacte. Celui-ci examinera quelques volailles et prélèvera des échantillons pour procéder à des analyses en laboratoire.

Évitez la contamination par l'intermédiaire des personnes

  • Mettez des vêtements de protection (dont des bottes) à disposition des visiteurs.
  • Les aviculteurs faisant appel à des travailleurs extérieurs doivent s'assurer que ces derniers n'élèvent pas eux-mêmes des oiseaux de basse-cour.
  • Les éleveurs doivent toujours connaître l'origine de l'eau et de la nourriture; ils doivent en vérifier la qualité régulièrement.

  • N'oubliez pas qu'il est plus difficile de désinfecter les matériaux poreux, tels que le bois et les fibres, que d'autres, comme le métal ou le plastique.

Évitez la contamination par l'intermédiaire des animaux

  • Ne vaccinez que les volailles en bonne santé.
  • Créez une zone d'isolement pour héberger les nouvelles volailles; cette zone doit être aussi éloignée que possible de celle où se trouve le troupeau de la ferme
  • Chargez des personnes différentes de s'occuper des oiseaux nouvellement introduits ou ré-introduits. Si cela est impossible, s'en occuper et les nourrir d'abord.
  • Isolez les volailles nouvellement introduites pendant 15 à 30 jours.

Nasty H3N2 flu season worsens as cases rise across Canada

WATCH ABOVE: Quebecers are being hit hard with the flu this year as the province has reached its flu season peak earlier than usual — and this is having an impact on Montreal’s emergency rooms.

TORONTO – The flu season kicked off to an early start last month, but latest numbers on H3N2 cases suggest that it’s still on the rise.

According to the Public Health Agency of Canada, recent flu numbers suggest that the country is “nearing” the peak of flu season. Cases of influenza are widespread across Alberta, Ontario and Quebec, with increasing activity in British Columbia and Manitoba.

H3N2 is still the predominant strain affecting Canadians, too. It’s especially hitting the elderly population. By the end of 2014, there were 166 outbreaks in eight provinces – 122 of them were in long-term care facilities.

PHAC’s latest flu watch report covers influenza activity in the last two weeks of 2014, and into Jan. 3. During that time, flu cases increased to 5,550 from 3,723 from the week before.

It’s been an ugly flu season: since the start, 1,302 hospitalizations have been reported, including 150 ICU admissions. There have been 69 deaths, including one child.

In some parts of Canada, cities have reported overcrowding in emergency rooms. The holiday season didn’t help either – walk-in clinics were closed.

Montreal health officials said they opened seven flu clinics across the island in response to the high number of patients showing up to hospitals with flu or flu-like symptoms.

“About 10 per cent of people who go to the hospital emergency rooms have flu-like symptoms,” explained Dr. Jacques Ricard, director of services at Santé Montréal.

The aim is to relieve some of the pressure in the hospitals and allow ER doctors to deal with other cases.

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I am 48 years old now. I cannot remember when I last had a solid night of sleep, my body is in constant pain from head to toe and I have IBS. I have gained/lost up to 30-50 pounds over the years with dieting, but seem to always gain the weight back. I have had horrible brain fog and on some days I feel like a zombie just walking or driving the earth! It's been hell!

I had a hysterectomy five years ago because I had a cyst as big as a grapefruit on my ovary. I still have one ovary left. Last August, I was diagnosed with breast cancer and I am currently going through radiation treatments for that. I did find my lump early on and it had not spread to the lymph nodes but I still had surgery to remove the tumor and now radiation. Chemo was not necessary since I caught it early on.

I recently found a female doctor who is more into the natural approach of treating the female body. She took nine tubes of blood from me and also had me collect my urine and bowel for 24 hours to send off for testing. I found out my estrogen is low and my testosterone did not even register, it was so low. I also found out that I am vitamin D deficient, calcium deficient, magnesium deficient, and that I have inherited a mutation gene from my parents for MTHFR, which is a lack of folate that can cause coronary heart disease/heart attack and stroke! She put me on a vitamin called Methyl Balance that she said I should stay on for life and said my sons should have blood work done to see if they have inherited the gene also.

I also found out that my T4 for thyroid is not producing T3, and you need both to balance your thyroid levels. I will work to balance my hormones later, after I finish my breast cancer treatment. I truly believe is what caused me to get breast cancer in the first place: I am estrogen positive, and I believe it caused the cyst that led me to hysterectomy. I also believe this is why I had difficulty getting pregnant with my second child and probably the cause many years ago of irregular and painful periods.

I have been to nine different doctors over the last 15 years and no other doctor has been able, nor has taken the time, to help me. I have about 15 different bottles of prescription drugs that were prescribed to me but I have taken hardly any of them, or I would try them and find the side effects were worse than the illness. Unfortunately, my insurance does not cover the holistic MD I found, I have worked for the same employer for 28 years paying for medical insurance, and when I finally found a doctor who could help me, they will not pay for her, or for all the vitamins she has prescribed for me. This is frustrating and does not make sense!

33) I had many of the symptoms everyone here has mentioned and can't finish my degree due to all of this. My symptoms began five years ago and I'm now 49.

At the insistence of my chiropractor, I sought help from a functional medicine DO. Has been a tremendous help. My progesterone is 17, and I have low thyroid and adrenals, plus I'm not absorbing vitamins and nutrients.

I began with 100mg of bio-identical progesterone from compounding pharmacy and over the past two years, I'm now up to 300 mg. Be aware though, that Prometrium brand is made with peanut oil so if you have an issue with that tell the doctor and get it from a compounding pharmacy. They can make it without peanut oil.

For mental fog/blurry vision, my doctor prescribed building up (can cause diarrhea if too fast) to 4,000 mgs vitamin C buffered powder in water first thing in the morning and it has worked wonders. Also the Calm brand magnesium has helped with sleep and anxiety. I started Armour thyroid 2 weeks ago and am feeling better already. My depression has lifted, thank God, as I was considering asking for an anti-depressant.

Also, my doctor recommended a gluten free diet which has made a huge difference as well with my stubborn weight gain since all this started. I also highly recommend the book “Core Balance” by Marcelle Pick. It explains all about hormones and what to do. She has a great website too! Hang in there ladies. You are not alone!

31) I don't know how active this site is, but I just wanted to share my thoughts. I stopped taking birth control and a lot of changes happened. For years I had severe anxiety. My periods vanished completely then came back irregular with heavy bleeding and a lot of clotting. I did not sleep well and my mind was always busy, busy. I was fatigued and had no sex drive. I was not me, not alive. I felt like I was just coasting from day to day struggling to get through.

Then I saw a holistic doctor as all traditional doctors wanted to do was put me back on the pill. This doctor was wonderful. She listened to everything I said and did an ultrasound and hormone test. My progesterone is low at 18L. The normal range, in case anyone in wondering for premenopausal women, is between 75 - 250L. My estradiol was also low at 1.2L. Normal should be 1.3 - 3.3 for a premenopausal women.

My doctor gave me bio-identical (natural) progesterone made at a compounding pharmacy just for me. I take 150mg at night which I am to reduce to 50mg at the onset of my period. It has only been two weeks, but already I feel a difference. My anxiety is so much better and I sleep better. My headaches are less frequent.

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Human influenza viruses are known to drift, or mutate, from season to season, allowing the viruses to spread through the population a little easier. At the same time, humans are constantly evolving antibodies to fight the viruses. The human immune system contains a range of antibodies that can bind to the flu virus, meaning there is a higher potential for the population to fend off viruses that are slightly unfamiliar, Webby said.

Predicting which strain of the flu will dominate a flu season involves mapping seasonal trends, field testing and, to some degree, guess work. Sometimes, the vaccine is not a good match.

Slight drifts in a dominant influenza virus are not a huge cause for concern, according to health experts. Vaccines can still provide some level of defense against the flu, even when the vaccine is not a perfect match. “It would have to be a very severe drift for a vaccine to provide no protection at all,” Webby said. Despite a mutation in the H3N2, the vaccine has averted roughly a third of the flu cases seen this season, according to the CDC.

The three types of influenza viruses are types A, B and C. Influenza viruses A and B are what cause most of the human infections, with A typically being the more severe of the two. Viruses are made up of seven segments of RNA, or genetic material. “Every so often, one of those segments gets changed very dramatically,” Patrick Schlievert, a professor and chair of microbiology at the University of Iowa, told IBTimes. “Those are the ones that usually bring in a new pandemic.”

The viruses that worry health experts the most are those “coming out of animal reservoirs,” Webby said. They are what health experts call the “pandemic strains” – viruses unfamiliar to the human immune system that suddenly jump into humans.

In 2009, a novel strain of the H1N1 influenza A virus, commonly known as swine flu, made its way to the U.S. The first cases were reported in March in California. The virus killed an estimated 10,000 Americans, including 7,500 young adults and 1,100 children, by December. Health experts estimated that more than 15 percent of the country had been infected with the virus. “If a brand new virus comes in, it’s obviously going to be more severe and effect a greater part of the population,” Schlievert said.

However, even if an unforeseen strain were to make its way into the human population, health officials are, for the most part, prepared. A hundred years of medical advances have equipped physicians with the tools to keep death rates from influenza outbreaks relatively low, Schlievert argued. If the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, which killed upwards of 30 to 50 million people worldwide, were to happen today, “it might kill 100,000 people,” Schlievert said. “The reason is that medical care is so much better” than it was nearly a century ago, he said.

Bill Bush The Columbus Dispatch @ReporterBush

Flu cases are widespread across the state, with hospitalizations for flu-like symptoms almost doubling to 287 during the first week of January, according to the Ohio Department of Health.

"Influenza-like illness is now widespread throughout Ohio for the first time this flue season, and the number of associated hospitalizations are rising," the department said in a written statement.

The number of hospitalizations for flu symptoms — fever, cough, sore throat, body aces, headache, chills and fatigue — rose from 157 the last week of December, and the total hospitalization since the start of this flu season in October is 654, the department said.

Some people also experience vomiting or diarrhea, according to the CDC. Most people recover in several days to less than two weeks. Children and the elderly are most susceptible to complications of the flu.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said flu activity across the country is expected to continue to rise for at least several weeks. Flu season generally lasts through May, and hospitalizations generally peak between December and February, the department said.

Influenza vaccination is the safest and most effective way to prevent the flu in people older than 6 months, the department said. Other ways to avoid it include washing hands, using alcohol-based hand sanitizer, covering coughs and sneezes, avoid touching eyes, noses and mouths, and staying home when sick until you are fever free for 24 hours without using fever-reducing medicines.

"There are no flu vaccine shortages across Ohio," said Sietske de Fijter, chief of the Bureau of Infectious Diseases for the department. "The short time it will take to get a flu vaccine is much less than the time it will take you to recover from the flu."

The department doesn't track the number of aldut flu deaths.

There were 3,691 hospitalizations for flu-like symptoms during the last flu season, according to the state.

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In May 2015, the public health authorities of Brazil confirmed ZIKV infection in the north-eastern part of the country. Healthcare authorities confirmed that a previously unknown disease affecting around 500 patients with flu-like symptoms followed by rash and arthralgia was indeed an ongoing outbreak of Zika fever.

On 16 October 2015, the first cases of ZIKV infections were reported in Colombia, with nine confirmed cases in the Bolivar department. From 16 October to 21 November, Colombian authorities reported 578 confirmed cases and 2 635 suspected cases..

On 12 November 2015, the Suriname authorities reported five cases of ZIKV through IHR.

On 24 November 2015, the health authorities of French Polynesia reported an unusual increase of at least 17 cases of central nervous system malformations in foetuses and infants during 2014-2015.

On 26 November 2015, Mexico authorities acknowledged three ZIKV cases, including two autochthonous cases reported from Nuevo Leon and Chiapas. The imported cases had recently travelled to Colombia.

On 27 November 2015, the Paraguay IHR National Focal Point (NFP) reported the confirmation of six ZIKV cases in the city of Pedro Caballero - close to the border with Brazil.

On 1 December 2015, media, quoting authorities, reported 17 suspected cases of ZIKV infection in Guatemala, 14 of which were among hospital employees. Blood samples have been collected and sent to the US for analysis.

On 3 December 2015, the Ministry of Health of Panama reported three autochthonous cases of Zika virus infection. All three cases are residents of the district of Ailigandi, Guna Yala (north-east).

26th December, The Island of Martinique becomes the latest country in the region to confirm reports of the autochthonous or local transmission of the mosquito borne Zika virus. The Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), says the French speaking Caribbean nation is the 11th country in the Americas to report the virus this year and the 12th to report local transmission.

The Puerto Rico Department of Health reported today the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection in Puerto Rico. Zika was confirmed in a resident of Puerto Rico with no known travel history.

Barbados, Haiti and Guyana have all confirmed cases of Zika Virus in their respective countries. On Thursday 14th January 2016 Haiti and Guyana confirmed cases of Zika Virus and on Friday 15th January, Barbados also confirmed 3 cases of Zikv.

The Center for disease control issues advisory to pregnant women and those trying to conceive to postpone travel to countries that are experiencing Zika virus outbreaks in South America and The Caribbean. The countries mentioned are: Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

The World Health Organisation director Margaret Chan has declared that the Zika virus constitute a public health emergency of international concern.

The first case of Zika Virus transmission was reported in Texas, USA this week. It is likely that the virus was contracted through sexual contact, said local health officials.

Health officials in Colombia have announced the deaths of three people who had been infected with the Zika Virus and subsequently developed Guillain-Barre syndrome. Alejandro Gaviria, the Colombian health minister, stated that there was a "causal connection" between Zika, the Guillain-Barre disorder and the three deaths. Six further deaths are under investigation for a possible link to Zika Virus.

Physicians in Crop Sprayed Towns (PCST), a group of physicians in Brazil, have claimed that the Zika Virus is not responsible for the dramatic rise in cases of Microcephaly. The tenfold increase of newborn babies with Microcephaly in Brazil, has alarmed Health officials around the world. Although the Zika Virus has never been officially linked with Microcephaly, there was strong suggestion from the World Health organisation and the CDC that the virus was the culprit.

The U.S Centers for Disease Control have advised pregnant women or women trying to conceive to avoid areas with Zika Virus outbreaks. They have also advised pregnant women to reconsider going to the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil if they had planned to do so. Both women and their partners should be very cautious concerning the Zika Virus after it was discovered that the virus may be also be passed through sexual contact as well as the traditional route via the aedes aegypti mosquito.

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Public Health England reports(9th January) that flu like illness is at a high compared to the last three years. They are recommending that people at risk can still have the flu jab- up take by even at risk people under 65 is very low at 50 %). Viruses do not respond to antibiotics but I guess GPs get desperate when people keep going back to their doctor with symptoms and so will try anything.

Cannot put a link in here otherwise the system will block this entry. but just type public health England flu in and the report is on their front page.

Thank you everyone for your thoughts and pointers if anyone finds a miracle cure please post it we're desperate.

we have just started getting over it my partner came down with it in earlie december he was rushed to hospital and told his white blood cells was not acting the way they was so i dont know if this has something to do with it but he is still been sick during the nights now and sleepy all the time the effects he had while e had the flu bug then i caught it 22nd december im still having problems now too!

im not as bad as i was the first week i had it but i have not gone back to normal my daughter 5 had it firsst in november early and then only managed to get rid of it this month everybody i know has had it now and keep re catching it or the symtoms dont go im from yorkshire

Thank you Steph thats really helpful as some of my relatives are in Yorkshire (Leeds and Hebden Bridge). Im not one for conspiracy theories but I cant believe that theres been nothing on the national news about how widespread this outbreak is and how long it knocks patients out for. My sister in law is a GP and she gets loads of cases and the same faces week after week. My 12 year old daughter is off school today because she feels barely able to move her neck her skin and her joints are really hurting Im taking her to the doctors (again. ) shortly. My symptoms are a terrible sharp cough and the same aching skin joints neck plus being full up with phlegm which is vile in itself. If the pain could be dealt with it would be something but nothing touches it!

when my partner took my son to doctors he said they was hundreds of patients that week with the same thing im left with weak legs sharp pains in head and vile phelm i hope you feel well soon god knows what it is even my cbt worker had it when i went my friend had the flu jab and still caught it i did find something online saying that its like a flu virus thats related but its making the flu jab not work or something never had anything like it though suppose new illness's start all the time though

Sounds rough! Hope everyone feels better soon. Here in the States, my city is number three in the nation for having the most cases of the flu. So far I have been fortunate, as well as my children.

Could there be something in your environment that is causing these drawn out symptoms? My first thought was possible allergies.

The fact that its spread across friends and family around the UK doesnt really make that stand up and that my daughter and I have been prescribed antihistermines too which had no effect doesnt really point to that but yes Ive thought about it. Ive wondered about methane which can cause flu like symptoms or something in our diet. Thank you though Ill try to see if theres any commonality between friends and family and their environment.

I'm not from the UK but from California. However, my wife and I have experienced the exact same symptoms since approximately October 10, 2014. Started with dry persistent non productive cough. 1st Dr. Said a cold. 3 weeks later visited second Dr given prednisone and antibiotics 4 weeks later 3rd Dr. Again gave prednisone and cough med's. Cough ceased for 3 days then returned with more like cold symptoms and productive cough with clear sputum. Still persistent cough, going to Dr. Again this evening. Wish me luck.

My husband and I have had the same symptoms since early December, constant coughing, finding it hard to breathe, head cold, muzzy head, neck aching etc. etc. and it lasted until about 2 weeks ago and we both felt ok - as we are singers it was a great relief not having to try and sing through the coughing, we had a weeks respite and we both woke up on Thursday morning with the symptoms back with a vengence, in fact during a coughing fit today I managed to cough up what looked like a piece of lung. almost solid cream coloured thing that had fine red lines in it, a bit frightening. We haven't been to the doctors as having spoken to a lot of other people that have similar symptoms they can't get anything done, so it isn't worth bothering, a couple were taken into hospital with breathing difficulties, I think they suffered with asthma as well, I find it really hard to breath and try to do so shallowly to stave off the coughing fit, we are getting through a mountain of paracetamol. By the way, we are on the south coast of England.

i have read your post and can not believe you have not seen a g p after coughing up what you describe and suggest you go and see a doctor a s a p,as you dont know exactly what you are suffering from,i know how you feel with doctors but you do need to be seen to sooner rather than later,i am not trying to frighten you in any way,but need a mdics advice on what could be wrong,good luck.

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Alberta has a voluntary immunization policy for healthcare workers, and are focused on education, promotion, and making it as easy as possible for health care workers to get immunized.

Canine Influenza or commonly called dog flu (H3N8) is a newly emerging highly infectious airborne type virus that can cause contagious respiratory illness and infection in dogs with no exception to breed or age.

Since canine flu is a new disease so there is still much more to learn from this virus. Dog flu (H3N8) is very different from avian influenza or commonly called bird flu (N5N1) that has killed many birds, chickens and peoples in Asia countries.

Nearly 100 percent of dogs that are exposed to dog flu will get infected because they have no natural immunity to this new emerging disease and around 80 percent of infected dogs will develop mild flu symptoms within the range of two to five days after exposure. However some them may not show signs or symptoms at all but remain contagious for few day or weeks. The conditions and illness can be severe for young puppies, old dog and canine with low or weaken immune systems.

Most infected dogs make a full recovery within a few weeks but there are some case that canine influenza can lead to pneumonia if left untreated.

Canine Influenza continuously mutates itself and has the adaptation ability to infect a large variety of animals.

The incubation period for dog flu is around four weeks. If infected dogs had good treatment of antibiotics then they should be back to normal conditions. Mortality rate is very low.

There are molecular studies which indicated that dog flu mutated from equine influenza virus which is commonly called horse flu (H7N7 or H3N8). Equine influenza has been around for more than 40 years ago and there is no report on horse flu disease transmitted to humans. Centers for disease control (CDC) researchers do not expect dog flu transmission to humans because Canine Influenza and Equine Influenza are closely related.

Initially Influenza viruses are specific for their own host species and it requires a dramatic mutation in order to jump to other kind of species so if mutation occurs in the future then there is a chance that human can get infected but at present there is nothing to worry about.

Spread and Transmission

Dog flu is an airborne type virus which spread or transmitted to other nearby dogs by coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread by direct contact with contaminated surface or secretions from the nose.

Symptoms may be seen after 2-5 days of exposure and infected dog have the ability to spread flu virus for 7-10 days.

Dog Flu Symptoms

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Goiter can form when the production of T4 falls sharply. To renew the production, TSH is secreted in large amounts from the pituitary gland.

However, if the low production of T4 is caused by iodine deficiency, the increased secretion of TSH does not translate into an increased synthesis of T4. Instead, TSH needlessly stimulates the growth of new cells in the thyroid gland, and this causes the enlargement of the gland.

In mild cases, which are the most common, a mild iodine deficiency may lead to increased production of T3 in the thyroid gland. However, since most of the body’s store of T3 is made from the available T4 which are not being replenished, T4 is rapidly depleted.

Goiter is a big public health problem not only in poor countries but in some affluent nations of Europe and in Australia and New Zealand. The treatment is, however, simple. By supplying iodine supplements, goiter cases can be quickly resolved.

The easiest way to provide iodine supplementation to any population is by mandating that sale of only iodized salts.

Although goiter responds well to iodine supplementation, it is best to treat the iodine deficiency immediately. If left untreated, iodine deficiency progressively destroys the tissues of the thyroid gland. After five years, even iodine supplement or thyroxine replacement cannot reduce the size of goiter because the damage is then permanent.

It should be noted that goiter can be caused by hyperthyroidism too and this second type of goiter does not involve iodine deficiency.

Cretinism is closely linked to iodine deficiency and goiter. In fact, it was the observation that parents with goiter are more likely to have mentally retarded children that revealed the nature of cretinism.

Signs of cretinism include impaired mental development, squint, deaf-mutism, stunted growth, improper stance and walking gait as well as all the other symptoms of hypothyroidism including low basal metabolic rate, low basal body temperature, cold intolerance, fatigue, weight gain and hair loss.

Iodine deficiency is the most important cause of cretinism and it can account for about 15-point difference on the IQ (intelligence quotient) scale.

Iodine supplementation is the only way to prevent cretinism and the supplementation is most effective when given in early childhood while mental capacity is in rapid development.

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    Sources and references for this information product will be supplied on request. Please contact us quoting the Information Product number below:

    Information Product No. PCA0011v2 | Published: 19/10/2017 | Last Updated: 06/02/2018 | Next Review Due: 19/10/2020

    © 2018 Pancreatic Cancer Action. Registered Charity No. 1137689. Registered Company Limited by Guarantee in England & Wales No. 07272699. Registered address: Pancreatic Cancer Action, Unit 10, Oakhanger Farm Business Park, Oakhanger, Hampshire, GU35 9JA | Website Design by Jolora

    Any infection symptoms will of course depend on the nature and severity of the infection. General infection symptoms are fever and inflammation.

    Within this general infection section are links to multiple different infectious diseases and conditions.

    Infections are typically caused by invading viral or bacterial organisms. They enter the body through several possible routes and multiply within the body.

    The body has evolved defenses to infectious microorganisms for millions of years. The battle continues today.

    Regularly a healthy immune system is able to detect and eliminate the viral/bacterial organism early or following a short course of infection.

    However, a chronic infection infection may develop in which a stalemate is reached between the body’s immune system and the advancement of the organism.

    In extreme cases the microorganism overwhelms the bodies immune defense or is not detected and/or attacked properly by the immune system.

    The infectious agent may release toxins that cause harm, cause a general inflammatory response, and/or may destroy cells of the body.

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    Chemical Family: Coumarins, Indandiones, and other Anti-coagulants - warfarin(C)

    Action on Human System: Prevents blood from clotting

    • Internal Exposure: Usually no reaction if low accidental dose ingested
    • External Exposure: Minnimal
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Sodium Fluoroacetate - Compound 1080(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Rodenticides

    Action on Human System: Extremely toxic. Affects heart tissue and brain

    • Internal Exposure: Stomach pain, vomiting, hallucination, nervousness
    • External Exposure: Minimal
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Rodenticides

    Action on Human System: Highly toxic; severe intestinal irritation; severe injury to liver, kidneys, nervous system and heart

    • Internal Exposure: Intense nausea stomach pain, excitement, chills, cough
    • External Exposure: Minimal
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Rodenticides

    Action on Human System: Highly toxic; blood system injury; injury to liver, nervous system, heart, and kidneys

    • Internal Exposure: Breath has garlic odor; feces may glow and smoke from phosphorus fumes; vomiting and diarrhea; burning pain in throat, stomach, and intestines
    • External Exposure: Dermal exposure usually low; irritates nose and throat
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Rodenticides

    Action on Human System: Acts directly on cells in the brain and spinal cord to cause convulsions

    • Internal Exposure: Blue skin color; violent convulsions
    • External Exposure: Minimal
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Rodenticides

    Action on Human System: Low toxicity

    • Internal Exposure: Prompt vomiting and nausea
    • External Exposure: Minimal
    • Chronic Exposure: Excreted rapidly; not retained in body


    Type of Pesticide: Rodenticides

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    Often a pregnant cat will abort the kittens if infected with Feline Herpes Virus. If the kittens are born it is almost certain that they will catch the infection from the mother.

    Cat Flu: What are the signs? The most common symptoms of Feline Calicivirus (FCV)

    The Mouth and Tongue:

    The most common symptom of Feline Calicivirus is ulceration of the mouth and tongue, palate, lips and sometimes the tip of the nose. The gums can also be affected by gingivitis.

    Drooling can occur depending on the severity of the mouth ulcers.

    The Nose and Eyes:

    The calicivirus causes cold like symptoms which result in runny nose and eyes. The infection can affect the membranes of the eye but does not cause eye ulcers.

    Fever and Depression:

    The cat may or may not have a fever. Loss of appetite may occur but it is more common that the cat finds it too painful to eat because of the mouth ulcers. The infection becomes more serious when secondary bacterial infections like pneumonia invade.

    Joint pain can occur and you may notice your cat limping. FCV has been reported to cause a limping syndrome. The limping can affect first one leg and then another.

    There are several strains of the calicivirus and one of those strains causes ulcers in the paws.

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    No more effective than placebo for cough

    OTC antitussive and bronchodilator

    Cochrane review of one study11

    No more effective than placebo for cough

    Not studied in children14

    OTC = over-the-counter; RCT = randomized controlled trial.

    Information from references 7 through 14.

    Fluids. Caregivers are often advised to increase a child's fluid intake. However, in two case series and a prevalence study, some children with respiratory infections but no signs of dehydration developed hyponatremia with increased fluids.15 Therefore, extra fluid intake is not advised in children because of potential harm.

    Table 2 summarizes therapies that may be effective in children with the common cold.8, 13, 16 – 20

    Therapies That May Be Effective for the Common Cold in Children

    Variable, up to 28 days

    High-dose inhaled corticosteroids in children who are wheezing8

    One to five years

    Budesonide (Pulmicort), 1,600 mcg by MDI with nebuhaler or 3,200 mcg by MDI with nebuhaler and face mask, if needed

    Until asymptomatic for 24 hours

    One to five years

    Beclomethasone, 2,250 mcg daily by MDI

    One to three years

    Budesonide 1,600 mcg by MDI with nebuhaler and face mask for first three days, then 800 mcg for another seven days

    Total of 10 days