Q: What are the symptoms of LaCrosse Encephalitis?

A: Like many of the arboviral encephalitides, most cases have symptoms usually associated with the flu. More severe cases may result in encephalitis, meningitis, paralysis, seizures, neurological damage, coma, and death. Those that survive severe cases often will need lifelong care.

Q: Is there a type of mosquito that carries this disease?

A: Yes, the vector for this disease is the ochlerotatus triseriatus, commonly known as the eastern tree-hole mosquito. The common name should give you a good idea of one of the habitats where this mosquito and its larvae can be found! Interestingly, the female prefer to search for their victims in daylight, but in shaded areas such as forests or woodlands.

Frequently Asked Questions about St. Louis Encephalitis

Q: Is this virus a serious threat to people here in the United States?

A: Although most cases of the disease here in the U.S. have been in the Southeastern and Midwestern areas, it can be found throughout North America. It is not one of the major arboviruses and most of the cases do not cause serious illness. However, some people, including the elderly, can end up with a very serious or fatal case of the disease. Most people don’t even realize they have the disease! (This disease also occurs in South America.)

Q: What are the symptoms of St. Louis Encephalitis?

A: Symptoms are very much like symptoms of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis and meningitis may occur.

Q: Is there a vaccine to prevent St. Louis Encephalitis?

A: No, unfortunately, not at this time. There are no medicines specifically designed to cure this disease. If a case is severe, medical attention is needed.

Q: Is St. Louis Encephalitis one of the diseases mosquitoes carry?

A: No, it is mainly the culex pipiens females that are the vectors of this disease. These mosquitoes prefer small reservoirs of water such as old tires, flowerpots, rain gutters, and other water-collecting containers for laying their eggs.

Frequently Asked Questions about Western Equine Encephalitis

Q: Where does Western Equine Encephalitis occur?

A: Basically, it can be found in the western regions of the U.S. and Canada, although the area affected has been spreading eastward, especially in places where the number of irrigated farmlands has escalated.

A: Like, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the symptoms of Western Equine Encephalitis are very similar to those of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis, coma, and ultimately, death, may occur.

Unfortunately, it is harshest on young children, and those who survive severe cases may end up needing lifelong care. Horses are also susceptible to the virus and may die from WEE in severe cases.

Q: Is WEE one of the diseases mosquitoes spread?

A: Yes, the Culex Tarsalis mosquito is the culprit here in the United States. It should be noted that the female mosquito can travel 10-15 miles from its “birth home” in search of a blood meal. This means that people in the suburban neighborhoods within a 10-15 mile radius of irrigated land can be prime targets.

Q: Can I catch Malaria here in the United States?

A: It is possible, although almost all of the cases were ones that people caught when they traveled to countries where Malaria outbreaks occur. We have two Anopheles mosquitoes that are responsible for transmitting the parasites that cause Malaria: Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern part of the country and Anopheles freeborni in the western part.

Q: Is Malaria Fatal? Do people die from Malaria here in the U.S.?

A: Yes, people do die from the disease, although it all depends on the medical attention the patient receives. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that of 1,337 cases of malaria reported in 2002 here in the U.S., only 8 deaths occurred.

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It is a contagious and infectious condition which often manifests itself as major pandemics, which may occur in any season interspersed with seasonal epidemics of varying severity.

Influenza is more prominent during the winter season. In winter, the immune system of the body is weak. As people usually stay indoors and are in close proximity to each other, it spreads quickly during winter.

Prognosis of Influenza

The prognosis of Influenza is more severe and lasts longer than ‘common cold’. Recovery period of flu is about one to two weeks. The person remains contagious for about six days from the date of infection.

Influenza leaves the respiratory epithelium weak and prone to several other infections and attack by other pathogens. Influenza can be life threatening when it develops into pneumonia. It may affect people of any age.

Types of Influenza

There are three types of influenza viruses, they are:

1) Type A influenza virus which generally affects the mammals and birds like ducks, chicken and in some cases human beings. There are three variants of Type A influenza viruses namely H1N1 (e.g swine flu), H1N2 (e.g Asian flu and Hongkong flu), and H1N3 viruses.

2) Type B flu virus that infects only humans. This causes mild fever and is less harmful than type A flu.

3) Type C flu which causes mild respiratory infections. virus C. The symptoms of Type C influenza infection resembles the symptoms of common cold and is not pandemic.This flu infects only humans.

Causes of influenza

Influenza is usually caused due to faulty eating habits (dietetic errors) and unhygienic living conditions, like stuffy rooms. Anxiety, overwork, Lack of exercise and faulty lifestyle also provide grounds for influenza infection. The flu virus spreads easily through the saliva droplets released in the air due to sneezing and coughing of the person infected by flu and can infect and weak person quickly.

The birth of influenza virus is closely associated with birds(Avian flu) and other animals (e.g swine flu). Thus Influenza pandemics often originate in places where human beings live in close proximity of animals.

Symptoms of Influenza
The symptoms of influenza are:

  • High fever (upto 40 ° C)
  • Chills and headache
  • Sore throat
  • Dry cough
  • Irritated eyes
  • Nasal congestion and Congestion of the lungs
  • Body aches including Muscle and joint pain
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Pharyngitis

Transmission of influenza virus

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Over-the-counter remedies: Some antihistamines (the sedating varieties) can help cut down on the sneeze reflex. But most experts advise you to leave this fairly innocuous symptom untreated.

The symptom: Chills and fever

What it means: Chills are the way the body generates heat when it feels cold. They usually precede a fever, the body's method for defending itself by raising its temperature to fight a virus.

When to worry: Call your doctor if your temperature rises above 102 degrees, if a fever persists for 72 hours without breaking, or if you also have shortness of breath or dizziness.

Home remedies: To stay hydrated, sip your favorite liquids. Sponging off with warm water may also give you relief.

Over-the-counter remedies: Acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), or naproxen (Aleve) can lower a fever that's making you uncomfortable.

The symptom: Sore throat

What it means: Mucus is dripping into the back of your throat, causing irritation and inflammation.

When to worry: If you have severe difficulty swallowing or breathing, call your doctor to rule out a more serious illness, such as a bacterial infection.

Home remedies: Gargle with warm salt water. Soothe a scratchy throat with liquids, such as caffeine-free tea and broth, or cool down a fiery one with an ice pop.

Over-the-counter remedies: Acetaminophen or ibuprofen will help decrease inflammation.

The symptom: Runny nose

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Prevention: Avoid overcrowded places in endemic areas, particularly where spitting is common. Never drink unpasteurised milk. If in doubt, boil it before drinking. There is a vaccination (BCG) which can give a valuable degree of protection, particularly in children. Travellers who plan to spend more than a month in an area with a high tuberculosis rate and who have not been previously immunised should consider immunisation with BCG.

SARS
(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
is a severe pneumonia that has been reported in China Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Canada. It appears to have spread in a short period of time and is now regarded by the World Health Organisation as a worldwide threat.

The organism responsible for SARS was originally thought to be a paramyxo virus similar to the viruses responsible for causing measles and mumps but It has now been identified as a member of the coronavirus family never previously seen in humans. Identification of the coronavirus means that scientists can now move towards developing treatments for SARS and successfully controlling the disease. At present there is no specific treatment.

Outbreaks such as the one in Toronto which affected family members and health care workers are thought to have occurred early in the epidemic when the significance of the condition was not appreciated. Where infection control measures are applied, outbreaks seem not to occur. Therefore, anyone thought to be suffering from the illness should be isolated and nursed using barrier techniques. Secondary infections can be controlled with antibiotics and symptomatic treatment undertaken.

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

Avian influenza usually does not make wild birds sick, but can make domesticated birds very sick and kill them. They do not usually infect humans; however, several instances of human infections and outbreaks have been reported since 1997. When such infections occur, public health authorities monitor the situation closely because of concerns about the potential for more widespread infection in the human population.

The reported symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, and other severe and life-threatening complications.

Currently there is no definitive evidence of human-to-human transmission of avian influenza and no infections have been documented among health-care workers. While it is unusual for people to get influenza infections directly from animals, such transmission has been documented several times in recent years and is under investigation although most human cases have been linked to direct contact with diseased birds.

The World Health Organisation and other health authorities worldwide are seriously concerned over the co-circulation of human and highly pathogenic animal influenza viruses since an exchange of genes between the two viruses might occur if individuals were co-infected with both viruses which could give rise to a new virus to which humans would have little or no immunity and which could be transmitted from person to person.

It is recommended that travellers to countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry should avoid areas with live poultry, such as live animal markets and poultry farms. Large amounts of the virus are known to be excreted in the droppings from infected birds. Be sure to include a thermometer and alcohol-based hand sanitiser for hand hygiene in your travel health kit.

Influenza B beschreibt einen von drei für den Menschen relevanten Influenza-Virustyp (A, B und C), welcher ausschließlich den Menschen befällt und zusammen mit dem Influenza-A-Virus für die jährlich wiederkehrendenGrippewellen während der Wintermonate verantwortlich ist. Im Gegensatz zum Influenza-A-Virus löst die B-Variante jedoch keine Pandemien (wie 1918 die Spanische Grippe) und seltener Epidemien aus, gilt aber ebenfalls als hoch ansteckend.

Symptome & Verlauf

Das Influenzavirus gehört zur Gruppe der Orthomyxoviren und wird anhand bestimmter Oberflächenproteine in Typen (A, B und C) sowie deren Subtypen unterteilt. Diese oberflächlichen Strukturen übernehmen, sind die Viren erst einmal im Wirt angelangt, unterschiedliche Aufgaben. Das Hämagglutinin (Antigen H) ist für die Verbindung des Virus mit der Wirtszelle zuständig, die Neuraminidase(Antigen N) hilft dem Virus, in die Zelle einzudringen. Die genannten Antigene sind in verschiedenen Ausführungen vorhanden und können in unterschiedlichen Kombinationen auftreten, was dann den jeweiligen Subtypus bestimmt. Bei Influenza B gibt es die seit Jahren existierenden Linien: Yagamata-Linie und Victoria-Linie.

Die Symptome bei einer Erkrankung an Influenz-B-Viren entspricht der typischen Grippesymptomatik und umfasst im Wesentlichen:

  • rasch ansteigendes Fieber bei plötzlichem Krankheitsbeginn
  • starke Hals-, Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen
  • trockener Reizhusten
  • Übelkeit, Erbrechen und Durchfall

Die Symptome treten oft bereits nach 1-2 Tagen Inkubationszeit auf, bestehen in der Regel für 3-5 Tage und klingen dann ab. Durch Übertragung perTröpfcheninfektion (größere Partikel per Husten und Niesen, kleinere bereits durch Sprechen und Atmen) und Sekretübertragung beim Händeschütteln ist die Ansteckungsgefahr bei einer Grippe sehr hoch. Um eine allzu rasche Ausbreitung zu verhindern wird empfohlen, sich zu Hause auszukurieren.

Behandlung

Die Behandlung der Influenza B ist identisch zu der anderer Influenza-Erkrankungen: Neben den gängigen Hausmitteln kann, nur im Fall von schweren Verläufen – bei Risikogruppen oft auch prophylaktisch – eine antivirale Therapiemit Neuraminidasehemmern erfolgen. Diese können die Vermehrung der Viren innerhalb der menschlichen Zelle bzw. deren Freisetzung aus der Zelle verhindern. So wird eine weitere Akkumulation verhindert. Vorbeugend besteht die Möglichkeit einer Grippeschutzimpfung. Dabei werden sogenannte Totimpfstoffeverwendet, also nicht mehr vermehrungsfähige, inaktivierte Virusbestandteile. Das Immunsystem des Körpers reagiert auf das Eindringen dieser Partikel – was mögliche Allgemeinreaktionen wie Fieber, Kopf- und Muskelschmerzen erklärt – und beginnt mit der Produktion von Antikörpern, welche bei nachfolgendem „echten“ Virusbefall zu schützen vermögen.

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A medically supervised opiate withdrawal in a controlled environment can make the withdrawal much safer and more comfortable. It also provides a much a higher chance of success. In the past, opiate-dependent patients had no choice but to undergo conventional detoxification procedures in nonmedical facilities such as a drug rehab; It caused them to suffer through an unnecessary debilitating and sometimes even dangerous withdrawal syndrome.

For more information on Medical Opiate Withdrawal Treatment, Call Today 1-800-423-2482

Natural opiates are alkaloids found in the opium poppy plant, and examples are morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Semi-synthetic opioids are created from natural opiates and include oxycodone, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone. Fully synthetic opioids include fentanyl, methadone, and tramadol.

People who use opiates for the medical condition can also become physically dependent and require a medical opiate detox. One can take these medications safely over a relatively short period. However, most people become dependent when long-term therapy is needed. This is what makes pain management so tricky. Opiates are prized for their ability to defeat pain. Unfortunately, tolerance, dependence, and addiction can set in, even when the drugs are used correctly. Once this happens, the body needs more of the drug to experience the same effect. This increases the risk of a drug overdose.

Drug overdose is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) reports that 100 people die of a drug overdose daily, and 46 people are due to prescription opioid overdose.

Many opioid withdrawal treatment programs, often rely on “replacement” or “substitution” medications such as methadone, Suboxone ( Buprenorphine) or Subutex. These medications are also opioids and may prolong the length of the opiate addiction. Eventually, people dependent on these drugs will require detoxification. For some, Medication-Assisted Therapy (MAT) might be safer than street drugs; for others, being completely opioid-free is the best option. Choosing the appropriate medical detox or the best rapid detox center can dictate the quality and efficiency of the opiate withdrawal treatment.

The Waismann Method ® of rapid detoxification has demonstrated tremendous success in getting patients comfortably and safely through opiate withdrawal. Recognized as the best opiate treatment center in the world, by offering exceptional medical care and individualized assessment.

If you or a loved one is planning to stop taking opiates and have a fear of the withdrawal symptoms side effects, gives us a call today at 310-205-0808. Let us tell you how we can help manage your symptoms and get you through this challenging phase privately and compassionately.

Seeking medical help for an opiate addiction will improve your quality of life, your overall health, reduce the risk of accidental overdose and other related complications. Don’t wait another day, seek help now!

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Goiter can form when the production of T4 falls sharply. To renew the production, TSH is secreted in large amounts from the pituitary gland.

However, if the low production of T4 is caused by iodine deficiency, the increased secretion of TSH does not translate into an increased synthesis of T4. Instead, TSH needlessly stimulates the growth of new cells in the thyroid gland, and this causes the enlargement of the gland.

In mild cases, which are the most common, a mild iodine deficiency may lead to increased production of T3 in the thyroid gland. However, since most of the body’s store of T3 is made from the available T4 which are not being replenished, T4 is rapidly depleted.

Goiter is a big public health problem not only in poor countries but in some affluent nations of Europe and in Australia and New Zealand. The treatment is, however, simple. By supplying iodine supplements, goiter cases can be quickly resolved.

The easiest way to provide iodine supplementation to any population is by mandating that sale of only iodized salts.

Although goiter responds well to iodine supplementation, it is best to treat the iodine deficiency immediately. If left untreated, iodine deficiency progressively destroys the tissues of the thyroid gland. After five years, even iodine supplement or thyroxine replacement cannot reduce the size of goiter because the damage is then permanent.

It should be noted that goiter can be caused by hyperthyroidism too and this second type of goiter does not involve iodine deficiency.

Cretinism is closely linked to iodine deficiency and goiter. In fact, it was the observation that parents with goiter are more likely to have mentally retarded children that revealed the nature of cretinism.

Signs of cretinism include impaired mental development, squint, deaf-mutism, stunted growth, improper stance and walking gait as well as all the other symptoms of hypothyroidism including low basal metabolic rate, low basal body temperature, cold intolerance, fatigue, weight gain and hair loss.

Iodine deficiency is the most important cause of cretinism and it can account for about 15-point difference on the IQ (intelligence quotient) scale.

Iodine supplementation is the only way to prevent cretinism and the supplementation is most effective when given in early childhood while mental capacity is in rapid development.

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Your nose is stuffy, your throat is scratchy, and your head is pounding. Is it a cold or the seasonal flu? Symptoms can overlap, so unless your doctor runs a rapid flu test — a quick check done with a cotton swab from the back of your nose or throat — it’s hard to know for sure. Here are some basic guidelines for telling the difference between cold and flu symptoms, and what to do if you have either one of these infections.

Viruses cause colds and the flu. Both are respiratory infections. The simplest way to tell the difference is by looking at your symptoms.

If you have a cold, you’ll probably have symptoms like these:

Flu symptoms can include:

  • dry, hacking cough
  • moderate to high fever, although not everyone with the flu will run a fever
  • sore throat
  • shaking chills
  • severe muscle or body aches
  • headache
  • stuffy and runny nose
  • severe fatigue that may last up to two weeks
  • nausea and vomiting (most common in children)

Colds come on gradually over a few days and are often milder than the flu. They usually get better in 7 to 10 days, although symptoms can last for up to 2 weeks.

Flu symptoms come on quickly and can be severe. They usually last 1 to 2 weeks.

Use your symptoms as a guide to figure out which condition you have. If you think you might have the flu, see your doctor to get tested within the first 48 hours of showing symptoms.

The common cold is an upper respiratory infection caused by a virus. According to the Mayo Clinic, more than 100 different viruses can cause the common cold. However, the rhinovirus is most often the one that makes people sneeze and sniffle, and it’s highly contagious.

Though you can catch a cold at any time of year, colds are more common during the winter months. This is because most cold-causing viruses thrive in low humidity.

Colds spread when someone who’s sick sneezes or coughs, sending virus-filled droplets flying through the air. You can get sick if you touch a surface (such as a countertop or doorknob) that has recently been handled by an infected person and then touch your nose, mouth, or eyes. You’re most contagious in the first two to four days after you were exposed to the cold virus.

Because it is a viral infection, antibiotics are not effective at treating a cold. However, over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, acetaminophen, and NSAIDs, can relieve congestion, aches, and other cold symptoms. Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.

Some people take natural remedies, such as zinc, vitamin C, or echinacea, to prevent or relieve cold symptoms. The evidence is mixed on whether they work.

A 2015 study in BMC Family Practice found that high-dose (80 milligram) zinc lozenges could shorten the length of colds if taken within 24 hours of showing symptoms. Vitamin C doesn’t seem to prevent colds, but if you take it consistently, it might lessen your symptoms, according to a 2013 Cochrane review. And echinacea hasn’t been shown to help prevent or treat colds. A 2017 study in BMJ found vitamin D helps protect against both colds and flu.

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    Pour consulter l’activité hebdomadaire des principaux indicateurs:

    Parmi les principaux indicateurs, on trouve les suivants:

    L’indice d’activité grippale ainsi que le nombre et la proportion de résultats positifs par rapport aux tests de détection de l’influenza effectués par les laboratoires sentinelles du Québec sont publiés de façon hebdomadaire ici même, sur le site Web du MSSS. De plus, lorsque les virus de l’influenza circulent de façon soutenue, le DSV produit un graphique de l’activité virologique relatif aux saisons antérieures. Ce bilan est lui aussi mis à jour une fois par semaine, pendant la saison grippale.

    Assurée en partenariat avec les directions de santé publique, la surveillance des éclosions d’influenza dans les centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) est basée sur le signalement volontaire, par ces centres, des éclosions d’au moins deux cas d’infection au même type d’influenza survenus dans les dix jours, dont un a été confirmé par un test d’amplification des acides nucléiques. Cette surveillance est continue et effective toute l’année.

    La surveillance de l’activité grippale à l’urgence se fait à partir des données consignées dans la Console provinciale des urgences, une base de données administrée par la Direction générale des services de santé et médecine universitaire (DGSSMU). Elle s’appuie sur deux indicateurs: les consultations pour « Fièvre et toux » ainsi que les diagnostics de « Grippe/Influenza » qui ont été posés au terme de cette consultation.

    La surveillance des admissions dans les centres hospitaliers après un diagnostic de « Pneumonie/Influenza » est assurée à partir des données inscrites dans le Relevé quotidien de la situation à l’urgence et au centre hospitalier, une base de données gérée par la Direction générale des services sociaux.

    Autres indicateurs et projets spéciaux de surveillance

    Le DSV, de par son partenariat avec la DGSSMU et l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec, analyse les données relatives à des indicateurs secondaires qui ne font pas l’objet d’une publication régulière. Figurent parmi ces indicateurs:

    • la surveillance des syndromes d’allure grippale (SAG) par les groupes de médecine de famille sentinelles;
    • la surveillance, dans certains hôpitaux, des admissions attribuables à une infection grippale confirmée par laboratoire;
    • la surveillance des appels pour un SAG au service Info-Santé et Info-Social;
    • la veille épidémiologique et scientifique effectuée par différents partenaires.

    En plus des indicateurs de l’activité grippale définis par le DSV, des données et des renseignements sont recueillis auprès de diverses sources aux fins des objectifs du système de surveillance de la grippe. Ces données et renseignements concernent notamment:

    • l’identification des virus de l’influenza dans les laboratoires du Québec
      Au Québec, une quarantaine de laboratoires effectuent une surveillance continue des virus de l’influenza et d’autres virus respiratoires. Ce réseau de laboratoires sentinelles est coordonné par le Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ). Toutes les semaines, ce dernier reçoit les données de surveillance recueillies par les laboratoires hospitaliers membres du réseau et publie les résultats des analyses. Dans ses rapports, le LSPQ indique, notamment, le nombre d’analyses effectuées, le nombre de cas de grippe confirmés par groupe d’âge ainsi que la distribution géographique des cas.

    Le bulletin Flash Grippe est une production de la Direction de la vigie sanitaire (DVS) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux.

    Son contenu est le reflet d’un effort concerté entre service Info-Santé, les directions de santé publique, le Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec, l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec et l’ensemble des laboratoires sentinelles du Québec, que nous remercions pour leur contribution.

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    Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. If they already have a lung disease, it may get worse. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness.

    Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully treated and do not have complications. Possible complications of pneumonia may include:

    • Bacteremiaand septic shock.Bacteremia is a serious complication in which bacteria from the initial site of infection spread into the blood. It may lead to septic shock, a potentially fatal complication.
    • Lung abscesses.Lung abscesses usually are treated with antibiotics. Sometimes surgery or drainage with a needle is needed to remove the pus.
    • Pleural effusions, empyema, and pleurisy. These painful or even potentially fatal complications can occur if pneumonia is not treated. The pleura is a membrane that consists of two large, thin layers of tissue. One layer wraps around the outside of your lungs and the other layer lines the inside of your chest cavity. Pleurisy is when the two layers of the pleura become irritated and inflamed, causing sharp pain each time you breathe in. The pleural space is a very thin space between the two pleura. Pleural effusions are the build-up of fluid in the pleural space. If the fluid becomes infected, it is called empyema. If this happens, you may need to have the fluid drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.
    • Renal failure
    • Respiratory failure

    Sometimes pneumonia is hard to diagnose because it may cause symptoms commonly seen in people with colds or the flu. You may not realize it's more serious until it lasts longer than these other conditions. Your doctor will diagnose pneumonia based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Your doctor may be able to diagnose you with a certain type of pneumonia based on how you got your infection and the type of germ causing your infection.

    Your doctor will ask about your signs and symptoms and how and when they began. To find out whether you have bacterial, viral, or fungal pneumonia, your doctor also may ask about:

    • Any recent traveling you've done
    • Your hobbies
    • Your exposure to animals
    • Your exposure to sick people at home, school, or work
    • Your past and current medical conditions, and whether any have gotten worse recently
    • Any medicines you take
    • Whether you smoke
    • Whether you've had flu or pneumonia vaccinations

    Your doctor will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. If you have pneumonia, your lungs may make crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds when you inhale. Your doctor also may hear wheezing. Your doctor may find it hard to hear sounds of breathing in some areas of your chest.

    If your doctor thinks you have pneumonia, he or she may recommend one or more of the following tests.

    • Chest x ray to look for inflammation in your lungs. A chest x ray is the best test for diagnosing pneumonia. However, this test won't tell your doctor what kind of germ is causing the pneumonia.
    • Blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) to see if your immune system is actively fighting an infection.
    • Blood culture to find out whether you have a bacterial infection that has spread to your bloodstream. If so, your doctor can decide how to treat the infection.

    Your doctor may recommend other tests if you're in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems.

    • Sputum test. Your doctor may collect a sample of sputum (spit) or phlegm (slimy substance from deep in your lungs) that was produced from one of your deep coughs and send the sample to the lab for testing. This may help your doctor find out if bacteria are causing your pneumonia. Then, he or she can plan your treatment.
    • Chest computed tomography (CT) scan to see how much of your lungs is affected by your condition or to see if you have complications such as lung abscesses or pleural effusions. A CT scan shows more detail than a chest x ray.
    • Pleural fluid culture. For this test, a fluid sample is taken from the pleural space (a thin space between two layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity). Doctors use a procedure called thoracentesis to collect the fluid sample. The fluid is studied for bacteria that may cause pneumonia.
    • Pulse oximetry. For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. Pneumonia can keep your lungs from moving enough oxygen into your bloodstream. If you're very sick, your doctor may need to measure the level of oxygen in your blood using a blood sample. The sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. This test is called an arterial blood gas test.
    • Bronchoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the lungs' airways. If you're in the hospital and treatment with antibiotics isn't working well, your doctor may use this procedure. Your doctor passes a thin, flexible tube through your nose or mouth, down your throat, and into the airways. The tube has a light and small camera that allow your doctor to see your windpipe and airways and take pictures. Your doctor can see whether something is blocking your airways or whether another factor is contributing to your pneumonia. Your doctor may use this procedure to collect samples of fluid from the site of pneumonia (called bronchoalveolar lavage or BAL) or to take small biopsies of lung tissue to help find the cause of your pneumonia.

    Your doctor may also diagnosis you with a certain type of pneumonia. Pneumonia is named for the way in which a person gets the infection or for the germ that causes the infection.

    • Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). CAP is the most common type of pneumonia and is usually caused by pneumococcus bacteria. Most cases occur during the winter. CAP occurs outside of hospitals and other health care settings. Most people get CAP by breathing in germs (especially while sleeping) that live in the mouth, nose, or throat.
    • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP). HAP is when people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. HAP tends to be more serious than CAP because you're already sick. Also, hospitals tend to have more germs that are resistant to antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial pneumonia.
    • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is when people who are on a ventilator machine to help them breathe get pneumonia.
    • Atypical pneumonia. Atypical pneumonia is a type of CAP. It is caused by lung infections with less common bacteria than the pneumococcus bacteria that cause CAP. Atypical bacteria include Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae.
    • Aspiration pneumonia. This type of pneumonia can occur if you inhale food, drink, vomit, or saliva from your mouth into your lungs. This may happen if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. Aspiration pneumonia can cause lung abscesses.

    Acute chest pain and Flu-like symptoms
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    Most people in good health get better from the flu by themselves after 5 to 7 days. You should get good rest and eat according to your appetite.

    Coughing and fatigue may last for 2 weeks or even longer.

    You may relieve symptoms of the flu by taking the following measures:

    If you have a fever, your body naturally loses a lot of fluid, especially through sweating. It is therefore important to drink a lot and often.

    • Preferably drink cold or hot liquids: water, milk, juice, broth.
    • Avoid alcoholic beverages or caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and energy drinks. As these drink make you urinate, they increase loss of fluid.

    In the absence of complications or risk factors, treatment of the flu requires no prescription medication. However, to relieve fever and pain, you may take over-the-counter medicine such as acetaminophen, Tylenol ® for example, and ibuprophen, Advil ® for example.

    Avoid taking medication that includes identical ingredients at the same time. For instance, do not take Tylenol ® and Tylenol ® Sinus together because both these medicines contain acetaminophen.

    In certain cases, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine to reduce the duration and severity of your symptoms. This type of medication is most effective when taken at the onset of an infection.

    If your child is over 3 months old and has a fever, you may give him or her acetaminophen such as Tylenol ®, following instructions given and according to your child’s weight.

    Avoid giving children and adolescents acetylsalicylic acid such as aspirin. Such medication can lead to a serious disease of the brain and liver known as ‘Reye's Syndrome’ in children and adolescents with the flu.

    The flu can lead to certain complications, including:

    • Dehydration due to sweating caused by fever
    • Pneumonia
    • Bronchitis
    • Sinusitis
    • Otitis

    For people considered more vulnerable to sickness, certain complications can lead to hospitalisation or even death.

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    It’s typically those microscopic and pesky protozoa that cause the more uncomfortable symptoms like diarrhea or loose stools. This is because they release prostaglandin which is substance that causes a loss in chloride and sodium. The result is stools that are watery because the body is attempting to rid itself of the attacker.

    Constipation can also be caused because some of the larger parasitic worms can lodge themselves in the intestines and cause a blockage. Over-the-counter stool softeners and a healthy diet should clear up natural bouts of constipation. You may have a parasitic worm causing a blockage if stool softeners don’t provide relief.

    A common condition caused by these intestinal parasites is irritable bowel syndrome. This is a painful and uncomfortable condition that is a result of the parasite irritating the wall of the intestine and causing swelling. Many doctors have been quick to dismiss IBS as just something people must cope with. In the year 2000, researchers in England did a study that showed a significant link between the parasite giardia and irritable bowel syndrome. Ridding the body of this parasite gave great relief to the patients who had previously been diagnosed with IBS.

    Since parasites don’t always stay put in the intestines, but rather move about and enter the blood stream, nervous system, and the organs, joint and muscle pain can be a symptom to look out for. This joint pain can commonly be mistaken for arthritis when in reality it is caused by inflammation due to the parasites becoming encased in a sac and existing despite our body’s best efforts to expel it.

    Some parasites can cause a person to become agitated, nervous, or anxious. Researchers believe this is due to the body reacting in a way to try and rid itself of the foreign body. It’s also known that parasites release waste which can have an adverse effect on the central nervous system.

    People who experience anxiety and nervousness that doesn’t improve with conventional treatments like medication or even meditation may have a parasitic infection. There have been reports of people who underwent a parasite cleanse and experienced a dramatic improvement with their anxiety symptoms.

    Sleep loss can also be associated with the presence of parasites. Much like the anxiety and nervousness that can be caused by the toxins the parasites release, sleep loss occurs with the body’s attempt to deal with the parasite invasion. The liver makes valiant attempts to rid the body of the toxic waste the parasites leave behind which can cause sleep disturbances.

    Another cause of sleep disturbances is associated with pinworms. These tiny white worms exit the body when the host is sleeping to deposit their eggs around the anus. This causes extreme itching and discomfort.

    People, especially children, who have a parasitic infection, have also been known to grind their teeth while sleeping. This is also associated with the nervousness that can be caused by the toxins the parasite is producing in the body.

    Generally, parasites can weaken your immune system. This leads to being more susceptible for infections like the common cold and flu. You may have a parasite that is compromising your immune system if you find that you chronically experience cold and flu symptoms. It’s not abnormal to come down with a cold or flu occasionally, but when it seems like you are always fighting one off, it may be caused by a parasite weakening your body’s defenses.

    Skin conditions are also a common symptom of having a parasitic infection. They can be very uncomfortable, unsightly, and painful to deal with. You may think that only parasites that feed off skin cells will cause these conditions, but that isn’t quite the case. While it’s true that fungi like ringworm cause itchy, patchy skin lesions, intestinal invaders like worms and protozoa also cause irritating skin conditions.

    Hives, eczema, and other rashes have all been linked to intestinal parasites. It’s not known exactly why, but one theory is that the toxins released in the blood stream affect the skin from the inside out. Skin conditions that are not caused by parasites should clear up with topical ointments or steroid treatments prescribed by doctors. If the condition doesn’t clear up with these methods then the culprit may be a parasite.

    When it seems like typical treatments are not providing any relief for any of these parasitic infection symptoms, it may be time to try a parasite cleanse. If left untreated, parasites will continue to multiply and cause damage inside the body. Some can live for years and years causing painful parasite symptoms the entire time.

    From its discovery until 2006, confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were rare, although cases were reported during the 60's in Africa and South-East Asia. Analysis suggested that the African and Asian strains emerged as two distinct lineages.

    The first outbreak outside of Africa and Asia was documented on Yap Island in the Federal States of Micronesia, in 2007.