Tuberculosis can develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze from an infected person and it can also spread through infected sputum and there is a form spread through milk from infected cows. The risk of contracting TB increases with the frequency of contact with people who have the disease, and with crowded or unsanitary living conditions and poor nutrition.
Pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection. The disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection, or it may lie dormant for years before causing disease. The extent of the disease can vary from minimal to massive involvement, but without effective therapy, the disease becomes progressive.
Infants, the elderly, and individuals who are immunocompromised, those undergoing transplant surgery who are taking anti rejection medications are at higher risk for progression of the disease or reactivation of dormant disease. Those who have not received BCG immunisation are advised to do so and if for travel purposes, at least six weeks before departure to ensure a protective level of immunity.
Treatment with anti microbial drugs is effective but is prolonged and requires medical supervision. It is also expensive and not always available abroad. Incomplete treatment of TB infections (such as failure to take medications for the prescribed length of time) can contribute to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria.
Prevention: Avoid overcrowded places in endemic areas, particularly where spitting is common. Never drink unpasteurised milk. If in doubt, boil it before drinking. There is a vaccination (BCG) which can give a valuable degree of protection, particularly in children. Travellers who plan to spend more than a month in an area with a high tuberculosis rate and who have not been previously immunised should consider immunisation with BCG.
(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
is a severe pneumonia that has been reported in China Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Canada. It appears to have spread in a short period of time and is now regarded by the World Health Organisation as a worldwide threat.
The organism responsible for SARS was originally thought to be a paramyxo virus similar to the viruses responsible for causing measles and mumps but It has now been identified as a member of the coronavirus family never previously seen in humans. Identification of the coronavirus means that scientists can now move towards developing treatments for SARS and successfully controlling the disease. At present there is no specific treatment.
Outbreaks such as the one in Toronto which affected family members and health care workers are thought to have occurred early in the epidemic when the significance of the condition was not appreciated. Where infection control measures are applied, outbreaks seem not to occur. Therefore, anyone thought to be suffering from the illness should be isolated and nursed using barrier techniques. Secondary infections can be controlled with antibiotics and symptomatic treatment undertaken.
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
Avian influenza usually does not make wild birds sick, but can make domesticated birds very sick and kill them. They do not usually infect humans; however, several instances of human infections and outbreaks have been reported since 1997. When such infections occur, public health authorities monitor the situation closely because of concerns about the potential for more widespread infection in the human population.
The reported symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, and other severe and life-threatening complications.
Currently there is no definitive evidence of human-to-human transmission of avian influenza and no infections have been documented among health-care workers. While it is unusual for people to get influenza infections directly from animals, such transmission has been documented several times in recent years and is under investigation although most human cases have been linked to direct contact with diseased birds.
Know the symptoms of different kinds of pink eye.
- Viral pink eye: Symptoms can include watery eyes along with a cold, flu, or sore throat.
- Allergic pink eye: Symptoms include itchy eyes, swollen eyelids and a runny or itchy nose. It is more common in people who have other allergies, such as hay fever or asthma.
- Bacterial pink eye: Symptoms include a thick, often yellow-green discharge that lasts all day (usually not with a cold or flu).
This report is for you to use when talking with your health-care provider. It is not a substitute for medical advice and treatment. Use of this report is at your own risk.
© 2013 Consumer Reports. Developed in cooperation with the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Il peut être difficile de distinguer une grippe d’un rhume. Ce sont des maladies semblables, à première vue, mais bien différentes. Les symptômes du rhume sont habituellement légers alors que ceux de la grippe sont plus sévères. De plus, le rhume est fréquent et infecte principalement le nez et la gorge alors que la grippe, plus rare, peut aussi attaquer les poumons.
Tout le monde peut attraper la grippe. La grippe est une maladie sévère, les personnes âgées et les jeunes enfants sont les plus exposées à la grippe et à ses complications. On parle alors de personnes à risque de complications.
Les personnes dites à risque de complications sont:
- les personnes atteintes de certaines maladies chroniques (MPOC, asthme, diabète, cancer, etc.);
- les enfants âgés de 6 mois à 5 ans;
- les personnes âgées de 60 ans et plus;
- les femmes enceintes (2 e et 3 e trimestre surtout);
- les personnes qui ont un système immunitaire affaibli (VIH, greffe d’organes, etc.)
- les personnes résidant dans des centres de longue durée ou des maisons de soins infirmiers, quel que soit leur âge;
- les personnes atteintes d’obésité morbide (IMC> 40)
- les personnes d’origine autochtones;
- les travailleurs en contact avec la population à risque de complications (travailleurs du domaine de la santé, des garderies, etc.).
Même si la grippe est une affection respiratoire, tout l’organisme en souffre. Habituellement, le sujet présente des symptômes aigus qui apparaissent soudainement. La fièvre s’installe rapidement et s’accompagne de frissons, d’une faiblesse générale, d’une perte d’appétit et de douleurs musculaires vives dans tout le corps. La plupart des gens recouvrent la santé entre 5 à 10 jours sans subir de complications.
La fatigue et la toux peuvent cependant persister jusqu’à 2 semaines et plus. Des symptômes gastro-intestinaux tels que des nausées, des vomissements et de la diarrhée peuvent quelquefois accompagner la grippe, ils sont toutefois plus fréquents chez les enfants.
Vous pouvez présenter un ou plusieurs des symptômes suivants:
- Mal de gorge
- Fatigue et faiblesse
- Douleurs musculaires
- Maux de tête
- Perte d’appétit
- Congestion nasale ou écoulements nasaux
Les complications de la grippe peuvent comprendre la déshydratation, la sinusite, l’otite, la bronchite et la pneumonie.
Si vos symptômes s’aggravent ou ne s’améliorent pas après 7 jours, vous devez également consulter un médecin le jour même.
Vous pouvez obtenir une consultation le jour même ou le lendemain dans une ressource près de chez vous. Pour en savoir plus ou pour trouver une de ces ressources, consultez la page Trouver une ressource qui offre de la consultation médicale le jour même ou le lendemain.
Vous devez vous rendre immédiatement à l’urgence si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe et que vous présentez aussi l’un des symptômes suivants:
- difficulté à respirer qui persiste ou qui augmente;
- lèvres bleues;
- douleur intense à la poitrine;
- douleur intense à la tête qui persiste ou qui augmente;
- somnolence, difficulté à rester éveillé, faiblesse;
- confusion, désorientation;
- convulsions (le corps se raidit et les muscles se contractent de façon saccadée et involontaire);
- absence d’urine depuis 12 heures, soif intense.
Si votre bébé de moins de 3 mois a de la fièvre, amenez-le à l’urgence rapidement.
Si votre enfant a de la fièvre et qu’il semble très malade, qu’il manque d’énergie et qu’il refuse de jouer, amenez-le consulter un médecin rapidement ou appelez Info-Santé 811.
Si vous avez besoin d’aide immédiate pour vous rendre à l’urgence, composez le 9-1-1.
Certaines situations nécessitent l’évaluation d’une infirmière, qui pourra vous fournir des conseils spécifiques concernant votre situation. Elle pourra aussi vous indiquer si vous devriez consulter un médecin rapidement ou non.
Vous devriez donc appeler Info-Santé 811 si vous-même ou votre enfant êtes dans l’une des situations suivantes:
- vous êtes essoufflé;
- vous avez de la difficulté à respirer;
- vous ne savez pas si vous devez consulter un médecin
La plupart des personnes en bonne santé guérissent de la grippe par elles-mêmes au bout de 5 à 7 jours. Il faut bien se reposer et se nourrir selon son appétit.
La toux et la fatigue peuvent toutefois durer jusqu’à 2 semaines, et même plus.
Vous pouvez soulager les symptômes de la grippe en prenant les mesures suivantes:
Si vous avez de la fièvre, votre corps perd naturellement beaucoup de liquide, surtout par la transpiration. Il est donc important de boire beaucoup et souvent.
- Buvez de préférence des liquides froids ou chauds: eau, lait, jus, bouillon.
- Évitez les boissons alcoolisées ou contenant de la caféine comme le café, le thé et les boissons énergisantes. Comme ces boissons font uriner, elles font augmenter la perte de liquide.
En l’absence de complications ou de facteurs de risque de complications, le traitement de la grippe ne nécessite pas de médicaments prescrits. Toutefois, pour soulager la fièvre et la douleur, vous pouvez prendre des médicaments offerts en vente libre comme l’acétaminophène, par exemple du Tylenol MD, ou l’ibuprofène, par exemple de l'Advil MD.
When kids get the flu those fevers are normal (even higher too) and it's common that the motrin/tylenol isn't that helpful.
There is a test available to see whether it is actuallly flu or not - a Q-tip nasal swab test. Not pleasant, but if it is flu, the doctor can give her TamiFlu, which would help her get over it.
YOu could also give the homeopathic remedy called Oscillo. We just went through the flu last week - 2 of my daughters had it - and I took Oscillo because I was fighting it too. It's completely safe and it totally worked for me. (I got it at wal mart - full name is oscillococcinum). The label doesn't say it, but if you try it, take it apart from food (don't eat within 30 minutes).
Hope your little one feels better soon!!
I'm not a doctor, but my son had influenza a few years ago.
While high fevers are scary, they actually are not proven to cause any damage. It's the virus or bacteria that causes problems. Does your doctor seem concerned about the fever? Ask him or her specifically. Call another one for a second opinion if you can't get a good answer.
You should work hard to keep her hydrated. If she stops taking fluids, call your doctor. Watch for too rapid breathing as well. When my son had influenza, he developed pneumonia within two days and was breathing about 90 times a minute!
When my children have gotten sick it is not on common for them to spike to 105. Whenever I have taken them to the ER they have given them a dose of Tylenol & Motrin at the same time to knock the fever down and then go back to alternating every 3 hours. Now we just use that protocol at home when they spike a fever that high. It does the trick every time. I would hate to recommend that to you without checking with your Doctor first but I wanted to let you know that is what we do and we have had a lot of experience with fevers! They are scary but the moms always seem more worried then the nurses and Doctors. We went to the ER once with a temp. of 106 and hallucinations and the nurses were so calm about it - I of course was not! Good luck.
Hi M., I'm an RN (and a mom). The important things to watch for during an illness with a high fever are fluid intake (pedialyte is ideal and preferable to water or juice) and how your child looks overall: is she pale, limp, listless, or lethargic. Some indications of dehydration are no urination in 8 hrs. or a whitish, sticky, "dry" tongue. If these things occur, or if your child just doesn't look right to you (because, as a mom, your intuition is a valuable indicator) you should take her to the ER if her pediatrician is not available to see her. Also, if she is becoming more congested or having any difficulty breathing, you should seek medical attention immediately. There is always an MD on call for a medical practice, so you should be able to contact someone from her pediatrician's office after hours if needed. It is normal to be scared when your baby has a high fever. I was terrifed when my son got the flu one year and I couldn't get his fever down. You should ask your pediatrician if you are giving her the optimal dose of tylenol and/or motrin for her weight, the over the counter doses listed on the package are for the average weight of a child for the age (don't change your dosing without talking to the doctor first). When you put her down for the night, cover her lightly to minimize the fever. The research used to indicate that febrile seizures were related to how quickly the temp spiked upward rather than the actual temp, so, although you are right to be concerned about seizures it may not be that likely to happen. I don't know if the current research still supports this theory, though (again, check with the doctor). If she is still running that high of a fever after a few days, it would be prudent for her pediatrician to make sure she doesn't have a bacterial infection of some sort rather than a virus (infuenza is caused by a virus). If she's not better within a few days, or seems to be getting worse, you should definitely take her back to the doctor. Good luck, I hope she gets better soon:). L. E.
Photo: Getty Images
Acid reflux is such a common problem you'd think it would be simple to spot and treat.
Q: What are the symptoms of LaCrosse Encephalitis?
A: Like many of the arboviral encephalitides, most cases have symptoms usually associated with the flu. More severe cases may result in encephalitis, meningitis, paralysis, seizures, neurological damage, coma, and death. Those that survive severe cases often will need lifelong care.
Q: Is there a type of mosquito that carries this disease?
A: Yes, the vector for this disease is the ochlerotatus triseriatus, commonly known as the eastern tree-hole mosquito. The common name should give you a good idea of one of the habitats where this mosquito and its larvae can be found! Interestingly, the female prefer to search for their victims in daylight, but in shaded areas such as forests or woodlands.
Frequently Asked Questions about St. Louis Encephalitis
Q: Is this virus a serious threat to people here in the United States?
A: Although most cases of the disease here in the U.S. have been in the Southeastern and Midwestern areas, it can be found throughout North America. It is not one of the major arboviruses and most of the cases do not cause serious illness. However, some people, including the elderly, can end up with a very serious or fatal case of the disease. Most people don’t even realize they have the disease! (This disease also occurs in South America.)
Q: What are the symptoms of St. Louis Encephalitis?
A: Symptoms are very much like symptoms of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis and meningitis may occur.
Q: Is there a vaccine to prevent St. Louis Encephalitis?
A: No, unfortunately, not at this time. There are no medicines specifically designed to cure this disease. If a case is severe, medical attention is needed.
Q: Is St. Louis Encephalitis one of the diseases mosquitoes carry?
A: No, it is mainly the culex pipiens females that are the vectors of this disease. These mosquitoes prefer small reservoirs of water such as old tires, flowerpots, rain gutters, and other water-collecting containers for laying their eggs.
Frequently Asked Questions about Western Equine Encephalitis
Q: Where does Western Equine Encephalitis occur?
A: Basically, it can be found in the western regions of the U.S. and Canada, although the area affected has been spreading eastward, especially in places where the number of irrigated farmlands has escalated.
A: Like, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the symptoms of Western Equine Encephalitis are very similar to those of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis, coma, and ultimately, death, may occur.
Unfortunately, it is harshest on young children, and those who survive severe cases may end up needing lifelong care. Horses are also susceptible to the virus and may die from WEE in severe cases.
Q: Is WEE one of the diseases mosquitoes spread?
A: Yes, the Culex Tarsalis mosquito is the culprit here in the United States. It should be noted that the female mosquito can travel 10-15 miles from its “birth home” in search of a blood meal. This means that people in the suburban neighborhoods within a 10-15 mile radius of irrigated land can be prime targets.
Q: Can I catch Malaria here in the United States?
A: It is possible, although almost all of the cases were ones that people caught when they traveled to countries where Malaria outbreaks occur. We have two Anopheles mosquitoes that are responsible for transmitting the parasites that cause Malaria: Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern part of the country and Anopheles freeborni in the western part.
Q: Is Malaria Fatal? Do people die from Malaria here in the U.S.?
A: Yes, people do die from the disease, although it all depends on the medical attention the patient receives. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that of 1,337 cases of malaria reported in 2002 here in the U.S., only 8 deaths occurred.