Comments: Because Dairy Intolerance is genetic - if you have children - you have already passed on the genetic material to them. Make sure you alert them to the possibility of dairy - or other food intolerance - so they can make changes and protect themselves from future disease.

If your parents or grandparents are having health problems - why not share this knowledge with them? Dairy sensitive people improve dramatically on a Dairy-free diet.

A. Lactose Intolerance: The simple strategy for managing Lactose Intolerance is to switch to a Dairy-free diet. However the symptoms for Lactose intolerance are similar to - and often confused with Fructose intolerance. Make sure you know which one you have. To differentiate between food intolerances you need the accurate and proven Journal Method.

B. Casein Allergy: A dairy-free diet is the answer. However - because milk derivatives are so cheap and abundant - there are now thousands of processed foods and supplements containing Casein (e.g. as "milk solids" or "whey powder" and others). The Complete Guide to Dairy-Free is included in the Healing Program

Here at foodintol ® we don't regard dairy intolerance as a 'disease'. Therefore it does not need to be 'cured'. Any food intolerance only comes about because we eat foods we cannot fully digest.

Dairy intolerance is the inability to digest cow's milk - because your body does not have the equipment to process it. After all, cow's milk is intended for the cow's offspring, the calf.

The symptoms and illnesses caused by dairy intolerance disappear when you stick to a Dairy-free diet. You could try it and see if you get better. Track your symptoms with the Detection Diet Journal in the Healing Program

I think I might have food intolerance: What should I do?

Beginning with our free e-book, we can help you establish if you are suffering from gluten or wheat intolerance or if your symptoms indicate an intolerance to dairy, fructose or yeast. You may even be suffering from more than one food intolerance.

Doing nothing can be a risk. Undiagnosed food intolerance can cause serious long-term health problems like osteoporosis, anaemia and many others.

To learn more – sign up for the free e-book‘How To Tell If You have Food Intolerance’

Up to 75% of the world’s population is lactose intolerant to some extent*. In some communities it is even higher (e.g. 90% of African Americans are Lactose Intolerant, and

80% of Asians). Generally this is not well-known but clinical studies almost forty years ago in the US bear it out.

Humans are the only mammals on earth to continue drinking milk after weaning at

2 years of age. And even then it is not our own human milk - but the milk of another species - cows. Western nations consume enormous amounts of cow's milk in products like ice cream, probiotics, butter, yogurt and of course cheese - and in thousands of processed foods like cookies, confectionery and cakes.

Lactose Intolerance is the inability to digest Lactose, milk sugar, which can only be broken down by an enzyme called lactase. In all mammals including Humans the production of lactase stops after weaning. There are some however - generally of Northern European descent who continue to produce lactase after weaning. This minority is known as 'lactase persistent'.

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Histamine intolerance is caused by an impaired enzyme activity.

  • Enzyme production problems (inflammatory bowel diseases, food deficiences)
  • Enzyme inhibitors (certain biogenic amines, certain medicines)
  • Enzyme competitors (biogenic amines)
  • Enzyme genetic defects

Mast cells are part of the body’s defence system to protect against infection and injury. Mast cells contain histamine, heparin, prostaglandins and other pro-inflammatory mediators. A well-know unwanted mast cell degranulation is via an allergic reaction to an allergen which raises IgE levels in the blood.

  • Non-allergic mast cell degranulation is also possible which is then called Mast Cell Activation Syndrome. One example is Mastocytosis which leads to too many mast cells.

  • Skin: itch (pruritis), skin redness/flushing, red spots, skin rash/eczema, hives (urticaria).
  • Gastro-intestinal tract: stomach acid reflux, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
  • Respiratory: runny nose (rhinitis), bronchocontriction –> asthma, chronic cough.
  • Vascular: vasodilation –> low blood pressure (hypotension), dizziness, fainting, anaphylaxis, oedema

Cascade of symptoms of histamine intolerance & mast cell activation

Bronchocontriction makes you more sensitive to low oxygen levels and so you may develop symptoms of hypoxia when for example room ventilation is bad.

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Tension-type headache
  • Muscle pain/cramp, Frozen shoulder
  • Problems with speech, Stuttering
  • Hearing problems
  • Hair loss, Cold feet (the extremities of the body)
  • Tired eyes
  • Vision/Focus problems
  • Confusion, Disorientation
  • Tinnitus
  • Brain white matter lesions –> Vascular dementia
  • Sleep-apnea, Nose pain
  • Coma, Death
  • Dysmenorrhea

The production of Levo-dopa from which dopamine is synthesized requires oxygen!! Hypoxia therefore may cause low dopamine levels.

  • Cognition: problems with memory, attention/concentration, problem-solving
  • Motor control (Parkinsonism): unsteady gait
  • Prolactin secretion: low libido
  • Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone: Nausea, Vomiting, Lack of appetite (anorexia)
  • Mood: Depression

Your body will respond to hypoxia by producing adrenaline which increases your heart- and breathing rate.

  • Rapid heart beat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Insomnia –> Fatigue
  • Nightmares
  • Migraine
  • Anxiety
  • Panic attacks
  • Hyperactivity
  • Sweating
  • Urination
  • Thirst
  • Constipation
  • Vasoconstriction –> High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Pheochromocytoma?

  • Parotid gland
  • Thyroid
  • Myeline
  • Mouth (sores)
  • Nose (nasal congestion)
  • Throat
  • Etc.
  • Check if you recognize the symptoms of histamine intolerance and/or mast cell activation. Yes, then go to the next step.
  • Understand histamine intolerance and/or mast cell activation. Read, read, and read.
  • Register in a diary what you eat, which medicines you take, other possible triggers and the symptoms you experience.
  • Eliminate the suspicious food and other triggers.
  • Re-introduce the food/trigger after a while, in order to find out, if this particular food/trigger does or does not provoke adverse reactions.
  • When your family members have the same type of symptoms you could test for genetic defects in the enzymes.
  • Hypoxia can be determined by monitoring with a finger-pulse oximeter.

Treatment of histamine intolerance & mast cell activation

  • Remove your dental AMALGAMS (50% toxic mercury!!) SAFELY
  • Prevent leaky gut
  • Increase the activity of enzymes
  • Decrease histamine input
  • Prevent mast cell degranulation
  • Avoid vasodilators
  • Decrease aggressive prostaglandins
  • Increase oxygen saturation
  • Prevent the effect of histamine
  • Mariska de Wild-Scholten (2014) From too much histamine to too much migraine, TOO MUCH MAGAZINE 15 March 2014

I bought your book, fantastic.

I found this book to be very useful….. A must-read for anyone with frequent migraines.

Yes I would recommend it.

I’ve spent 9 years and visited over 19 doctors trying to figure this out and you’ve brought to my attention what is going on. … 1000 thank you’s to you.

I am so grateful to have found this book. I have suffered a great deal over the last 5 years. I am so happy to have information on something I have been trying to explain to my Dr for years….I couldn’t never figure out what was happening to me. I was so so sick, then after a contrast media injection, and the severe reaction for months afterwards, I started to piece things together. All the reactions to medications (morphine, codiene, chloroquinine, larium, etc) all the reactions to foods… especially fermented foods, soy, nightshades, chocolate, alcohol and to top it off I have celiac’s disease…

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If worried, a phone call to the doctor may be a better solution than making an appointment.

In the majority of cases, flu is not serious - it is just unpleasant. For some people, however, there can be severe complications. This is more likely in very young children, in the elderly, and for individuals with other longstanding illness that can undermine their immune system.

The risk of experiencing severe flu complications is higher for certain people:

  • adults over 65
  • babies or young children
  • pregnant women
  • individuals with heart or cardiovascular disease
  • those with chest problems, such as asthma or bronchitis
  • individuals with kidney disease
  • people with diabetes
  • people taking steroids
  • individuals undergoing treatment for cancer
  • those with longstanding diseases that reduce immune system function

Some of the complications caused by influenza may include bacterial pneumonia, dehydration, and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes. Children may develop sinus problems and ear infections.

Over 200,000 people are hospitalized from flu complications each year, and about 36,000 people are estimated to die as a result of flu.

It is estimated that, globally, 250,000-500,000 people die each year as a result of flu.

In industrialized countries, the majority of deaths occur among people over the age of 65.

A flu epidemic - where a large number of people in one country are infected - can last several weeks. Health experts and government agencies throughout the world say that the single best way to protect oneself from catching flu is to get vaccinated every year.

There are two types of vaccinations, the flu shot and the nasal-spray flu vaccine. The flu shot is administered with a needle, usually in the arm - it is approved for anyone older than 6 months, including healthy people and those with chronic medical conditions.

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  • Blood in your stool or vomit
  • High fever
  • Severe, localized stomach pain. You should be especially concerned about pain in the lower right abdomen, a possible sign of appendicitis.
  • An inability to keep food or liquids down, or losing fluids faster than you can replenish them orally
  • Vomiting that becomes more violent or lasts for more than 48 hours
  • Signs of dehydration (dry mouth, dry skin, thirst, no urination for six hours)

What can a doctor do to treat the illness?

Before doing anything else, your doctor will try to confirm the diagnosis by checking your symptoms and conducting a physical. If you've recently eaten something that might have spoiled or you've visited a place with poor sanitation, be sure to mention it. It would also be good to tell your doctor if you've been traveling recently or if you've been in contact with someone who has similar symptoms.

Once the condition has been diagnosed, your doctor can start treating the symptoms.

Doctors may suggest a bland diet (although the scientific data to suggest this is sparse), and frequent small amounts of fluids, possibly including rehydrating fluids to treat dehydration. Rehydrating fluids are a special mix of water, sugar, and salts available in pharmacies that replace the water you lost. In extreme cases, the fluid may be given intravenously.

If you have severe diarrhea, your doctor may advise you to take an over-the-counter drug that slows down intestinal function and prescribe an anti-nausea drug as well. If you have been experiencing the symptoms for only a few days and the symptoms are relatively mild, your doctor will most likely suggest you try to treat the symptoms and avoid antibiotics.

If the illness is severe or lingers for more than a couple of weeks, your doctor may want to collect a stool sample to pinpoint the exact cause of the distress.

What should I do if I have the condition?

Most people with gastroenteritis just need to rest for a few days. If vomiting is a problem, you have to avoid certain solid foods for a while. As soon as you feel up to it, sip small amounts of clear liquids such as tea or broth every 15 minutes. As your stomach starts to settle down, you can move on to solid food.

Because children with diarrhea can get dehydrated very easily, they may need special care. Give sick children plenty of liquids -- offering a small amount of liquid every few minutes or so, even if they are vomiting. Infants who seem restless or unusually thirsty should be given an oral rehydration solution, water mixed with a packet of salt and carbohydrates; they are also sold in bottles (e.g. Pedialyte and Ricelyte). These packets and rehydrating liquids are widely available in supermarkets and drug stores and are even sold in popsicle form. Don't give children carbonated beverages or sports drinks. A child who needs to take these liquids for more than a day or two should probably see the doctor to be sure that he or she is not getting dehydrated.

Can the condition be prevented?

Because most cases are caused by bacteria or viruses, you can prevent much misery by taking a stand against germs. First and foremost, make sure everyone in your house washes his or her hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom and before touching food. Hand washing becomes even more important when someone in the house is having a bout of gastroenteritis.

You should also take steps to prevent food poisoning. Keep your kitchen clean, carefully watch expiration dates on food, and don't leave perishable food at room temperature for more than two hours. Be extra careful with raw chicken, a major source of Campylobacter, or any raw meats or eggs, for that matter. Clean any surfaces and kitchen tools that you use to handle raw chicken with soap and hot water before preparing another dish.

Before you leave on a trip, it's a good idea to visit your doctor to talk about what you can do to prevent problems with diarrhea when you are traveling in areas with poor sanitation. Among other things, you can get immunized against typhoid, hepatitis A, and other illnesses. Your doctor may also advise you to travel with Pepto Bismol, which has some antibacterial activity. Or he may recommend an antidiarrheal medication that can help you if you're stuck on a long bus ride in with no bathroom readily available or suggest prophylactic antibiotics in case you are somewhere without a doctor.

And if you're traveling to an area with poor sanitation, don't trust the water. Simply brushing your teeth with tap water or tossing a couple of ice cubes in a drink can be enough to make you sick. In many areas, the only safe beverages are boiled or bottled water, canned or bottled sodas, tea and coffee made with boiled water, beer, and wine. If it's not possible to boil your water, you may have to use chemical disinfectants such as iodine or chlorine.

Keep in mind that the food can be as risky as the water. You should be especially suspicious of salads, garnishes, uncooked vegetables, unpasteurized milk, raw meat, shellfish, and any foods sold by street vendors. In general, fruits that you peel yourself and hot meals are safer choices. (Some restaurants in developing countries that cater to tourists disinfect their lettuce and other vegetables before making them into salads, but salads sold on the street may not be.)

Since 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended a rotavirus vaccine for all infants. Two vaccines given orally, not by a shot, are licensed for use in the United States: RotaTeq (RV5) is given in 3 doses at ages 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months; Rotarix (RV1) is given in 2 doses at ages 2 months and 4 months.

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I have been on lexapro for about 6 months and had to quit cold turkey due to financial reasons and this is a complete NIGHTMARE! I have had brain zaps that feel like electricity running through my head, then a sensation of the breath being sucked out of me which in turn cause my lips to start tingling and this is just the tip of the iceberg. When these symptoms started they brought on what my neurologist is now calling a complicated migraine and when I get one of those I sometimes don't know who my family is during it and I develop aphasia which is all really scary. This has been going on since Father's Day. I am about to loose my mind! I really don't know how much more I can take.

When my doctor first prescribed Lexapro for me, I thought I had died and went to heaven; it really worked well for me (helped to alleviate depression and anxiety). After taking it for approximately 10 years ranging from 10 mg to 30 mg daily doses depending on a variety of life stressors, I was tired of trying to wean myself from the 30 mg doses. My doctor told me to decrease my dose from 20 to 10 mg for two weeks and then start 10 mg of Wellbutrin twice a day. The withdrawal symptoms which can be described as flu-like symptoms; dizziness, nausea, etc are awful but every so often the dizziness is accompanied by a whooshy/buzzing sensation in my head. Sometimes I need to sit down so I don't lose my balance. Based on what others have written on this blog, it seems it may have a few more months to suffer through before this hopefully better even though I have since I started taking the Wellbutrin. If anything, misery loves company and I feel less alone knowing that I am not the only one who is being tormented/tortured with these symptoms.

I feel for all you folks.I went in for a stress test and they found a lower heart beating. My Cadriologist told me to stop the lexipro immediately so its been a week and I have crazy headaches and moments of dizziness with some irratability. I wish you all the best and hope you find the answers and comfort you are looking for

I recently stopped taking lexapro, most likely two weeks ago. I have noticed a huge shift in my weight. I have gained about 10 pounds. Could this be a discontinuation side effect of the meds?

I was taking 5mg of Lexapro for over 2 years for horrible perimenopause symptoms. I tapered very slowly and have been off a month today. For almost two weeks I have never felt worse in my life. My anxiety is through the roof! I have constant hot flashes and terrible insomnia. My appetite is gone too. While on Lexapro, I gained weight and was hungry often. This is a horrible way to live. How long will this last? My husband says that my dose was so low that I could not possibly be affected by withdrawal symptoms. But, why do I feel so terrible when I have never felt this way before? I was on the drug for over 2 years. Any help is so appreciated.

The World Health Organization reconvened an emergency meeting of a special 15-member panel of experts to advise the agency whether the outbreak of the swine flu virus warrants elevation of the pandemic threat level, which could trigger international travel restrictions and other measures. The committee had planned to meet again tomorrow, but moved up the meeting to grapple with the rapid developments.

President Obama, meanwhile, said his administration was monitoring the situation closely.

"This is obviously a cause for concern and requires a heightened state of alert," Obama said at an appearance at the National Academy of Science. "But it is not a cause for alarm."

Richard Wenzel, professor and chairman of the Dept. of Internal Medicine at the Medical College of Virginia, was online Monday, April 27, at 1 p.m. ET to discuss the latest information about the swine flu, including its transmission and preparations the medical community is making to combat the virus.

Richard Wenzel: Welcome, Richard Wenzel here to take your questions today.

Nashville, Tenn.: How long does a flu pandemic usually last?

Richard Wenzel: In general it is unpredictable, but can last for several months to a year.

Princeton, N.J.: My husband had fever and sore throat from last Thursday. Now the fever is down after three days, but sore throat and yellow mucous still bothers him. Should we worry about this being swine flu?

Richard Wenzel: This is probably not influenza since there was no cough, or muscle aches. If symptoms persist, please have him see a physician.

Herndon, Va.: Dear Dr. Wenzel,

How can a mask prevent the virus from entering our body? Can't they sneak through the pores of the mask fabric? Are we just bettering our odds against a infection?

Thanks for your time.

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6 weeks (ish) without aspartame. I feel better in myself but in the UK I’m struggling to find an alternative to drink. Diet coke has no calories. We now have a Coke Life here and that’s natural sweeteners but at 89 calories per can it’s not helping my diet. I don’t drink tea or coffee so my only alternative so far is water. Can’t add any flavourings as they all seem to have Aspartame. I’ve tried a few other drinks but I LIKE Coke. So many drinks have artificial sweeteners (Aspartame). I eat more fruit but that’s also more calories. Does anyone drink something else that I could get in the UK plse? Good luck to all going through detox. It’s hard work but definitely worth it. Love and hugs xxx

Do you like fruity drinks? I am working on quitting Diet DP – been a week now!
I’m drinking naturally sweetened energy drinks – 13 calories per drink. Let me know if you are interested and I can send you the info.

Yes very interested. Please let me know. Thanks in advance

Regards Dawn 🙂 xx

Try True Lemon if available in UK. You can order online if not in your area but I’m not sure about the UK. It is 100% natural crystallized lemon that comes in little packets. I put a True Lemon and True Grapefruit in my water and I’m not as bored with it. I’m on week 6 of no aspartame and no caffeine. Still having issues but I’m hoping it gets better.

I have drank diet coke for yrs’i dont smoke or drink alchol so a diet coke was my stress reliever.i decided to quit 3 wks ago weaning myself off,wk 1 down to 2 bottles a day’headaches’joint pain,feeling sick and so depressed an irritable.wk 2 went down to 1 bottle.A constant muggy headache and mood swings.No energy and couldnt be bothered to do anything.wk 3 no d coke for 3 days,My head feels ready to explode,just shoot me now!Maybe cold turkey would have been quicker.Determined to carry on but hope start to feel human again soon!

I drank Pepsi Max nearly every day for 4 years I decided last Thursday that enough was enough.
I knew this wasn’t going to be easy but I have never felt so bad in all my life I would rather have a hangover!

Headaches
Anxiety
Panic Attacks
Dizziness
Lethargic (I slept nearly all weekend)
Mood swings
Lack of concentration

I’ve been drinking coconut water which has helped with the headaches and makes me feel better…I’m determined not to give up and have this nasty chemical out of my body for good!

I check everything now for Aspartame, even Robinsons has it in.

My friends laughed when I told them about my addiction and now they’ve seen how ill I’ve been they’re not laughing anymore!!

Sounds exactly what I was going through but with MSG product..these two are giving us diseases.

Aspartame withdrawal day 3 for me. I only used it in tea and coffee drinking about 5/6 cups a day. Today I am feeling very angry and frustrated and I have a headache and slight blurred vision. Thinking I should of slowly weaned myself off instead of suddenly stopping.

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Si vous pensez présenter des symptômes de grippe, notre ligne sans frais et info-santé (8-1-1) sont de bonnes ressources pour vous guider.

Vous devriez consulter un médecin si vous présentez des symptômes de la grippe en plus d’un ou de plusieurs des symptômes ci-dessous:

  • Perte d’appétit
  • Essoufflement, difficulté et douleur à respirer
  • Lèvres et/ou doigts bleutés
  • Étourdissement
  • Confusion
  • Forte fièvre qui persiste durant plus de 3 jours
  • Vomissements persistants
  • Sang dans les sécrétions

Un enfant grippé qui ne mange pas, ne boit pas et ne joue pas devrait voir un médecin.

Aide à la décision

Aide à la decision si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe

Dans les cas sans complications, les symptômes de la grippe disparaissent habituellement sans traitement. Il est surtout recommandé de prendre du repos et de se soigner à la maison pour éviter de contaminer d’autres personnes.

Voici quelques façons de soulager vos symptômes:

  • Se reposer
  • Boire beaucoup d’eau
  • Prendre des médicaments contre la fièvre en vente libre comme l’acétaminophène (Tylenols®), l’ibuprofène (Advil®) et l’acide acétylsalicylique (Aspirin®)

Pour tous médicaments en vente libre, n’oubliez pas de lire l’étiquette pour vous assurer que le traitement convienne à votre situation (âge, problématique de santé, etc.) ou consulter votre pharmacien, il saura vous guider.

Dans certains cas, le médecin peut également prescrire un médicament antiviral administré par voie orale. Pour être efficace, il doit être pris dans les 48 heures suivant l’apparition des premiers symptômes grippaux.

Les médicaments antiviraux tels que l’amantadine, le zanamivir et l’oseltamivir peuvent prévenir et traiter la grippe causée par le virus de type A ou B. Cependant, ils ne sont pas destinés à remplacer le vaccin annuel pour les gens à risques. Les médicaments antiviraux auront pour effet de diminuer les symptômes de la grippe s’ils sont administrés dans les 24 à 48 heures suivant l’apparition des symptômes. Notez qu’ils ne gênent pas l’action du vaccin administré par injection.

Ces médicaments ne doivent pas être considérés comme substitut à la vaccination qui demeure le meilleur moyen préventif contre la grippe.

On peut prévenir la grippe en se faisant vacciner tous les automnes. Le vaccin permet à l’organisme de produire les anticorps qui le protégeront pendant les cinq à six mois que dure la saison de la grippe. La vaccination annuelle permet de prévenir la grippe, et de réduire la gravité de la maladie. Le meilleur moment pour recevoir le vaccin antigrippal est au début de la saison grippale soit au mois d’octobre et de novembre.

Voici quelques façons simples et efficaces de vous protéger contre la grippe:

  • Lavez-vous fréquemment les mains
  • Nettoyez les surfaces les plus utilisées (poignets de porte, surfaces de comptoir, etc.)
  • Limitez les contacts avec les personnes malades
  • Faites-vous vacciner (consultez l’onglet Vaccination pour plus d’information sur le vaccin antigrippal)

En 2011, le Québec présentait le plus bas taux de vaccination au Canada avec 27% de sa population ayant reçu le vaccin. De plus, 25 % des Québécois affirmaient avoir contracté la grippe, ce qui représente le plus haut taux au pays.

En comparaison, la Colombie-Britannique a eu un taux de vaccination de 52% et, par conséquent, seulement 10% de la population avait été incommodée par la grippe cette même année.

Au Québec, chaque année, plus de 300 décès sont attribuables au virus de la grippe. Ce n’est donc pas une problématique à prendre à la légère.

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    Zur Verhinderung oder Therapie von Sekundärinfektionen kann der Einsatz von Antibiotika sinnvoll sein. Bei sehr hohem Fieber ist zudem die Gabe von Antipyretika (z.B. Paracetamol) zu erwägen.

    Die Wirkung einer vorbeugenden oder therapeutischen Gabe von Vitamin C ist umstritten.

    Der Krankheitsverlauf ist sehr unterschiedlich, meist relativ harmlos ohne Folgen, z.T. aber auch lebensgefährlich (v.a. bei Kindern und älteren immungeschwächten Personen).

    Die akute Erkrankung klingt in der Regel etwa nach 5 bis 7 Tagen ab. Einzelne Symptome (z.B. Husten, Abgeschlagenheit) können jedoch noch über einen längeren Zeitraum weiter bestehen. Je nach Schwere der durchgemachten Erkrankung ist eine Rekonvaleszenz über Tage, aber auch über Wochen möglich.

    Eine mögliche Komplikation der Influenza, der bei bestimmten Virusstämmen auftritt, ist der so genannte Zytokinsturm. Dabei versagt die adaptive Immunantwort und es kommt zu einer Überreaktion des Immunsystems im Sinne einer sich selbst verstärkenden Kaskadenreaktion. Die dazu fähigen Zellen des Immunsystems (T-Zellen, Makrophagen) schütten große Mengen an Zytokinen aus, die eine massive Entzündungsreaktion hervorrufen. Sie tritt klinisch als schwere, perakute Influenzapneumonie mit Dyspnoe, Lungenblutungen und möglichem Organversagen in Erscheinung.

    Bestimmte Erregervarianten des Influenzavirus begünstigen die Entstehung eines Zytokinsturms. Sie bilden Proteine, auf die das Immunsystem offensichtlich besonders empfindlich reagiert. Häufig unterscheiden sie sich nur in einigen wenigen Genabschnitten von weniger pathogenen Stämmen.

    Egg allergy is common in babies and toddlers - occurring in 1 -2 % of pre-school children.

    This page answers the following questions:

    What are the symptoms of egg allergy in infants and toddlers?

    The symptoms include:

    • skin reactions with urticaria (also known as hives) - this is the most common reaction. Read more
    • tummy upset and vomiting - even if the egg makes contact with the skin and is not ingested
    • anaphylaxis which is a serious allergic reaction with breathing difficulty and shock - this is much less common than with other foods such as peanut, other nuts and milk. Read more

    The allergic reactions may be:

    • immediate - which occur within a few minutes to an hour of ingesting the egg. These are IgE mediated reactions, so caused by a particular antibody (called IgE) in the body. Read more
    • delayed - which may occur up to 24 hours after ingesting the egg. These are usually non-IgE mediated reactions, so they are caused by an immune response but it doesn't involve IgE

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    Stay at home as much as possible to prevent passing on the infection.

    Paracetamol and/or ibuprofen can lower your temperature and also ease aches and pains. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent lack of fluid in the body (dehydration). It is best not to smoke. Decongestant drops, throat lozenges and saline nasal drops may be helpful to ease nose and throat symptoms.

    Note: parents and carers should not use over-the-counter cough and cold medicines in children under 6 years old. There is no evidence that they work and they can cause side-effects such as allergic reactions, effects on sleep, or even hallucinations.

    Antiviral medicines called oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu®) and zanamivir (trade name Relenza®) are sometimes used. Antiviral medicines do not kill the virus but interfere with the way the virus multiplies. Antiviral medicines do not cure flu or offer long-term protection against flu. If you do not have an antiviral medicine you are still likely to make a full recovery. However, antiviral medicines may reduce the risk of developing complications. They may also reduce the severity and duration of symptoms by a day or two.

    An antiviral medicine may be prescribed if you are at increased risk of developing complications when you have flu (see list below). Treatment is usually taken for five days. GPs are only allowed to prescribe an antiviral medicine when national surveillance schemes show there is a lot of flu in the community. An antiviral medicine is also often used in people who are admitted to hospital with flu.

    Medication may also be prescribed to certain people to prevent flu - for example, if you live in a residential home and there is an outbreak of flu in the home. It is also given if you are at increased risk of complications and have been in close contact with a person with flu.

    Antiviral medicines should be given within 48 hours of getting the flu (within 36 hours for zanamivir in children) or of having contact with someone who has the flu. This is because the sooner they are given, the better they work.

    Antibiotics kill germs called bacteria, but not viruses. Therefore, they are not routinely prescribed for viral illnesses such as flu or flu-like illnesses. However, they may be used if a complication develops like a chest infection caused by a germ (bacterium) or pneumonia (see below).

    A small number of people with flu become ill enough to need hospital admission. This is usually because they have developed complications from flu.

    If you are normally well then you are unlikely to develop complications. You are likely to recover fully. However, see a doctor if symptoms change or become worse. Complications are more likely to develop if you are in any of the at-risk groups listed below.

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    Q: What are the symptoms of LaCrosse Encephalitis?

    A: Like many of the arboviral encephalitides, most cases have symptoms usually associated with the flu. More severe cases may result in encephalitis, meningitis, paralysis, seizures, neurological damage, coma, and death. Those that survive severe cases often will need lifelong care.

    Q: Is there a type of mosquito that carries this disease?

    A: Yes, the vector for this disease is the ochlerotatus triseriatus, commonly known as the eastern tree-hole mosquito. The common name should give you a good idea of one of the habitats where this mosquito and its larvae can be found! Interestingly, the female prefer to search for their victims in daylight, but in shaded areas such as forests or woodlands.

    Frequently Asked Questions about St. Louis Encephalitis

    Q: Is this virus a serious threat to people here in the United States?

    A: Although most cases of the disease here in the U.S. have been in the Southeastern and Midwestern areas, it can be found throughout North America. It is not one of the major arboviruses and most of the cases do not cause serious illness. However, some people, including the elderly, can end up with a very serious or fatal case of the disease. Most people don’t even realize they have the disease! (This disease also occurs in South America.)

    Q: What are the symptoms of St. Louis Encephalitis?

    A: Symptoms are very much like symptoms of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis and meningitis may occur.

    Q: Is there a vaccine to prevent St. Louis Encephalitis?

    A: No, unfortunately, not at this time. There are no medicines specifically designed to cure this disease. If a case is severe, medical attention is needed.

    Q: Is St. Louis Encephalitis one of the diseases mosquitoes carry?

    A: No, it is mainly the culex pipiens females that are the vectors of this disease. These mosquitoes prefer small reservoirs of water such as old tires, flowerpots, rain gutters, and other water-collecting containers for laying their eggs.

    Frequently Asked Questions about Western Equine Encephalitis

    Q: Where does Western Equine Encephalitis occur?

    A: Basically, it can be found in the western regions of the U.S. and Canada, although the area affected has been spreading eastward, especially in places where the number of irrigated farmlands has escalated.

    A: Like, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the symptoms of Western Equine Encephalitis are very similar to those of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis, coma, and ultimately, death, may occur.

    Unfortunately, it is harshest on young children, and those who survive severe cases may end up needing lifelong care. Horses are also susceptible to the virus and may die from WEE in severe cases.

    Q: Is WEE one of the diseases mosquitoes spread?

    A: Yes, the Culex Tarsalis mosquito is the culprit here in the United States. It should be noted that the female mosquito can travel 10-15 miles from its “birth home” in search of a blood meal. This means that people in the suburban neighborhoods within a 10-15 mile radius of irrigated land can be prime targets.

    Q: Can I catch Malaria here in the United States?

    A: It is possible, although almost all of the cases were ones that people caught when they traveled to countries where Malaria outbreaks occur. We have two Anopheles mosquitoes that are responsible for transmitting the parasites that cause Malaria: Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern part of the country and Anopheles freeborni in the western part.

    Q: Is Malaria Fatal? Do people die from Malaria here in the U.S.?

    A: Yes, people do die from the disease, although it all depends on the medical attention the patient receives. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that of 1,337 cases of malaria reported in 2002 here in the U.S., only 8 deaths occurred.

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    Influenza ist eine durch das Influenzavirus verursachte Erkrankung der Atemwege. Hierdurch wird die Schleimhaut (Mucosa) der Atemwege angegriffen und das Eindringen anderer pathogener/toxischer Erreger erleichtert. Das Influenzavirus ist sehr ansteckend.

    Die Infektion erfolgt meist durch das Einatmen (Inhalation) von infizierten Partikeln (Tröpfcheninfektion bei Husten und Niesen). Es sind aber auch Schmier- und Kontaktinfektionen möglich.

    Die Viren binden an Rezeptoren von Zellen im Atemtrakt, dringen in diese ein, vermehren sich dort und führen schließlich zu einer Zerstörung der betroffenen Zellen. Hierbei werden viele neue Viren freigesetzt. Es kommt zu einer ausgeprägten Entzündungsreaktion. Die Inkubationszeit beträgt 1-4 Tage.

    Eine niedrige Luftfeuchtigkeit und Kälte begünstigen die Übertragung der Viren. Deshalb kommt es zu einer Häufung von Infektionen während der Herbst- und Wintermonate. Als mögliche Ursachen dafür werden diskutiert:

    • Austrockung der Schleimhäute
    • Verdickung des Nasenschleims durch Kälteexposition
    • Schnellere Zersetzung der Viren bei hoher Luftfeuchtigkeit

    Influenzaviren sind allgemein behüllte Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren. Je nach auslösendem Virustyp unterscheidet man:

    • Influenza A: Es gibt 16 H-Subtypen (H1-H16) und 9 N-Subtypen (N1-N9). Die Buchstaben H und N stehen dabei für die Pathogenitätsfaktoren Hämagglutinin und Neuraminidase. Durch die jährliche Veränderung der H- und N-Antigene kommt es zu einer fehlenden Wirksamkeit von bestehenden Antikörpern und damit zu jährlichen Grippeepidemien. Beispiele für Influenza A sind:
      • Influenza-A-(H1N1)
      • Influenza-A-(H5N1)
      • Influenza-A-(H7N9)
    • Influenza B
    • Influenza C

    Typisch ist ein plötzlicher und heftiger Ausbruch der Krankheit. Die Symptome gleichen zum Teil denen einer starken Erkältung (die im Volksmund auch oft fälschlicherweise als Grippe bezeichnet wird), meist sind sie jedoch stärker ausgeprägt:

    Mehrtägiges Fieber von 39 bis 40 Grad ist möglich. Komplikationen können Kreislaufschwäche, Entzündung des Nervensystems und der Lunge sein.

    In der nördlichen Hemisphäre tritt Influenza bevorzugt in den Wintermonaten, also saisonal, auf ("Grippesaison"). Die genaue Inzidenz ist bei Grippe nur schwer abschätzbar, da inapparente und leichtere Krankheitsverläufe die Abgrenzung erkrankter Personen erschweren. Vom CDC (Center for Disease Control) wird geschätzt, dass ca. 15% der Bevölkerung betroffen ist (oft aber ohne Symptome). Die stationäre Inzidenz liegt etwa bei ca. 60 Personen auf 100.000 Fälle.

    Die Mortalität der Influenza ist abhängig vom zirkulierenden Subtyp. Sie schwankte nach Schätzungen des RKI im Zeitraum von 1985-2006 zwischen 0,1 und 38 Todesfällen pro 100.000 Einwohner.

    • Spanische Grippe: Durch eine spezielle Variante des H1N1-Erregers ausgelöste Influenza, die weltweit etwa 20-40 Millionen Opfer forderte (1918).
    • Vogelgrippe: Seit schätzungsweise knapp 10 Jahren ist in Asien die Vogelgrippe verbreitet. Hierbei traten Influenza-A-Viren des Subtyps H5N1 von Hühnern auf Menschen über. Durch Schlachtung Tausender Tiere ist ein Ausbruch einer Pandemie verhindert worden. Nichtsdestotrotz herrscht in Expertenkreisen nach wie vor die große Angst vor, dass der H5N1-Virus mutiert, von Mensch zu Mensch übertragbar und damit hoch gefährlich wird. Eine neue Pandemie wie die Spanische Grippe, so fürchtet man, könnte ebenfalls Millionen von Menschenleben fordern.

    Der direkte Nachweis von Virus-Antigenen kann mittels Immunfluoreszenz, ELISA oder PCR erfolgen. Als Probenmaterial wird Nasenspülwasser, Rachenspülwasser oder durch eine bronchoalveoläre Lavage (BAL) gewonnenes Bronchialsekret verwendet.

    Der indirekte Nachweis einer Infektion wird durch Bestimmung der Influenza-Antikörper (IgA, IgG, IgM) im Serum mittels ELISA erbracht.

    Wie bei anderen Influenzaformen bietet die Impfung nur einen relativen Schutz. Das Problem dabei ist, dass sich Grippe-Viren ständig verändern und deswegen Impfungen jedes Jahr aufgefrischt werden müssen. Schutzimpfungen sind für ältere Menschen und besonders gefährdete Personen empfohlen (Patienten mit chronischen Lungen-, Herz-, Leber-, Nierenerkrankungen, medizinisches Personal).

    Eine effektive, aber häufig unterschätzte Maßnahme ist das gründliche Händewaschen, da die Erreger durch Seifen abgetötet werden. Es minimiert vor allem das Risiko einer Schmierinfektion.

    Das Tragen von Gesichtsmasken ist nur sinnvoll, wenn es sich um Masken handelt, die den ungefilterten Lufteinstrom ausreichend vermindern, wie z.B. FFP3-Masken. Einfache Gesichtsmasken (Mundschutz) sind als Schutzmaßnahme unwirksam, da sie den Atemstrom nicht filtrieren, weil Luft frei an den Seiten ein- und austreten kann.

    • Bettruhe
    • Körperliche Schonung
    • Ausreichende Flüssigkeitszufuhr

    In der Frühphase der Infektion können wie bei anderen Influenza-Formen antivirale Medikamente eingesetzt werden. Dazu zählen unter anderem:

    Die Wirksamkeit dieser Medikamente gegen einen bestimmten isolierten Erregerstamm ist sehr variabel. Punktmutationen im Virusgenom können bei Neuraminidase-Hemmern zu einer Veränderung der Resistenzlage, d.h. zur Unwirksamkeit der Medikamente führen. Wie bei bakteriellen Erregern nehmen Resistenzen durch den breiten Einsatz antiviraler Substanzen zu.