With swine flu claiming so many lives across the nation it is little tricky to give a straight answer to such a simple question. However, there is a fair amount of chance to recover from the flu if tr
With swine flu claiming so many lives across the nation it is little tricky to give a straight answer to such a simple question. However, there is a fair amount of chance to recover from the flu if treatment and care can be provided on time and during the initial phase soon after contracting the viral infection.
‘One must realise that unlike other viral diseases like leptospirosis, malaria, dengue where the entire immune system and all major organs have to face the wrath of the virus, in case of swine flu, the immunity of a person is suppressed and only the lung function is affected, although to a great extent. So, recovery of a patient from swine flu largely depends on the extent of lung damage one has faced due to the virus,’ says Dr Prakash Jiandani, director of critical care unit, Wockhardt Hospital, South Mumbai. In some rare cases of swine flu, it can also lead to cardiac arrest and brain damage. But most of the time, a life is lost battling a respiratory infection because of swine flu and it doesn’t reach to that extreme. Here is all that you need to know about the treatment and medication of swine flu.
Lines of treatment
In case of swine flu, the first line of treatment is antiviral therapy given either by oral suspension or in capsule form. If a patient fails to recover with oral medications the second line of treatment would be to start on ventilation. ‘The idea of starting a patient suffering with moderate to severe symptoms of swine flu on ventilation, is done to restore oxygen supply in the blood and revive lung function. However, one must realise that even best ventilation mechanisms can help patients only to a certain extent. If the damage done to the lungs is beyond any repair, then even the best of supportive care provided would fail to help one survive any longer,’ informs Dr Jiandani. Here are the symptoms of swine flu you should know about.
Prevention is better than cure
This is the reason why preventing a bout of swine flu is more important than treating it. ‘It is necessary to take steps early and visit the doctor if you develop any symptoms of the seasonal flu. However, not all the healthy individual with cold and cough needs to be treated for swine flu. One should be diagnosed carefully for the symptoms, especially those who fall under the risk group, like people suffering from High BP, diabetes or the elderly,’ says Dr Jiandani. Here are 15 tips for everyone to prevent a bout of swine flu.
Oral antiviral medication, when given within 48 hours after experiencing the symptoms can help one recover fast. However, if it delays recovery then oxygen therapy with proper ventilation goes in long way to resurrect lung function. ‘High frequency ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can help patients recover from the symptoms of flu,’ says Dr Jiandani. (Read: IMA guidelines to tackle swine flu (H1N1 influenza) in India)
If treatment and medications are given on time without much delay then for a healthy individual it might take around 48 to 75 hours to get relief from the symptoms and five to seven days to recover completely from the flu. ‘General fatigue and weakness might be persistent for a week or two which would settle with proper rest, care and healthy diet,’ says Dr Jiandani. (Read: Prevent swine flu with these 10 dos and don’ts)
wiseGEEK: What are the Symptoms of Arsenic Poisoning?
There are many different symptoms of arsenic poisoning ranging from the relatively benign to the potentially life-threatening. Headaches and persistent tingling in the hands and feet are some of the earliest signs of exposure, and prolonged contact often leads to striped, discolored, and brittle fingernails. Stomach cramps, bowel trouble, and difficulty breathing are also common, and in extreme cases people can experience cardiac arrest, blood disorders, and liver failure. The intensity and severity of symptoms is usually driven by how much of the poison a person has ingested as well as its potency.
Persistent headaches are some of the most common symptoms. Usually these start out as relatively light and are typically centered behind one or both eyes. Painkillers will often dull discomfort for a time, but in most cases the ache returns just as soon as the medication has worn off. This is a particularly common complaint of people who are being slowly exposed to small amounts of arsenic over time, whether through tainted water, accidental ingestion, or intentional poisoning.
Another common complaint in arsenic poisoning cases is a subtle tingling or numbness, usually in the hands and feet. The sensation tends to come and go, but often grows more intense and disconcerting over time. People who suffer from long-term poisoning often say that their extremities constantly feel as though they are “asleep.” More general tenderness and sensitivity, particularly in the arms and legs, is also common.
Unusually dry, cracked, and discolored finger and toenails are a classic sign of arsenic ingestion. People with this symptom often complain of nails that seem to suddenly develop pronounced white or brown stripes that darken over time and become very brittle and prone to peeling. These effects can be long lasting, even after exposure has ended.
A number of problems related to the bowels and gastrointestinal tract are common, too. Stomach cramping, extreme constipation, and bloating happen in many patients, while others may experience vomiting, diarrhea, and general feelings of nausea. Once arsenic is in the blood, it tends to inflame many of the body’s most sensitive tissues; the intestines are often some of the most impacted. These sorts of symptoms typically go away once the poison has left the body.
The throat, lungs, and bronchial tissues are also relatively sensitive and can be damaged by the compound, which can lead to a range of breathing problems. Wheezing and shortness of breath are common, but a hoarse, raspy voice and difficulty swallowing can also be present. Sometimes the spit turns yellowish, too, and saliva may dry up. People with this symptom often have a tinny, metallic taste in their mouth, and frequently complain of garlicky breath. Extreme thirst sometimes also accompanies these symptoms.
Most symptoms of arsenic poisoning are unpleasant and can lead to deteriorated health over time, but they can sometimes also be immediately threatening. People who ingest high doses of the substance have been known to go into shock, which can lead to cardiac arrest — essentially a heart attack — or stroke. Organ failure is another possible consequence, particularly where the liver and kidneys are concerned.
Most symptoms of arsenic poisoning are also symptoms of a number of other conditions and diseases, which can make getting the right diagnosis somewhat challenging. Doctors and medical professionals usually advise people who suspect they’ve been poisoned to chart their symptoms over time, making note of how long symptoms last, when they began and ended, and their intensity. Anything that seems out of the ordinary and lasts for more than a day or two is usually something that experts say should be evaluated.
my hair is always falling out, i have low energy levels, low libido, major mood swings and I'm not even ovulating! Guess the next step is some medication to get me back on track! Hang in there girls!
12) i am also having same problems - depression,mood swings,loss of hair,weight gain. In my case I have developed dermoid and endometrium thickness, PCOD. Even after consulting two or three doctors and taking medicines for one year, things did not improve. Now I have switched to homeopathy and is finding some improvement. As it's just one month since I started taking medicines, I am hoping for some positive results.
11) My first pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage. The doctor monitored my levels with second pregnancy to keep from miscarrying. I also had to take the progesterone with my third pregnancy because levels were actually lower than the doctor wanted.
I now have diabetes and hypothyroidism and after reading the above info I am wondering if my progesterone has something to do with those two health issues.
I have issues that really bring me to a conclusion of PMDD. I am going to make an appointment with my doctor to see if the progesterone has anything to do with my diabetes and hypothyroidism as well as needing to find some help with the symptoms that coincide with PMDD as they are ruining my life!
10) Same case with me. i used to have so much tension and I always had bad moods. I have started taking medicines since last week but still i don't feel much change.
9) I am in the process of being testing for low hormone levels and thyroid dysfunction because, quite tragically, I've lost at least half of my hair in one month! I'm only 32 and feel like I'm having a nightmare!
I tell myself things could be much worse, but dealing with hair drastically, severely, suddenly falling out everywhere is emotionally exhausting. Has anyone else had this? What do I do?
8) I had all these symptoms of depression: panic attacks, hot flashes, insomnia, fuzzy thinking, and I was tired of seeing doctors and them not helping me with my problems.
So they recommended to me this female doctor and she tested my levels of progesterone and i was very low, so now she is treating me my progesterone. I feel a little better now. I have been treated for three months now but I know this medication is going to help me.
7) Because male doctors are often not attuned to female symptoms or concerns. The best help might come from a specialist in bioidentical hormones.
I went to a female specialist who knows exactly the issues women face in menopause and has reversed these to good results with both men and women.
Seek beyond the standard help and you will get better, healthier results. Often the conservative male doctor just wants to put you on depression meds and chemical manufactured hormones. Don't do it!
6) I stopped taking the pill so we could get pregnant and it threw my body off and my periods are not regular, so my doctor did a blood test and said my progesterone levels are very low! Yea! Finally I have a answer. I have a lot of these symptoms and can't wait to feel normal again!
5) Women who have low levels of progesterone often have infertility problems and when they do conceive, they are at a higher risk for miscarriage. You may have low progesterone levels if you have any of these symptoms.
4) We finally tested my levels. I barely produce progesterone. Depression, practically no libido, metabolic basal rate that is lower than normal, hair loss (scalp and eyebrows), mental fog.
Six to 11 years
One to 10 years
Syrup, 15 mg per 5 mL
MDI = metered dose inhaler.
Information from references 8, 13, and 16 through 20.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Products. Several of these therapies provide relief from cold symptoms. Vapor rub applied to the chest and neck has been shown to improve cough severity and quality of sleep for the child and parents, but it has a strong smell that children may not tolerate.19 Studies regarding therapeutic use of zinc sulfate show a trend toward decreased duration of cold symptoms when it is taken within the first 24 hours of symptom onset.20 Adverse effects, such as bad taste and nausea, are more common with zinc lozenges than with syrup or tablets.20 Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract (Umcka Coldcare) may help resolve cough and sputum production in children with the common cold.18 Buckwheat honey is superior to placebo for reducing frequency of cough, reducing bothersome cough, and improving quality of sleep for the child.16 Honey should not be used in children younger than one year because of the risk of botulism.
Nasal Irrigation and Acetylcysteine. During acute illness, nasal irrigation with saline can help alleviate sore throat, thin nasal secretions, and improve nasal breathing and can reduce the need for nasal decongestants and mucolytics.17 A systematic review of six trials published in the 1990s found that acetylcysteine (commonly used in Europe, but not in the United States, as a mucolytic) may decrease cough after six to seven days of therapy in children older than two years.13 The main adverse effect of acetylcysteine is vomiting.
Inhaled Corticosteroids. Some children with viral cold symptoms also develop wheezing. Although low-dose corticosteroids are ineffective in these children, one review of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids found a trend toward decreased frequency of wheezing episodes that require oral corticosteroids, the duration of episodes, and the number of physician visits.8
Table 3 summarizes therapies that may be effective for cold prophylaxis in children.14, 17, 20 – 22
Therapies That May Be Effective for Common Cold Prophylaxis in Children
One to three years
5 mL twice daily
Beginning in early 2015, the H5N2 subtype was found in poultry and wild birds in the Midwest and Southeast. The role of wild birds in the introduction and movement of the H5N2 subtype in to these new regions is unclear as the timing of these findings is poorly associated with known wild bird movements at that time, given that the first cases in domestic turkeys in Minnesota occurred at the end of winter, proceeding the arrival of migratory birds from the southern U.S. As of October 6, 2015, 48 million poultry have died or been euthanized as a result of HPAI outbreaks, and the last detection occurred on June 17, 2015. A total of 85 cases of HPAI have been reported in wild birds. The last detection was on July 31, 2015.
Up-to-date listings of HPAI cases can be found at the following locations:
Wild Birds (pdf, USDA-APHIS site)
The novel H5N1 HPAIV that was found in a green-winged teal in Washington is not the same as the Asian H5N1 strain that can infect people and has been the news for several years. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the strains of Eurasian/North American HPAI currently in the US are of low risk to human health.
Aquatic birds, especially ducks, shore birds and gulls are considered natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses. The novel HPAI strains so far are not killing wild waterfowl. However, domestic poultry exposed to these novel virus strains become very ill and most quickly die. In some poultry the only sign of the disease is sudden death. In most infected domestic flocks. The numbers of sick and dying birds increases rapidly over several days. HPAI is devastating to the US poultry industry through production and bird losses, and through the loss of export markets. USDA, State Agriculture and Departments of Natural Resources, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and other agencies are working together to find infected poultry and stop the spread of disease and to educate producers and hunters
How does it spread?
The virus is spread through contact with fecal droppings, saliva and nasal discharges of infected birds. One gram of infected feces contains enough virus to infect one million additional birds. Unlike LPAI, HPAI causes a systemic infection in the bird, spreading the virus to meat and eggs. The virus can survive in dead birds, especially if they are kept cool, for a few days. HPAI also survives in cold, moist environments and tolerates freezing - virus frozen in contaminated ponds can infect birds when the ice melts.
The novel HPAI viruses currently in the US are of little risk to people, and are killed in food by using proper cooking methods and temperatures. Cook game bird meat thoroughly; poultry should reach an internal temperature of 165°F to kill disease organisms and parasites.
What should hunters do to prevent spreading the disease?
Because HPAI can spread from bird carcasses, hunters should take extra precautions so they don't bring the virus home to their own or their neighbors' poultry. In the Pacific flyway, captive falcons became ill and many died after being fed infected wild ducks. Hunters should:
- Dress your game birds in the field whenever possible.
- If you must dress birds at home, clean them in an area your poultry and pet birds cannot access. Ideally, there would be a solid barrier between your game cleaning area and where your birds are housed.
- Keep a separate pair of shoes to wear only in your game cleaning area. If this is not possible, wear rubber footwear and clean/disinfect your shoes before entering or leaving the area.
- Use dedicated tools for cleaning game, whether in the field or at home. Do not use those tools around your poultry or pet birds.
- Always wear rubber gloves when cleaning game.
- Double bag the offal and feathers. Tie the inner bag, and be sure to take off your rubber gloves and leave them in the outer bag before tying it closed.
- Place the bag in a trash can that poultry and pet birds cannot access. This trash can should also be secure against access by children, pets, or other animals.
- Wash hands with soap and water immediately after handling game. If soap and water are not available, use alcohol wipes.
- Wash all tools and work surfaces with soap and water. Then, disinfect them following the disinfectant's labeling. Make sure the disinfectant you use is labeled as effective against flu viruses.
- Bird Flu - Guidance for Hunters (USDA, pdf, 100kb)
Hunter Wallet Card (USDA, pdf, 75kb)
What's being done to prevent its spread?
Federal and state wildlife agencies are conducting continent-wide wild bird and habitat surveillance for HPAI. Surveillance for wild birds is focused on wetland species such as waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds and includes testing live-trapped birds, hunter-harvested waterfowl, and mortality events.
Have other people told you that your voice is very soft or that you sound hoarse? If there has been a change in your voice you should see your doctor about whether it could be Parkinson's disease. Sometimes you might think other people are losing their hearing, when really you are speaking more softly.
What is normal?
A chest cold or other virus can cause your voice to sound different, but you should go back to sounding the same when you get over your cough or cold.
Have you been told that you have a serious, depressed or mad look on your face, even when you are not in a bad mood? This is often called facial masking. If so, you should ask your doctor about Parkinson's disease.
What is normal?
Some medicines can cause you to have the same type of serious or staring look, but you would go back to the way you were after you stopped the medication.
Dizziness or Fainting
Do you notice that you often feel dizzy when you stand up out of a chair? Feeling dizzy or fainting can be a sign of low blood pressure and can be linked to Parkinson's disease (PD).
What is normal?
Everyone has had a time when they stood up and felt dizzy, but if it happens on a regular basis you should see your doctor.
Stooping or Hunching Over
Are you not standing up as straight as you used to? If you or your family or friends notice that you seem to be stooping, leaning or slouching when you stand, it could be a sign of Parkinson's disease (PD).
What is normal?
If you have pain from an injury or if you are sick, it might cause you to stand crookedly. Also, a problem with your bones can make you hunch over.