The nasal-spray flu vaccine is a vaccine made with live, weakened flu viruses that do not cause illness.

A flu vaccine will contain three influenza viruses:

  • influenza (H3N2) virus
  • influenza (H1N2) virus
  • one B virus

As viruses adapt and change, so do those contained within the vaccines - what is included in them is based on international surveillance and scientists' calculations about which virus types and strains will circulate in a given year.

Protection begins about 2 weeks after receiving the vaccination.

Seasonal flu vaccinations should start in September or as soon as the vaccine is on hand, and continue throughout the flu season, into January, and beyond. This is because the timing and duration of influenza seasons are never the same. Flu outbreaks usually peak at around January, but they can happen as early as October.

Seasonal flu shots are not suitable for some people

Certain individuals should check with their doctor before deciding to have the flu vaccine, including:

  • Individuals with a severe allergy to chicken eggs.
  • Individuals who have had a severe reaction to a flu vaccination in the past.
  • Individuals who developed Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 6 weeks of receiving a flu vaccine.
  • Children under 6 months old.
  • Individuals experiencing a fever with a moderate-to-severe illness should wait until they recover before being vaccinated.

Three types of flu viruses exist - influenza A, influenza B, and influenza C. Types A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics that hit the United States and Europe virtually every winter. The type C influenza virus causes mild respiratory illness and is not responsible for outbreaks.

We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you. We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline UK and our partners may receive a portion of revenues if you make a purchase using a link(s) above.

Learn about the causes of flu and how it is spread.

The flu is an infection of the nose, throat and lungs. It is caused mainly by 2 types of viruses:

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Different mold species can have varying health effects, but it is important to remember that any excessive mold growth needs to be taken care of, regardless of the species. Any excessive mold growth can lead to increased allergies, toxicity, and house/building structural problems.

Aspergillus Versicolor. The most common species of Aspergillus. Among skin problems and hair loss, this fungus has been linked to severe abdominal pain, acid reflux, and vomiting.

This group of molds can thrive on water damaged, cellulose-rich material in buildings such as sheet rock, paper, ceiling tiles, insulation backing, wallpaper, etc. In the majority of cases where Stachybotrys is found indoors, water damage has gone unnoticed or ignored since it requires extended periods of time with increased levels of moisture for growth to occur. Stachybotrys is usually black and slimy in appearance. Events of water intrusion that are addressed quickly tends to support the growth of more xerophilic fungi such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

Permanent problems sometimes associated with fungal exposure after treatment:

Note: Many of these symptoms could also be the onset of other illnesses, as well, and only a skilled physician is diagnosed to give you a full and qualified diagnosis. Additionally, it is important to know that much of these symptoms will deplete after vacating the building. Diet, nutrition, and medical assistance are extremely important.

Auger PL, Gourdeau P, Miller D, "Clinical experience with patients suffering from a chronic fatigue-like syndrome and repeated upper respiratory infections in relation to airborne molds". Am. J. of Indust. Medicine 1994; 25:41-42

Bennett, J. W., Klich, M. (2003). Mycotoxins. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 497-516 [Abstract] [Full Text]

Bisby GR., 1943 Stachybotrys Trans Brit Mycol Soc 26:133-143

Bitnum A, Nosal R. 1999. Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) contamination of the indoor environment: health implications. Pediatric Child Health. 4(2):125-129.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology associated with eating burritos, United States, October 1997October 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:210-213. [ Medline]

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Synonyme: "echte" Grippe, Virusgrippe
Englisch: influenza, flu

Influenza ist eine durch das Influenzavirus verursachte Erkrankung der Atemwege. Hierdurch wird die Schleimhaut (Mucosa) der Atemwege angegriffen und das Eindringen anderer pathogener/toxischer Erreger erleichtert. Das Influenzavirus ist sehr ansteckend.

Die Infektion erfolgt meist durch das Einatmen (Inhalation) von infizierten Partikeln (Tröpfcheninfektion bei Husten und Niesen). Es sind aber auch Schmier- und Kontaktinfektionen möglich.

Die Viren binden an Rezeptoren von Zellen im Atemtrakt, dringen in diese ein, vermehren sich dort und führen schließlich zu einer Zerstörung der betroffenen Zellen. Hierbei werden viele neue Viren freigesetzt. Es kommt zu einer ausgeprägten Entzündungsreaktion. Die Inkubationszeit beträgt 1-4 Tage.

Eine niedrige Luftfeuchtigkeit und Kälte begünstigen die Übertragung der Viren. Deshalb kommt es zu einer Häufung von Infektionen während der Herbst- und Wintermonate. Als mögliche Ursachen dafür werden diskutiert:

  • Austrockung der Schleimhäute
  • Verdickung des Nasenschleims durch Kälteexposition
  • Schnellere Zersetzung der Viren bei hoher Luftfeuchtigkeit

Influenzaviren sind allgemein behüllte Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren. Je nach auslösendem Virustyp unterscheidet man:

  • Influenza A: Es gibt 16 H-Subtypen (H1-H16) und 9 N-Subtypen (N1-N9). Die Buchstaben H und N stehen dabei für die Pathogenitätsfaktoren Hämagglutinin und Neuraminidase. Durch die jährliche Veränderung der H- und N-Antigene kommt es zu einer fehlenden Wirksamkeit von bestehenden Antikörpern und damit zu jährlichen Grippeepidemien. Beispiele für Influenza A sind:
    • Influenza-A-(H1N1)
    • Influenza-A-(H5N1)
    • Influenza-A-(H7N9)
  • Influenza B
  • Influenza C

Typisch ist ein plötzlicher und heftiger Ausbruch der Krankheit. Die Symptome gleichen zum Teil denen einer starken Erkältung (die im Volksmund auch oft fälschlicherweise als Grippe bezeichnet wird), meist sind sie jedoch stärker ausgeprägt:

Mehrtägiges Fieber von 39 bis 40 Grad ist möglich. Komplikationen können Kreislaufschwäche, Entzündung des Nervensystems und der Lunge sein.

In der nördlichen Hemisphäre tritt Influenza bevorzugt in den Wintermonaten, also saisonal, auf ("Grippesaison"). Die genaue Inzidenz ist bei Grippe nur schwer abschätzbar, da inapparente und leichtere Krankheitsverläufe die Abgrenzung erkrankter Personen erschweren. Vom CDC (Center for Disease Control) wird geschätzt, dass ca. 15% der Bevölkerung betroffen ist (oft aber ohne Symptome). Die stationäre Inzidenz liegt etwa bei ca. 60 Personen auf 100.000 Fälle.

Die Mortalität der Influenza ist abhängig vom zirkulierenden Subtyp. Sie schwankte nach Schätzungen des RKI im Zeitraum von 1985-2006 zwischen 0,1 und 38 Todesfällen pro 100.000 Einwohner.

  • Spanische Grippe: Durch eine spezielle Variante des H1N1-Erregers ausgelöste Influenza, die weltweit etwa 20-40 Millionen Opfer forderte (1918).
  • Vogelgrippe: Seit schätzungsweise knapp 10 Jahren ist in Asien die Vogelgrippe verbreitet. Hierbei traten Influenza-A-Viren des Subtyps H5N1 von Hühnern auf Menschen über. Durch Schlachtung Tausender Tiere ist ein Ausbruch einer Pandemie verhindert worden. Nichtsdestotrotz herrscht in Expertenkreisen nach wie vor die große Angst vor, dass der H5N1-Virus mutiert, von Mensch zu Mensch übertragbar und damit hoch gefährlich wird. Eine neue Pandemie wie die Spanische Grippe, so fürchtet man, könnte ebenfalls Millionen von Menschenleben fordern.

Der direkte Nachweis von Virus-Antigenen kann mittels Immunfluoreszenz, ELISA oder PCR erfolgen. Als Probenmaterial wird Nasenspülwasser, Rachenspülwasser oder durch eine bronchoalveoläre Lavage (BAL) gewonnenes Bronchialsekret verwendet.

Der indirekte Nachweis einer Infektion wird durch Bestimmung der Influenza-Antikörper (IgA, IgG, IgM) im Serum mittels ELISA erbracht.

Wie bei anderen Influenzaformen bietet die Impfung nur einen relativen Schutz. Das Problem dabei ist, dass sich Grippe-Viren ständig verändern und deswegen Impfungen jedes Jahr aufgefrischt werden müssen. Schutzimpfungen sind für ältere Menschen und besonders gefährdete Personen empfohlen (Patienten mit chronischen Lungen-, Herz-, Leber-, Nierenerkrankungen, medizinisches Personal).

Eine effektive, aber häufig unterschätzte Maßnahme ist das gründliche Händewaschen, da die Erreger durch Seifen abgetötet werden. Es minimiert vor allem das Risiko einer Schmierinfektion.

Das Tragen von Gesichtsmasken ist nur sinnvoll, wenn es sich um Masken handelt, die den ungefilterten Lufteinstrom ausreichend vermindern, wie z.B. FFP3-Masken. Einfache Gesichtsmasken (Mundschutz) sind als Schutzmaßnahme unwirksam, da sie den Atemstrom nicht filtrieren, weil Luft frei an den Seiten ein- und austreten kann.

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If worried, a phone call to the doctor may be a better solution than making an appointment.

In the majority of cases, flu is not serious - it is just unpleasant. For some people, however, there can be severe complications. This is more likely in very young children, in the elderly, and for individuals with other longstanding illness that can undermine their immune system.

The risk of experiencing severe flu complications is higher for certain people:

  • adults over 65
  • babies or young children
  • pregnant women
  • individuals with heart or cardiovascular disease
  • those with chest problems, such as asthma or bronchitis
  • individuals with kidney disease
  • people with diabetes
  • people taking steroids
  • individuals undergoing treatment for cancer
  • those with longstanding diseases that reduce immune system function

Some of the complications caused by influenza may include bacterial pneumonia, dehydration, and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes. Children may develop sinus problems and ear infections.

Over 200,000 people are hospitalized from flu complications each year, and about 36,000 people are estimated to die as a result of flu.

It is estimated that, globally, 250,000-500,000 people die each year as a result of flu.

In industrialized countries, the majority of deaths occur among people over the age of 65.

A flu epidemic - where a large number of people in one country are infected - can last several weeks. Health experts and government agencies throughout the world say that the single best way to protect oneself from catching flu is to get vaccinated every year.

There are two types of vaccinations, the flu shot and the nasal-spray flu vaccine. The flu shot is administered with a needle, usually in the arm - it is approved for anyone older than 6 months, including healthy people and those with chronic medical conditions.

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Although alcoholism is present in 20% to 50% of hospitalized patients, it is diagnosed only about 5% of the time. A poll of physicians affiliated to the American Medical Association revealed that 71% of them believed they were too ambivalent or not competent to properly treat alcoholic patients.

Taking into consideration the research and science now readily available, the facts are clear concerning the dangers of alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol withdrawal should never be taken lightly and, in light of Dr. Maldonado’s findings relating to potential failings within the medical community; when considering detoxification from alcohol for yourself or a loved one, take the time necessary to research detox facilities within your area. Use the above information to ask questions of the facility. Armed with the knowledge of the severity and duration of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, make sure your choice of detox facility is prepared and equipped to deal with all of the above symptoms, from benign shakes to the potentially fatal DTs and seizures. When dealing with alcohol withdrawal, your life or the life of a loved one, may well depend upon it.

Die Influenza ist eine Viruserkrankung, die ein häufiger Auslöser von Atemwegserkrankungen ist. Die Grippewellen treten hierzulande jährlich in den Wintermonaten auf, in tropischen Ländern hingegen das ganze Jahr über. [1] Der Virus-Typ B ist seltener, nimmt im Vergleich zur Influenza A einen leichteren Verlauf und führt meist bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu Infektionen.

Nachfolgend wird darüber informiert, welche Vorgänge während der Inkubationszeit bei einer Infektion mit der Influenza B ablaufen und wie viel Zeit bis zum Ausbruch der Krankheit vergeht.

Die Influenza-Viren gehören der Familie der Orthomyxoviridae an. Ihnen werden die 3 Virus-Typen Influenza A, Influenza B und Influenza C zugeordnet. Die umhüllten Viren enthalten segmentierte RNA Einzelstränge von negativer Polarität. [2]

Die Influenza B ist im Gegensatz zum Typ A nur für den Menschen relevant.

Die Inkubationszeit beträgt im Durchschnitt 1-3 Tage [3] und wird als die Dauer bezeichnet, die vom Zeitpunkt der Infektion mit dem Virus bis zu dem Ausbruch der Krankheit vergeht.

Die Influenza ist hoch virulent (sehr krankmachend). Bereits eine geringe Dosis der Krankheitserreger kann eine Infektion einleiten. [4]

Die Viren gelangen auf die Schleimhaut (Mucosa) des Atmungstraktes (Apparatus respiratorius) über Mund und Nase, wo sie Epithelzellen (Zellen des Deckgewebes) infizieren. [5]

Während der Inkubationszeit, das heißt während der ersten 24-72 Stunden, werden von dem Infizierten noch keine Anzeichen für die Erkrankung wahrgenommen. Innerhalb dieser Zeit laufen die ersten Vermehrungszyklen (Replikationszyklen) der Viren ab.

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Physicians in Crop Sprayed Towns (PCST), a group of physicians in Brazil, have claimed that the Zika Virus is not responsible for the dramatic rise in cases of Microcephaly. The tenfold increase of newborn babies with Microcephaly in Brazil, has alarmed Health officials around the world. Although the Zika Virus has never been officially linked with Microcephaly, there was strong suggestion from the World Health organisation and the CDC that the virus was the culprit.

The U.S Centers for Disease Control have advised pregnant women or women trying to conceive to avoid areas with Zika Virus outbreaks. They have also advised pregnant women to reconsider going to the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil if they had planned to do so. Both women and their partners should be very cautious concerning the Zika Virus after it was discovered that the virus may be also be passed through sexual contact as well as the traditional route via the aedes aegypti mosquito.

On 14th April 2016 Dr Tom Frieden, the head of the CDC, confirmed that the Zika Virus does indeed cause Microcephaly and several other birth defects in babies. He stated that 'This study marks a turning point in the Zika outbreak. It is now clear that the virus causes microcephaly'. The Zika virus was previously beleived to have caused the birth defects seen in newborn babies, characterized by unusually small heads, and this has now been confirmed by the CDC.

Rabies is a rare but very serious infection of the brain and nerves. It's usually caught from the bite or scratch of an infected animal, most often a dog.

Rabies is found throughout the world, particularly in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. It's not found in the UK except in a small number of wild bats.

It's almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but treatment before this happens is very effective. There's also a vaccine for people at risk of being infected.

You should consider getting vaccinated against rabies if:

  • you're travelling to an area where rabies is common and you plan to stay for a month or more, or there's unlikely to be quick access to appropriate medical care
  • you're travelling to an area where rabies is common and you plan to do activities that could put you at increased risk of exposure to animals with rabies – such as running or cycling

Visit your GP or a travel clinic if you think you may need the vaccine. It's sometimes free, but most people have to pay.

Even if you've been vaccinated, you should still take precautions to avoid coming into contact with rabies if you're travelling in an area where rabies is found, and get medical advice straight away if you've been bitten or scratched.

A few people may need the rabies vaccine because they could come into contact with rabies through their work. If you think this applies to you, speak to your occupational health department.

All mammals (including monkeys) can carry rabies, but it's most common in:

They can spread the infection if they bite or scratch you or, in rare cases, if they lick an open wound or their saliva gets into your mouth or eyes. Rabies isn't spread through unbroken skin or between people.

While travelling in an area where rabies is a risk:

  • avoid contact with animals – some infected animals may behave strangely, but sometimes there may be no obvious signs they're infected
  • avoid touching any dead animals

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  • Failure of multiple organs (e.g. kidney failure)

    If you suspect you may be infected with H5N1, seek medical help immediately. The CDC suggests wearing a mask and letting your health professional know about any places you may have travelled recently.

    Cases of H5N1 infected poultry stock have thus far only been found in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada. And though transmission to humans is rare, it has occurred in at least 600 cases since 2003, resulting from people handling sick or dead birds infected with the virus, or being in their environments.

    Influenza ist eine der häufigsten Infektionserkrankung bezieht sich auf eine Gruppe der akuten respiratorischen Virusinfektionen.

    Die Krankheit verursacht Grippe-Viren, die derzeit mehr als 2.000 Arten. Diese Viren können in Form von Epidemien, der Anstieg von denen, um die Herbst-Winter-Periode sind in der Regel hat, und Pandemien, die alle 30-40 Jahre aufgezeichnet sind vermehrt werden. Viele Menschen beziehen sich auf die Grippe ziemlich abweisend, in Anbetracht seiner üblichen "kalt", während jedes Jahr an dieser Krankheit in der Welt sterben in der Größenordnung von 250 bis 500.000. Menschen.

    Anfällig für Influenza-Viren von Menschen aller Altersgruppen, aber die größte Gefahr für die Krankheit stellt für die ältere Menschen, Kinder, schwangere Frauen und Menschen mit Erkrankungen des Herzens und der Lunge.. Die Quelle der Grippe ist bereits ein kranker Mann, der die Umwelt wählt das Virus durch Husten, Niesen, und so weiter D. Mit Aerosolübertragungsmechanismus (Einatmen von Tröpfchen aus Schleim, Speichel), verbreitet Influenza schnell genug - der Patient ist eine Gefahr für andere in der Woche ab von den ersten Stunden nach der Infektion.

    Grippe-Symptome nicht spezifisch sind, von anderen akuten respiratorischen Virusinfektion ohne spezielle Labortests differenziert ist fast unmöglich.

    Die Diagnose "Grippe" ist vor allem in der Praxis nur auf der Grundlage der epidemiologischen Lage eingestellt.

    Krankheit beginnt, in der Regel schlecht: die Körpertemperatur steigt auf 38-40 0 C, Schüttelfrost, Kopfschmerzen, voller Schmerzen in Gelenken und Muskeln, Schwäche. Nasenausfluss ist kein typisches Symptom für die Grippe, weil dieser Krankheit hingegen werden durch Trockenheit der Nase und Rachen aus. In den meisten Fällen, gibt es intensive trockener Husten, die durch Schmerzen im Brustbein begleitet wird. Untersuchung des Patienten können weitere Anzeichen einer Grippe wie Hyperämie der Hypotonie, Injektion von der Lederhaut ("Rote-Augen"), Granularität und Hyperämie des harten und weichen Gaumens, bezogen Bradykardie offenbaren.

    Grippe-Symptome in der Regel bestehen für 3-5 Tage, nach denen der Patient erholt sich.

    In schweren Form der Krankheit häufigsten Komplikationen sind Mittelohrentzündung, Nebenhöhlenentzündung, Lungenentzündung, kann jedoch die Entwicklung und Folgen wie Hirnödem, Kreislaufkollaps, hämorrhagischen Syndrom, sekundäre bakterielle Komplikationen, Verschlimmerung der chronischen Krankheiten.

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      Avoid taking medication that includes identical ingredients at the same time. For instance, do not take Tylenol ® and Tylenol ® Sinus together because both these medicines contain acetaminophen.

      In certain cases, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine to reduce the duration and severity of your symptoms. This type of medication is most effective when taken at the onset of an infection.

      If your child is over 3 months old and has a fever, you may give him or her acetaminophen such as Tylenol ®, following instructions given and according to your child’s weight.

      Avoid giving children and adolescents acetylsalicylic acid such as aspirin. Such medication can lead to a serious disease of the brain and liver known as ‘Reye's Syndrome’ in children and adolescents with the flu.

      The flu can lead to certain complications, including:

      • Dehydration due to sweating caused by fever
      • Pneumonia
      • Bronchitis
      • Sinusitis
      • Otitis

      For people considered more vulnerable to sickness, certain complications can lead to hospitalisation or even death.

      The following people are most at risk of complications:

      • Children younger than 5 years old
      • People with chronic diseases
      • Pregnant women
      • Women who gave birth in the last 4 weeks
      • People aged 65 years and over

      If you or your child are among people most at risk of complications and have symptoms of the flu, call Info-Santé 811. A nurse will evaluate your health and make recommendations based on your condition.

      The flu virus lives best in fresh and dry areas. It can live up to 2 days on contaminated objects or up to 5 minutes on skin.

      The flu virus is very contagious. It is spread quickly from person to person in the following ways:

      • By droplets sprayed through the mouth or nose by an infected person when they cough or sneeze
      • By direct contact with secretions from the nose or throat from a person with the flu, when kissing for instance
      • When you bring your hand to your nose, mouth or eyes after shaking the hand of someone infected or touching contaminated objects

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      Serious Condition: H1N1 Inflenza came unexpectedly and the usual vaccine was not effective and it caused people to get sick with this virus and some succumb to it by getting hospitalized and some died. Later on H1N1 Vaccine was incorporated and given to prevent an epidemic. Read more

      Time to see a doctor: 10 days is too long for a common cold. You might have a more serious condition such as pneumonia.. Read more

      Needs confirmation: There are a number of other infections beside influenza producing flu-like symptoms. Tamiflu, (oseltamivir) most often prescribed antiviral medine, should also be given within 48 hours from the onset of illness to be beneficial.. Read more

      Dehydration: Drink 2 glasses of warm water initially, then 1 glass every 30 min for next two hours, then 1 glass every hour for rest of day. You should be urinating every hour and urine should be clear. Do this for one day and you will feel better much faster.. Read more

      MAYBE: Every year a number of flu strains circle the globe and various sites keep track and report their activity. Vaccine makers pick 3-4 strains in early spring to put in the fall shot, based on those with the most activity. Too many strains would weaken the individual strength against each strain. With luck, the vaccine will boost general flu immunity enough to make it mild for those who get it anyway. Read more

      Influenza: Without a fever you don't have influenza. You probably have a cold. If you haven't had a flu shot get one. Even though the antigens in the shot don't exactly match the flu strain this year, it should offer some protection and make the flu less severe if you get it. Influenza is sudden (like you were hit by a truck), fevers, chills, runny nose, cough, diffuse aches and rarely GI symptoms.. Read more

      Unlikely: Most cold symptoms now can be attributed to the flu although symptoms may vary from one to another. There is nothing 100% in medicine however but it is unlikely that the test result was wrong during this epidemic. In fact, testing is not recommended.. Read more

      It could be either.: Bronchitiis has been associated with tamiflu (oseltamivir). Would stop tamiflu (oseltamivir) and call your Dr.. Read more

      See below: No all H inluenzae bacteria cause disease. There are six major types and type B causes most infections in humans. There are also other types of bacteria which do not fall into the six known categories and are called untypable. You may consult this site for more info: https://www. Cdc. Gov/hi-disease/index. Html
      Wish you good health! - Have a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, nuts, beans, legumes, lentils and small amounts of lean meats. Avoid saturated fats. Drink enough water daily, so that your urine is mostly colorless. Exercise at least 150 minutes/week and increase the intensity of exercise gradually. Do not use tobacco, alcohol, weed or street drugs in any form.
      Practice safe sex, if you have sex.. Read more

      Possible: Common flu symptoms include fever, headache, body aches, joint pain etc. When the symptoms initially develop it may be possible to feel pain in a single joint. If the pain is due to flu the pain my progress to other joints.. Read more

      Learn about the causes of flu and how it is spread.

      The flu is an infection of the nose, throat and lungs. It is caused mainly by 2 types of viruses:

      The flu spreads very easily from person to person. Even before you notice symptoms, you may spread the virus to others. If you have the virus, you can spread it to others by:

      These actions release tiny droplets containing the flu virus into the air.

      You can become infected if these droplets land on your:

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      • 1. Loganathan A, Arumainathan UD, Raman R. Comparative study of bacteriology in recurrent tonsillitis among children and adults. Singapore Med J. 2006 Apr;47(4):271-5. PubMed
      • 2. Kocaturk S, Demiray T, Incesulu A, Kandirali E, Erkam U, Mert A. Comparison of adenoid and tonsil core cultures in chronic adenotonsillitis. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2003 Mar;10(3):105-9. PubMed
      • 3. Radosz-Komoniewska H, Rogala-Zawada D, Zientara M, Rudy M, Nowakowska M. Bacterial flora in pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 1998;50(1-2):63-8. PubMed
      • 4. Gudima IA, Vasil'eva LI, Bragina LE, Suchkov IIu. Viral-bacterial-fungal associations in chronic tonsillitis in children. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Sep-Oct;(5):16-9. PubMed
      • 5. Putto A, Meurman O, Ruuskanen O. C-reactive protein in the differentiation of adenoviral, Epstein-Barr viral and streptococcal tonsillitis in children. Eur J Pediatr. 1986 Aug;145(3):204-6. PubMed

      Created: August 18, 2006
      Last updated: February 24, 2016

      Now that we talked about why you have sugar withdrawals, let’s talk about what the symptoms are. After coming off of sugar over 50 times myself and helping hundreds to the same, I have found that sugar addicts actually have different symptoms when they are coming off of sugar. And I don’t really like to give you a long list of negative things to “expect” because maybe none of these will happen to you, only one of them or a bunch of them. It can be helpful to be kind of prepared though so you don’t think something weird is happening while you are breaking this sugar addiction. Check out this one great tool, a free video that I made for you called The 3 Mistakes Sugar Addicts Make and How to Avoid Them. Here is a list of the sugar withdrawals I personally experienced and those I have seen come off sugar and keep in mind they usually only last for a few days if even that:

      1. Feeling sad or down. I will admit, this is then number one thing I would experience when I would come off sugar. But have hope, it would only last a few days, thank God! That is one thing that really motivated me to stay away from sugar because I hate feeling sad and it started to not be worth it, the trade-off of having sugar to being really down for a few days. For me I know this is a major sugar withdrawal because I do NOT experience sadness on a regular basis, only when I am coming off sugar. Its very important if you struggle with depression already, that you guard yourself against this and make sure are aware of this. The good news is, I have seen many people who struggle with moodiness and depression GREATLY improve when they no longer have a sugar addiction. Personally I think a lot of people who struggle with this would see an improvement when they break the sugar addiction.
      2. Headaches. I personally never had this sugar withdrawal but I have heard some say they do.
      3. Fatigue. If you have been jacked up on sugar all the time, your body is used to that rush but you have also really stressed out your adrenal glands, which can make you more tired. The ironic thing is, since I no longer am a sugar addict if I do have sugar, I am so tired that night, it literally puts me to sleep. I really can’t believe it! And when I wake up the next day, I almost feel hung over I am so tired. I never realized that as much when I ate sugar all the time.
      4. Sleep patterns affected. Remember you are detoxing off a poisonous substance that is toxic so you are going to be detoxing as it gets out of your body. If you were addicted to sugar, your body was all out of whack from having blood sugar spikes to insulin surges and your body needs some time to balance back out.
      5. Sugar cravings. Now this one is the obvious side effect. Once you stop eating sugar, one sugar withdrawal can be ridiculously intense cravings for it. Remember, you may be stopping something that has been a habit of yours for 20 years so give yourself a break! Its normal to crave something that has been a part of your life for so long not only mentally but physically as well. Be encouraged that sugar cravings DO go away.

      Take “The Quiz” to self-diagnose whether you even are a sugar addict or not, click here.

      One of the most important things about breaking a sugar addiction is learning how to think differently about sugar and how you resist temptation in your life. Because if you get off sugar but don’t know how to stay off it, that is something that can be very frustrating. If you want to check out a free internet seminar I am doing click here or go to http://sugaraddictionspecialist.com/internet-seminar/

      Be on the lookout for your own sugar withdrawals and feel free to leave a comment and let us know what yours were so we can all know what to look out for.

      Mold toxicity is often the end result with constant exposure to mold of a toxic substance. A common misconception among allergists who are untrained in this type of toxicity levels in humans, which is technically not their area of expertise unless they have trained specifically in environmental medicine with their background in immunology, is to do general allergen testing. Most tests usually result in an unequivocal result, a 2+ or less. This induces some physicians to order allergy shots, regardless. These shots are absolutely worthless (and could possibly be harmful) to a person who has been heavily exposed to these mycotoxins as they are already in a state of toxicity. If anything, this could exacerbate the problem. Because many doctors are not trained in this field, they may try to "guess" at a diagnosis.

      In laymen's terms, molds produce mycotoxins. These substances, although unseen by the naked eye, are ingested and then enter the body through the skin, mucous and airways. Once ingested, mold has the requirements to colonize and spread. In doing this, it can compromise the immune system and damage everyday processes of the body. Mold and yeast are interchangeable only in their dimorphic state, which is often a big misconception, although both are fungi. There has been a theory of a connection between Autism Spectrum Disorder onset and Candida Albicans in the body. New studies are being conducted during the first quarter of 2006. Updates will follow.

      Fungi, which include yeasts, moulds, smuts and mushrooms, are responsible for causing four types of mycotic (fungal) disease:

      1. Hypersensitivity - an allergic reaction to moulds and spores;

      2. Mycotoxicosis - poisoning by food products contaminated by fungi

      3. Mycetismus - the ingestion of preformed toxin (toadstool poisoning)

      4. Infection (systemic) - (Mycotoxicosis; the subject below)

      The following are a list of the most common symptoms of fungal exposure (bear in mind, people never fit all of below criteria). Most people with some forms of Mycotoxicosis meet at least 8 (recent symptoms) of the following criteria:

      • Fibromyalgia/mps (and several correlated symptoms)
      • Respiratory distress, coughing, sneezing, sinusitis
      • Difficulty swallowing, choking, spitting up (vomiting) mucous
      • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
      • Burning in the throat and lungs (similar to acid reflux and often misdiagnosed as such)
      • Asthmatic signs; wheezing, shortness in breath, coughing, burning in lungs, etc.
      • Irritable bowel syndrome, nausea, diarrhea, sharp abdominal pains, stomach lesions
      • Bladder, liver, spleen, or kidney pain
      • Dark or painful urine
      • Dirt-like taste in mouth, coated tongue
      • Food allergies/leaky gut syndrome/altered immunity
      • Memory loss; brain fog, slurred speech, occasionally leading to dementia
      • Vision problems
      • Swollen lymph nodes
      • Large boils on neck (often a sign of anaphylaxis )
      • Yellowing of nails, ridges, or white marks under nail
      • Thyroid irregularities, sometimes leading to complete dysfunction; adrenal problems
      • Headaches
      • Anxiety/depression, heart palpitations - confusion, PTSD
      • Extreme blood pressure, cholesterol, or triglycerides irregularities
      • Ringing in ears, balance problems (very common), dizziness, loss of hearing (aspergillus niger)
      • Chronic fatigue (also included under this classification directional confusion)
      • Intermittent face flushing; almost always systemic, Called the Mylar Flush (neurological))
      • Night head sweats, and drooling while sleeping, profuse sweating
      • Multiple chemical sensitivity; only upon exposure to Stachybotrys and Chaetomium
      • Nose bleeds (stachybotrys)
      • Bruising/scarring easily; rash or hives, bloody lesions all over the skin (Often systemic, see images; skin )
      • Reproductive system complications; infertility, changes in menstrual cycles, miscarriage
      • Sudden weight changes (Detoxifier genotypes tend to gain weight, non-detoxifier genotypes tend to lose weight)
      • Cancer
      • Hair loss, very brittle nails, temporary loss of fingerprints (in rare cases)
      • Joint/muscle stiffness and pain
      • Irregular heart beat/heart attack
      • Seizures, inadvertent body jerking, twitching, inadvertent facial movements or numbness in face
      • Hypersensitivity when re-exposed to molds, which can lead to anaphylaxis
      • Anaphylaxis upon re-exposure to mycotoxin producing molds
      • Death, in extreme cases

      Note: despite inaccurate and misleading reports by theorists regarding immuno-compromised, babies, and the elderly being more susceptible, this is a big misconception as exposure to the T-2 mycotoxins found in many types of current indoor molds will poison anyone in time; no one is immune. The reason for this conflicting information is that studies have never been conducted to prove this. If so called experts are going to make such a broad and misleading statement, they may as well say that this same category of people is more susceptible to SARS, West Nile Virus, AIDS, and cancer. The T-2 mycotoxins found in many of these molds are the exact same T-2 mycotoxins that have killed widespread groups of innocent people with Yellow Rain, a biological warfare agent.

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      • Influenza antiviral prescription drugs can be used to treat influenza or to prevent influenza.
      • Oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir are chemically related antiviral medications known as neuraminidase inhibitors that have activity against both influenza A and B viruses.

      The following are the CDC recommended antiviral medications for the treatment of influenza (flu) for the 2016-2017 season are as follows: oral oseltamivir (Tamiflu), inhaled zanamivir (Relenza), and intravenous peramivir (Rapivab). See Table 1 below for details about utilizing these drugs in adults and children.

      Over-the-counter medications that may help reduce symptoms of congestion (decongestants), coughing (cough medicine), and dehydration include diphenhydramine (Benadryl), acetaminophen (Tylenol), NSAIDs (Advil, Motrin, Aleve), guaifenesin (Mucinex), dextromethorphan (Delsym), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), and oral fluids. Aspirin may be used in adults but not in children.

      Antibiotics treat bacterial infections, not viral illnesses like the flu.

      Individuals with the flu may also benefit from some additional bed rest, throat lozenges, and possibly nasal irrigation; drinking fluids may help prevent symptoms of dehydration (for example, dry mucus membranes and decreased urination).

      While a person has the flu, good nutrition can help the recovery process. Anyone with the flu needs to avoid dehydration, soothe sore throat and/or upset stomach, and have a good protein intake. Dehydration can be avoided by adequate fluid intake such as juices (orange, cranberry, grapefruit, tomato, grape, and others). Sore throat and upset stomach may be relieved by broths or warm soups (chicken, vegetable, or beef) and plain crackers, toast, and ginger tea or noncarbonated ginger ale. Scrambled eggs, yogurt, and/or protein drinks are good protein sources. In addition, bananas, rice, and applesauce are food that are often recommended for those with an upset stomach. This list is not exhaustive but should provide a balanced approach to help speed recovery from the flu.

      When should a person go to the emergency department for the flu?

      The CDC urges people to seek emergency medical care for a sick child with any of these flu effects (symptoms or signs):

      1. Fast breathing or trouble breathing (shortness of breath)
      2. Bluish or gray skin color
      3. Not drinking enough fluids
      4. Severe or persistent vomiting
      5. Not waking up or not interacting
      6. Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held
      7. Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and cough

      The following is the CDC's list of symptoms that should trigger emergency medical care for adults:

      1. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
      2. Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
      3. Sudden dizziness
      4. Confusion
      5. Severe or persistent vomiting
      6. Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
      7. Having a high fever for more than three days is another danger sign, according to the WHO, so the CDC has also included this as another serious symptom.

      Who should receive the flu vaccine, and who has the highest risk factors? When should someone get the flu shot?

      In the United States, the flu season usually occurs from about November until April. Officials have decided each new flu season will start each year on Oct. 4. Typically, activity is very low until December, and peak activity most often occurs between January and March. Ideally, the conventional flu vaccine should be administered between September and mid-November. Flu season typically occurs between October and May. It takes about one to two weeks after vaccination for antibodies against influenza to develop and provide protection. The CDC has published a summary list of their current recommendations of who should get the current vaccine:

      Summary of CDC influenza vaccination recommendations for 2017-2018

      Routine annual influenza vaccination of all people aged ≥ 6 months without contraindications continues to be recommended. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for people for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is otherwise appropriate. Updated information and guidance in this document includes the following:

      • In light of low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons, for the 2017-18 season, ACIP makes the interim recommendation that LAIV4 (nasal spray) should not be used. Because LAIV4 is still a licensed vaccine that might be available and that some providers might elect to use, for informational purposes, reference is made to previous recommendations for its use.
      • The 2017-2018 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will contain an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional vaccine virus strain, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).
      • Recent new vaccine licensures are discussed:
        • An MF59-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3), Fluad (Seqirus, Holly Springs, North Carolina), was licensed by FDA in November 2015 for people aged ≥ 65 years. Regulatory information is available at http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/SafetyAvailability/VaccineSafety/ucm473989.htm. aIIV3 is an acceptable alternative to other vaccines licensed for people in this age group. ACIP and CDC do not express a preference for any particular vaccine product.
        • A quadrivalent formulation of Flucelvax (cell culture-based inactivated influenza vaccine [ccIIV4], Seqirus, Holly Springs, North Carolina) was licensed by the FDA in May 2016 for people aged ≥ 4 years. Regulatory information is available at: http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm502844.htm. ccIIV4 is an acceptable alternative to other vaccines licensed for people in this age group. No preference is expressed for any particular vaccine product.

      For more information and details too extensive to include here, the following site is recommended: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/acip/index.htm.