Nimmt die Grippe einen komplizierten Verlauf, verursachen oft Bakterien zusätzlich zu den Influenza-Viren Krankheitssymptome. Eine solche bakterielle Superinfektion lässt sich dann mit Antibiotika behandeln. Diese töten die Bakterien ab, wirken jedoch nicht gegen die Grippe-Viren.

Verschiedene Medikamente können die Grippe-Symptome dämpfen und die Krankheit damit erträglicher machen. Gegen Kopfschmerzen oder Gliederschmerzen helfen Schmerzmittel wie Ibuprofen, Acetylsalicylsäure oder Paracetamol. Achtung: Kinder sollten bei Grippe keine Acetylsalicylsäure einnehmen. Hohes Fieber können Sie mit fiebersenkenden Medikamenten behandeln - auch hier helfen die vorgenannten Wirkstoffe. Zudem können bei entsprechenden Symptomen Hustensäfte oder abschwellende Nasentropfen sinnvoll sein.

Hausmittel werden oft begleitend zu einer medikamentösen Therapie eingesetzt. Die folgenden Hausmittel können helfen, die Grippe-Beschwerden zu bessern:

Wadenwickel sind ein altbewährtes Mittel gegen Fieber. Man taucht ein Handtuch in lauwarmes Wasser, wringt es aus und wickelt es locker um die Waden. An den befeuchteten Waden entsteht eine Verdunstungskälte, die den gesamten Körper kühlt. Das Fieber sinkt.

Bei starkem Husten und Schnupfen ist Inhalieren ein geeignetes Hausmittel. Inhaliergeräte gibt es in der Apotheke. Sie können aber auch mit einem einfachen Kochtopf und einem Handtuch inhalieren. Dazu wird Wasser mit Salz aufgekocht. Nachdem das Wasser gekocht hat, können Sie Kamille-, Salbei- oder Pfefferminztees hinzugeben. Dann breitet man ein Handtuch über dem Kopf aus und atmet den mit den ätherischen Pflanzenstoffen angereicherten Wasserdampf zehn Minuten lang ein. Der Vorgang kann mehrmals täglich wiederholt werden.

Auch bei Wasserbädern mit Aromaöl-Zusätzen aus Anis, Eukalyptus, Minze, Kiefern- und Fichtennadeln werden die heilenden Aromastoffe eingeatmet und die Atemwege befeuchtet. Vollbäder entspannen und lindern den Husten. Bei hohem Fieber sollten Sie allerdings nicht baden, da der Kreislauf dann zu sehr belastet wird.

Bei einer Grippe ist es wichtig ausreichend Flüssigkeit zu sich zu nehmen, da der Kreislauf durch das Fieber mehr Wasser verliert. Zudem können die Atemwege den Schleim besser abtransportieren, wenn sie gut befeuchtet werden. Besonders unterstützend wirken beispielsweise Holunderblütentee, Lindenblütentee, Ingwertee, Kamillentee, Pfefferminztee, Salbeitee und Tee aus Ginseng. Holunder- und Lindenblüten erhöhen die Schleimproduktion in den Bronchien, Ingwer hemmt die Entzündung und lindert Schmerzen. Kamille wirkt ebenfalls entzündungshemmend und stimuliert das Immunsystem. Ginseng hilft bei Erschöpfung.

Hühnersuppe ist ein hervorragendes Nahrungsmittel bei Infektionskrankheiten. Sie führt dem Körper Flüssigkeit und wichtige Salze (Elektrolyte) zu. Außerdem wird der Hühnersuppe auch eine gewisse antibakterielle Wirkung nachgesagt.

Ein bis vier Tage nachdem man sich mit dem Influenza-Virus infiziert hat, treten die ersten Beschwerden auf. Infizierte Personen sind allerdings häufig schon vor dem Ausbruch der Symptome selbst ansteckend.

Die Grippe kann einen sehr unterschiedlichen Verlauf nehmen. Bei einer normalen Grippe verschwindet das Fieber nach fünf bis sieben Tagen. Symptome wie Husten, Schnupfen oder ein Schwächegefühl können aber noch ein bis zwei Wochen länger anhalten.

Bei Menschen mit einer geschwächten Immunabwehr wie Kinder, ältere Menschen, Schwangere oder Patienten mit chronischen Erkrankungen (vor allem Atemwegserkrankungen) dauert eine Grippe oft länger. Es können dann zudem Komplikationen auftreten, die in seltenen Fällen sogar tödlich enden.

Weil das Grippe-Virus durch veränderte Genabschnitte ständig neue Subtypen entwickelt, kann man mehrmals im Leben an der Grippe erkranken. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Infektionskrankheiten, die man nur einmal bekommt, weil das Immunsystem dann wirksame Schutzmechanismen gegen den Erreger entwickelt hat, wird man also gegen Grippe nicht dauerhaft immun.

Dies gilt zumindest für das häufigere Influenza-A-Virus. Es gibt jedoch verschiedenen Grippe-Viren-Typen. Typ B verändert sich viel langsamer, so dass man meist nur einmal im Leben an einer Grippe durch Influenza-B-Viren erkrankt, häufig bereits im Kindesalter. Die Krankheit verläuft meist mild.

Ebenfalls meist mild ist der Verlauf der sogenannten Sommergrippe, die eigentlich gar keine „echte Grippe“ ist. Denn sie wird nicht durch Influenza-Viren ausgelöst, sondern durch Enteroviren. Wie der Name schon sagt, tritt sie meist im Sommer auf und verläuft ähnlich wie eine Erkältungskrankheit.

Wie man eine Sommergrippe von einer Grippe unterscheidet und Informationen zur Behandlung der Sommergrippe lesen sie im Beitrag Sommergrippe

Wer den Verdacht hat, sich mit dem Grippe-Virus infiziert zu haben, sollte zu einem Arzt gehen. Insbesondere Personen mit einem erhöhten Risiko wie ältere Menschen oder chronisch Kranke sollten bereits bei den ersten Anzeichen einer Grippe ihren Hausarzt aufsuchen.

In vielen Fällen kann der Arzt anhand der Krankengeschichte und einer körperlichen Untersuchung bereits feststellen, ob ein Patient an einer Influenza oder nur an einem grippalen Infekt (Erkältung) erkrankt ist. Wenn es dem Betroffenen aber sehr schlecht geht oder die Gefahr besteht, dass die Erkrankung einen schweren Verlauf nimmt, ist ein Virus-Nachweis sinnvoll. Wenn dieser positiv ausfällt, kann sofort mit einer gegen Viren wirkenden Behandlung begonnen werden.

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Beginning in early 2015, the H5N2 subtype was found in poultry and wild birds in the Midwest and Southeast. The role of wild birds in the introduction and movement of the H5N2 subtype in to these new regions is unclear as the timing of these findings is poorly associated with known wild bird movements at that time, given that the first cases in domestic turkeys in Minnesota occurred at the end of winter, proceeding the arrival of migratory birds from the southern U.S. As of October 6, 2015, 48 million poultry have died or been euthanized as a result of HPAI outbreaks, and the last detection occurred on June 17, 2015. A total of 85 cases of HPAI have been reported in wild birds. The last detection was on July 31, 2015.

Up-to-date listings of HPAI cases can be found at the following locations:

Wild Birds (pdf, USDA-APHIS site)

The novel H5N1 HPAIV that was found in a green-winged teal in Washington is not the same as the Asian H5N1 strain that can infect people and has been the news for several years. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the strains of Eurasian/North American HPAI currently in the US are of low risk to human health.

Aquatic birds, especially ducks, shore birds and gulls are considered natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses. The novel HPAI strains so far are not killing wild waterfowl. However, domestic poultry exposed to these novel virus strains become very ill and most quickly die. In some poultry the only sign of the disease is sudden death. In most infected domestic flocks. The numbers of sick and dying birds increases rapidly over several days. HPAI is devastating to the US poultry industry through production and bird losses, and through the loss of export markets. USDA, State Agriculture and Departments of Natural Resources, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and other agencies are working together to find infected poultry and stop the spread of disease and to educate producers and hunters

How does it spread?

The virus is spread through contact with fecal droppings, saliva and nasal discharges of infected birds. One gram of infected feces contains enough virus to infect one million additional birds. Unlike LPAI, HPAI causes a systemic infection in the bird, spreading the virus to meat and eggs. The virus can survive in dead birds, especially if they are kept cool, for a few days. HPAI also survives in cold, moist environments and tolerates freezing - virus frozen in contaminated ponds can infect birds when the ice melts.

The novel HPAI viruses currently in the US are of little risk to people, and are killed in food by using proper cooking methods and temperatures. Cook game bird meat thoroughly; poultry should reach an internal temperature of 165°F to kill disease organisms and parasites.

What should hunters do to prevent spreading the disease?

Because HPAI can spread from bird carcasses, hunters should take extra precautions so they don't bring the virus home to their own or their neighbors' poultry. In the Pacific flyway, captive falcons became ill and many died after being fed infected wild ducks. Hunters should:

  • Dress your game birds in the field whenever possible.
  • If you must dress birds at home, clean them in an area your poultry and pet birds cannot access. Ideally, there would be a solid barrier between your game cleaning area and where your birds are housed.
  • Keep a separate pair of shoes to wear only in your game cleaning area. If this is not possible, wear rubber footwear and clean/disinfect your shoes before entering or leaving the area.
  • Use dedicated tools for cleaning game, whether in the field or at home. Do not use those tools around your poultry or pet birds.
  • Always wear rubber gloves when cleaning game.
  • Double bag the offal and feathers. Tie the inner bag, and be sure to take off your rubber gloves and leave them in the outer bag before tying it closed.
  • Place the bag in a trash can that poultry and pet birds cannot access. This trash can should also be secure against access by children, pets, or other animals.
  • Wash hands with soap and water immediately after handling game. If soap and water are not available, use alcohol wipes.
  • Wash all tools and work surfaces with soap and water. Then, disinfect them following the disinfectant's labeling. Make sure the disinfectant you use is labeled as effective against flu viruses.
  • Bird Flu - Guidance for Hunters (USDA, pdf, 100kb)
    Hunter Wallet Card (USDA, pdf, 75kb)

    What's being done to prevent its spread?

    Federal and state wildlife agencies are conducting continent-wide wild bird and habitat surveillance for HPAI. Surveillance for wild birds is focused on wetland species such as waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds and includes testing live-trapped birds, hunter-harvested waterfowl, and mortality events.

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    "There are many different opportunistic infections and each one can present differently," Dr. Malvestutto says. In Ron's case, it was Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), aka "AIDS pneumonia," which eventually landed him in the hospital.

    Other opportunistic infections include toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection that affects the brain; a type of herpes virus called cytomegalovirus; and yeast infections such as thrush.

    Photo: Getty Images

    About half of people get night sweats during the early stages of HIV infection, Dr. Malvestutto says.

    These can be even more common later in infection and aren't related to exercise or the temperature of the room.

    Similar to the hot flashes that menopausal women suffer, they're also hard to dismiss, given that they soak your bedclothes and sheets.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Another sign of late HIV infection are nail changes, such as clubbing (thickening and curving of the nails), splitting of the nails, or discoloration (black or brown lines going either vertically or horizontally).

    Often this is due to a fungal infection, such as candida. "Patients with depleted immune systems will be more susceptible to fungal infections," Dr. Malvestutto says.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Another fungal infection that's common in later stages is thrush, a mouth infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast.

    "It's a very common fungus and the one that causes yeast infections in women," Dr. Malvestutto says. "They tend to appear in the mouth or esophagus, making it difficult to swallow."

    Ron woke up one day to find white patches on his tongue. He had thrush. For him, "It was not bothersome other than I didn't like having it." The infection was hard to get rid of, but finally cleared up after Ron started taking drugs to combat HIV.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Cognitive problems could be a sign of HIV-related dementia, which usually occurs late in the course of the disease.

    In addition to confusion and difficulty concentrating, AIDS-related dementia might also involve memory problems and behavioral issues such as anger or irritability.

    It may even include motor changes: becoming clumsy, lack of coordination, and problems with tasks requiring fine motor skills such as writing by hand.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Cold sores (oral herpes) and genital herpes can be a sign of both ARS and late-stage HIV infection.

    And having herpes can also be a risk factor for contracting HIV. This is because genital herpes can cause ulcers that make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sex. And people who have HIV tend to have more severe herpes outbreaks more often because HIV weakens the immune system.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Late HIV can also cause numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. This is called peripheral neuropathy, which also occurs in people with uncontrolled diabetes.

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    It is not clear, however, if frequent heartburn actually causes people to develop asthma. Although many people who have heartburn also have asthma and vice versa, the reasons for this overlap aren't clear.

    Experts think stomach acid can trigger nerves in the chest to constrict your breathing tubes in order to keep acid from entering. Again, a simple pH test to look for acid in your esophagus may help you get to the bottom of the problem.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Nausea is associated with so many things that it can be hard to attribute it to reflux. But, says Dr. Coyle, "in some people, the only manifestation they have of reflux is nausea. If you have nausea and can't figure out why, one of the things [to] think about is reflux."

    And if the nausea tends to come on right after meals, that's even more of an indication that it might be acid reflux. If so, a regular antacid treatment such as an over-the-counter acid-countering medicine could cut down on your discomfort.

    Photo: Getty Images

    If your mouth all of a sudden starts producing extra saliva, it could be water brash, which is highly suggestive of acid reflux, Dr. Coyle says.

    It involves the same nerves and reflex as when you vomit. "It is your body trying to wash out an irritant in your esophagus," he says.

    Photo: Getty Images

    Over time, the continuous cycle of damage and healing after acid reflux causes scarring, Dr. Pfanner says. This, in turn, causes swelling in the lower-esophagus tissue, resulting in a narrowing of the esophagus and difficulty swallowing.

    Eine Grippe (Influenza) kann sehr unterschiedlich ablaufen: Milde, erkältungsähnliche Grippesymptome sind ebenso möglich wie eine schwere Erkrankung, die im Extremfall sogar tödlich enden kann.

    Gerade anfangs kann man die Grippe leicht mit einer Erkältung verwechseln. Der Unterschied zwischen Influenza und Erkältung zeigt sich im Verlauf und in der Schwere der Erkrankung.

    Die Grippe ist eine plötzlich auftretende, fieberhafte Viruserkrankung, die durch verschiedene Grippeviren entsteht. Da sie im Winter häufiger vorkommt, wird sie auch "saisonale Grippe" genannt.

    Typischerweise tritt die Grippe zeitlich und örtlich gehäuft auf: Dann spricht man von einer Grippewelle oder Epidemie. In größeren Zeitabständen von mehreren Jahren bis Jahrzehnten breitet sich die Influenza länderübergreifend beziehungsweise weltweit aus – dies bezeichnet man als Pandemie.

    Die Erkrankungs- und Sterberate schwankt bei der Influenza allerdings stark. In manchen Jahren steigt die normale Sterblichkeitsrate trotz Grippefällen gar nicht an. Doch während einer einzelnen Grippesaison können auch mehrere Tausend Menschen mehr als sonst sterben. So gab es beispielsweise durch die besonders heftige Grippewelle 2012/13 in Deutschland über 20.000 zusätzliche Todesfälle. Daher ist eine Influenza nie als harmlos anzusehen.

    Typisch für die echte Grippe (Influenza): Man fühlt sich schlagartig richtig krank.

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    Antihistamine monotherapy (sedating and nonsedating)

    Cochrane review of three RCTs11

    No more effective than placebo

    Cochrane review of 32 RCTs23

    No more effective than placebo

    Cochrane review of two RCTs11

    No more effective than placebo for cough

    American College of Chest Physicians24

    RCT with viral challenge25

    No more effective than placebo for cold symptoms

    No more effective than placebo

    Nasal irrigation with hypertonic or normal saline

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    Goiter can form when the production of T4 falls sharply. To renew the production, TSH is secreted in large amounts from the pituitary gland.

    However, if the low production of T4 is caused by iodine deficiency, the increased secretion of TSH does not translate into an increased synthesis of T4. Instead, TSH needlessly stimulates the growth of new cells in the thyroid gland, and this causes the enlargement of the gland.

    In mild cases, which are the most common, a mild iodine deficiency may lead to increased production of T3 in the thyroid gland. However, since most of the body’s store of T3 is made from the available T4 which are not being replenished, T4 is rapidly depleted.

    Goiter is a big public health problem not only in poor countries but in some affluent nations of Europe and in Australia and New Zealand. The treatment is, however, simple. By supplying iodine supplements, goiter cases can be quickly resolved.

    The easiest way to provide iodine supplementation to any population is by mandating that sale of only iodized salts.

    Although goiter responds well to iodine supplementation, it is best to treat the iodine deficiency immediately. If left untreated, iodine deficiency progressively destroys the tissues of the thyroid gland. After five years, even iodine supplement or thyroxine replacement cannot reduce the size of goiter because the damage is then permanent.

    It should be noted that goiter can be caused by hyperthyroidism too and this second type of goiter does not involve iodine deficiency.

    Cretinism is closely linked to iodine deficiency and goiter. In fact, it was the observation that parents with goiter are more likely to have mentally retarded children that revealed the nature of cretinism.

    Signs of cretinism include impaired mental development, squint, deaf-mutism, stunted growth, improper stance and walking gait as well as all the other symptoms of hypothyroidism including low basal metabolic rate, low basal body temperature, cold intolerance, fatigue, weight gain and hair loss.

    Iodine deficiency is the most important cause of cretinism and it can account for about 15-point difference on the IQ (intelligence quotient) scale.

    Iodine supplementation is the only way to prevent cretinism and the supplementation is most effective when given in early childhood while mental capacity is in rapid development.

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    The most frequently reported illness by travelers to Mexico is more formally called traveler's diarrhea. Some may remember the international gravity of Jimmy Carter's faux pas, and it truly it was a slight to the sensibilities of the Mexican people, when he called it by the colloquialism, "Montezuma's revenge." Traveler's diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites which are found at large throughout the region. Transmission occurs most often through contaminated food or water. Infections can cause anything from minor discomfort to severe cases of diarrhea and vomiting. Be warned, however: it can also result in liver damage or muscle paralysis!

    To avoid traveler's diarrhea, eat only thoroughly cooked foods and peel your own fruit. Drink only boiled water, bottled carbonated water or bottled carbonated soft drinks. although one may also indulge in margaritas, of course (but watch the ice for creepy crawlies. and you don't usually see them!).

    Dengue Fever is transmitted by mosquito bites and is usually a danger in areas of human habitation, like cities. The mosquitoes are usually most active at dusk and at dawn, but may bite at any time during the day. The illness results in flu-like symptoms with a sudden onset, rash, severe headache, high fever, and joint and muscle pain. The rash will appear three or four days after the onset of the fever, which is the first symptom. (One might assume that this is not quite what you had in mind when you embarked on your journey.) Fortunately, the risk of exposure for the traveler is quite small, except during periods of epidemic.

    Of course, there are other mosquito-linked diseases in Mexico as well. Malaria is caused by the bite of the mosquito. although these particular bugs usually fly and bite at night, from dusk until dawn. They are found in rural areas primarily, especially in the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco, Colima, Nayarit, Guerrero, Campeche, Sinaloa, Michoacan and Quintana Roo. (It is recommended that you take chloroquine for one week prior to entering a malarial area, once a week while there and four weeks after leaving.) Yellow fever is also caused by the mosquito, but cases are rare in Mexico. And try to avoid flea bites: they carry the plague! (But this is rare as well.)

    To decrease the probability of exposure to insect bites, the traveler should wear clothing which covers most of the body, use a mosquito net and stay in well screened areas. Use an insect repellent on any exposed areas of your skin. The most effective repellent is DEET, which is found in most insect repellents, but it is important to avoid using the higher concentration (above 35%) products directly on the skin. Also avoid putting it on your hands if they can come into contact with the mouth and eyes. It is also helpful to buy a spray for flying insects to use in sleeping areas in the evening. While one might object highly to using all these toxins, just remember that it is not something that you will be doing for a prolonged period of time. and it is much less damaging than the alternative.

    An epidemic of cholera has recently swept through Central America, including Mexico, although the risk to travelers is usually quite low. This disease is caused by a bacterium and results in an acute intestinal infection. The symptoms include massive watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and muscle cramps. There is a vaccine available, although it is only 50% effective in reducing the symptoms of the illness. One would want to follow the recommendations previously described for traveler's diarrhea with reference to food and water.

    Despite the dangers, and they are a reality, taking a sensible approach during your journey should greatly reduce, if not eliminate, any dangers these tropical diseases may pose. Travel wisely and enjoy! R.S.

    The Centers for Disease Control recommends the following precautions for traveling to Mexico and other areas of Central America:

    1.) If malaria may be a problem, take chloroquine or mefloquine.

    2.) Take the precautions described on this page for preventing insect bites.

    3.) Pay attention to the dangers associated with drinking water and food and take appropriate measures to avoid contamination.

    4.) Take a dose of immune serum globulin (formerly called gamma globulin) to protect against hepatitis A.

    5.) Consider having a booster dose of tetanus.

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      Kozak PP, Gallup J, Cummins LH, Gillman SA. Endogenous mold exposure: environmental risk to atopic and nonatopic patients. In: Gammage RB, Kay SV (eds). Indoor Air and Human Health. Chelsea, Mich: Lewis Publishers; 1985:149-170

      Peltola J, Anderson MA, Raimo M, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Salkinoja-Salonen M., 1999 Membrane toxic substances in water-damaged construction materials and fungal pure cultures In: Johanning E. Bioaerosols, Fungi, Mycotoxins: Health effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control 1. New York: Eastern New York Occupational & Environmental Health Center. p 432–443

      Peraica, M.; Radic, B.; Lucic, A.; Pavlovic, M., September 1, 1999, Diseases Caused by Molds in Humans , Bulletin of the World Health Organization

      Reshetilova TA, Soloveva TF, Baskunov BP, Kozlovskii AG., 1992 Investigation of alkaloid formation by certain species of fungi of the Penicillium genus Mikrobiologiya 61:873-879

      This site is not intended to give medical advice. Seek the advice of a professional for medication, treatment options, and complete knowledge of any illness. The opinions expressed here are exclusively my personal opinions do not necessarily reflect my peers or professional affiliates. The information here does not reflect professional advice and is not intended to supersede the professional advice of others.

      ©2001-2006 Mold-Help. All rights reserved

      Amphetamine Abuse & Addiction Effects, Signs & Symptoms

      Amphetamines are a type of central nervous system stimulant. They provide a sense of increased wakefulness, energy, attention, concentration, sociability, self-confidence, improved mood, and decreased appetite. They are frequently prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. Amphetamines appears to have a calming effect on individuals with ADHD and sometimes afternoon sleepiness has been observed in adults with the condition. Amphetamines are also used to treat narcolepsy, treatment resistant depression and obesity. When overused these medications can be addictive. Additionally, some individuals without ADHD may use amphetamines during times when high levels of productivity are required. The increase in the ability to perform and accompanying psycho-social effects often leads these individuals to continue taking amphetamines even after the demand for productivity has passed.

      Twelve month incidence rates were estimates at.2% for both the 12 – 17 and 18 and older age groups. While these estimates were the same for both genders in the 18 and older age group for those ages 12-17, gender effects were reported with girls (.3%) having higher rates or amphetamine type stimulant disorder than males (.1%). While admissions for treatment were roughly the same for males (54%)and females (46%) who did not use the substance intravenously, male were 3-4 times more likely to use amphetamines intravenously than females. 12 month incidence rates were found to be higher among those age 18 – 29 (.4%) compared to those ages 45 – 64 (.1%). For 12-17 year olds, Amphetamine type stimulant abuse estimated prevalence rates were highest among Caucasians and African Americans (.3%), compared with Hispanics (.1%) and Asian Americans (.01%). In this age group, Amphetamine abuse was practically absent in Native Americans. In those ages 18 and above, however, the highest estimated prevalence rates were found among Native Americans and Native Alaskans (.6%) compared with Caucasians (.2%) and Hispanics (.2%). This particular type of substance abuse disorder was virtually non-existent in African Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Past year prevalence rates of non- medical use of amphetamines across all children through college age was estimated at 5%-9% with past year prevalence rates of the disorder estimated at 5%-35% of across all individuals of college age.

      The most frequently disorders that co-occur with stimulant use disorders are other substance abuse disorders, in particular substances with sedative properties which are commonly used to avoid the negative effects experienced when the stimulant begins to wear off. With Amphetamine abuse, the most common type of co-occurring substance abuse is marijuana. Other co-occurring disorders include:

      • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
      • Antisocial Personality Disorder
      • Gambling Disorder
      • Neurological Disorders

      Genetic: If you have a parent with an amphetamine use problem, it is possible you inherited a susceptibility to develop the same disorder. In addition, temperament, the inherited building blocks of personality, can predispose you to develop a problem with amphetamine use. Individuals who are open to novelty, are curious and frequently experiment with ways to increase happiness, prefer feeling overactive rather than underactive, and have difficulties coping with delayed gratification are more likely than their peers to develop an amphetamine use disorder

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      Je suis infirmiere à info-santé et BEAUCOUP de gens ne savent pas la différence entre les 2!! Des rhumes qui virent en grippe, des grippes musculaires ou des grippes qui durent 3 mois!! J’entends cela très souvent!! Tes articles sont vraiment très drôles et surtout pertinentes!! Merci

      Allo Olivier,
      Est-il possible d’utiliser les affiches en PDF pour faire de la sensibilisation?
      Notamment sur Facebook?
      Merci.
      Cédric.

      Oui, elles sont là pour ça!
      Merci!
      Olivier

      Merci pour la version pdf, excellente idée! J’imprime et j’affiche dans ma classe. J’en donne aussi un exemplaire à l’infirmier.

      Mal de tête et mal partout peuvent aussi être présents en cas de rhume.

      Juste un petit mot pour dire que la “grippe d”homme” m’a faite mourir de rire! > Le Scrat | February 26, 2017 at 12:12 pm | Reply

      Bonjour!! J ai pensé à vous en tombant sur unarticle concernant le paracetamol.
      Malgré le fait que les auteurs donnentun look serieux et scientifique … bon j ai failli abandonner ma lecture au premier paragraphe (l efferalgan fait parti des medicaments contenant du paracetamol, deja ça part mal!).
      Peut etre qu il pourravos inspirer 😉
      Continuez votre blog et vos super articles.

      Voici le titre d’un article lu sur le site « Le Figaro.fr »: « L’épidémie de grippe cet hiver a provoqué quelque 14 400 décès. » Dans l’article, on fait mention que le vaccin n’était pas trop efficace cette année. Est-ce le même vaccin au Canada?

      En revanche, pas un mot sur les décès causés par le vaccin lui-même. Encore un complot de l’industrie pharmaceutique, j’imagine…

      Depuis hier je morve h24 mais c’est transparent, ça serait dû à une allergie du coup? Et moi qui pensait n’en avoir aucune!

      En fait non, la couleur du mucus (morve) est vraiment difficile à interpréter. La plupart du temps, c’est assez transparent, même quand on a le rhume. Quand c’est coloré, c’est que le mucus contient une concentration importante de globules blancs.

      Globalement, le point à retenir est que le mucus coloré n’est pas typique dans les allergies. Mais du mucus transparent, c’est pas super informatif.

      Merci pour la question et A+!

      Pour le rhume tu dis qu’il faut bien s’hydrater…. alors l’eau peut bien guérir plein de maladie:O. Tu nous mentais depuis le début.

      Hello.. instructif et drôle.. merci😆..

      Sympa cette BD sur la grippe, j’ai bien ri 😉 Bravo pour le site 😉

      rhume c’est une inflammation des fosses nasales ou rhinite par contre la grippe est une infection d’origine virale

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      • 1. Loganathan A, Arumainathan UD, Raman R. Comparative study of bacteriology in recurrent tonsillitis among children and adults. Singapore Med J. 2006 Apr;47(4):271-5. PubMed
      • 2. Kocaturk S, Demiray T, Incesulu A, Kandirali E, Erkam U, Mert A. Comparison of adenoid and tonsil core cultures in chronic adenotonsillitis. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2003 Mar;10(3):105-9. PubMed
      • 3. Radosz-Komoniewska H, Rogala-Zawada D, Zientara M, Rudy M, Nowakowska M. Bacterial flora in pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 1998;50(1-2):63-8. PubMed
      • 4. Gudima IA, Vasil'eva LI, Bragina LE, Suchkov IIu. Viral-bacterial-fungal associations in chronic tonsillitis in children. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Sep-Oct;(5):16-9. PubMed
      • 5. Putto A, Meurman O, Ruuskanen O. C-reactive protein in the differentiation of adenoviral, Epstein-Barr viral and streptococcal tonsillitis in children. Eur J Pediatr. 1986 Aug;145(3):204-6. PubMed

      Created: August 18, 2006
      Last updated: February 24, 2016

      Now that we talked about why you have sugar withdrawals, let’s talk about what the symptoms are. After coming off of sugar over 50 times myself and helping hundreds to the same, I have found that sugar addicts actually have different symptoms when they are coming off of sugar. And I don’t really like to give you a long list of negative things to “expect” because maybe none of these will happen to you, only one of them or a bunch of them. It can be helpful to be kind of prepared though so you don’t think something weird is happening while you are breaking this sugar addiction. Check out this one great tool, a free video that I made for you called The 3 Mistakes Sugar Addicts Make and How to Avoid Them. Here is a list of the sugar withdrawals I personally experienced and those I have seen come off sugar and keep in mind they usually only last for a few days if even that:

      1. Feeling sad or down. I will admit, this is then number one thing I would experience when I would come off sugar. But have hope, it would only last a few days, thank God! That is one thing that really motivated me to stay away from sugar because I hate feeling sad and it started to not be worth it, the trade-off of having sugar to being really down for a few days. For me I know this is a major sugar withdrawal because I do NOT experience sadness on a regular basis, only when I am coming off sugar. Its very important if you struggle with depression already, that you guard yourself against this and make sure are aware of this. The good news is, I have seen many people who struggle with moodiness and depression GREATLY improve when they no longer have a sugar addiction. Personally I think a lot of people who struggle with this would see an improvement when they break the sugar addiction.
      2. Headaches. I personally never had this sugar withdrawal but I have heard some say they do.
      3. Fatigue. If you have been jacked up on sugar all the time, your body is used to that rush but you have also really stressed out your adrenal glands, which can make you more tired. The ironic thing is, since I no longer am a sugar addict if I do have sugar, I am so tired that night, it literally puts me to sleep. I really can’t believe it! And when I wake up the next day, I almost feel hung over I am so tired. I never realized that as much when I ate sugar all the time.
      4. Sleep patterns affected. Remember you are detoxing off a poisonous substance that is toxic so you are going to be detoxing as it gets out of your body. If you were addicted to sugar, your body was all out of whack from having blood sugar spikes to insulin surges and your body needs some time to balance back out.
      5. Sugar cravings. Now this one is the obvious side effect. Once you stop eating sugar, one sugar withdrawal can be ridiculously intense cravings for it. Remember, you may be stopping something that has been a habit of yours for 20 years so give yourself a break! Its normal to crave something that has been a part of your life for so long not only mentally but physically as well. Be encouraged that sugar cravings DO go away.

      Take “The Quiz” to self-diagnose whether you even are a sugar addict or not, click here.

      One of the most important things about breaking a sugar addiction is learning how to think differently about sugar and how you resist temptation in your life. Because if you get off sugar but don’t know how to stay off it, that is something that can be very frustrating. If you want to check out a free internet seminar I am doing click here or go to http://sugaraddictionspecialist.com/internet-seminar/

      Be on the lookout for your own sugar withdrawals and feel free to leave a comment and let us know what yours were so we can all know what to look out for.

      Mold toxicity is often the end result with constant exposure to mold of a toxic substance. A common misconception among allergists who are untrained in this type of toxicity levels in humans, which is technically not their area of expertise unless they have trained specifically in environmental medicine with their background in immunology, is to do general allergen testing. Most tests usually result in an unequivocal result, a 2+ or less. This induces some physicians to order allergy shots, regardless. These shots are absolutely worthless (and could possibly be harmful) to a person who has been heavily exposed to these mycotoxins as they are already in a state of toxicity. If anything, this could exacerbate the problem. Because many doctors are not trained in this field, they may try to "guess" at a diagnosis.

      In laymen's terms, molds produce mycotoxins. These substances, although unseen by the naked eye, are ingested and then enter the body through the skin, mucous and airways. Once ingested, mold has the requirements to colonize and spread. In doing this, it can compromise the immune system and damage everyday processes of the body. Mold and yeast are interchangeable only in their dimorphic state, which is often a big misconception, although both are fungi. There has been a theory of a connection between Autism Spectrum Disorder onset and Candida Albicans in the body. New studies are being conducted during the first quarter of 2006. Updates will follow.

      Fungi, which include yeasts, moulds, smuts and mushrooms, are responsible for causing four types of mycotic (fungal) disease:

      1. Hypersensitivity - an allergic reaction to moulds and spores;

      2. Mycotoxicosis - poisoning by food products contaminated by fungi

      3. Mycetismus - the ingestion of preformed toxin (toadstool poisoning)

      4. Infection (systemic) - (Mycotoxicosis; the subject below)

      The following are a list of the most common symptoms of fungal exposure (bear in mind, people never fit all of below criteria). Most people with some forms of Mycotoxicosis meet at least 8 (recent symptoms) of the following criteria:

      • Fibromyalgia/mps (and several correlated symptoms)
      • Respiratory distress, coughing, sneezing, sinusitis
      • Difficulty swallowing, choking, spitting up (vomiting) mucous
      • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
      • Burning in the throat and lungs (similar to acid reflux and often misdiagnosed as such)
      • Asthmatic signs; wheezing, shortness in breath, coughing, burning in lungs, etc.
      • Irritable bowel syndrome, nausea, diarrhea, sharp abdominal pains, stomach lesions
      • Bladder, liver, spleen, or kidney pain
      • Dark or painful urine
      • Dirt-like taste in mouth, coated tongue
      • Food allergies/leaky gut syndrome/altered immunity
      • Memory loss; brain fog, slurred speech, occasionally leading to dementia
      • Vision problems
      • Swollen lymph nodes
      • Large boils on neck (often a sign of anaphylaxis )
      • Yellowing of nails, ridges, or white marks under nail
      • Thyroid irregularities, sometimes leading to complete dysfunction; adrenal problems
      • Headaches
      • Anxiety/depression, heart palpitations - confusion, PTSD
      • Extreme blood pressure, cholesterol, or triglycerides irregularities
      • Ringing in ears, balance problems (very common), dizziness, loss of hearing (aspergillus niger)
      • Chronic fatigue (also included under this classification directional confusion)
      • Intermittent face flushing; almost always systemic, Called the Mylar Flush (neurological))
      • Night head sweats, and drooling while sleeping, profuse sweating
      • Multiple chemical sensitivity; only upon exposure to Stachybotrys and Chaetomium
      • Nose bleeds (stachybotrys)
      • Bruising/scarring easily; rash or hives, bloody lesions all over the skin (Often systemic, see images; skin )
      • Reproductive system complications; infertility, changes in menstrual cycles, miscarriage
      • Sudden weight changes (Detoxifier genotypes tend to gain weight, non-detoxifier genotypes tend to lose weight)
      • Cancer
      • Hair loss, very brittle nails, temporary loss of fingerprints (in rare cases)
      • Joint/muscle stiffness and pain
      • Irregular heart beat/heart attack
      • Seizures, inadvertent body jerking, twitching, inadvertent facial movements or numbness in face
      • Hypersensitivity when re-exposed to molds, which can lead to anaphylaxis
      • Anaphylaxis upon re-exposure to mycotoxin producing molds
      • Death, in extreme cases

      Note: despite inaccurate and misleading reports by theorists regarding immuno-compromised, babies, and the elderly being more susceptible, this is a big misconception as exposure to the T-2 mycotoxins found in many types of current indoor molds will poison anyone in time; no one is immune. The reason for this conflicting information is that studies have never been conducted to prove this. If so called experts are going to make such a broad and misleading statement, they may as well say that this same category of people is more susceptible to SARS, West Nile Virus, AIDS, and cancer. The T-2 mycotoxins found in many of these molds are the exact same T-2 mycotoxins that have killed widespread groups of innocent people with Yellow Rain, a biological warfare agent.

    • nexium 40 mg effets secondaires

      “This year, the flu strain mutated a little bit and there is one component of the flu strain that is causing the flu in people who actually did get the shot,” she said.

      Several local hospitals are now limiting visitors to try and stop the spread of the flu. At the University of Maryland Medical Center, no visitors under the age of 18 will be allowed in the hospital, only two adult visitors can see a patient at one time and visitors experiencing flu symptoms are not permitted.

      Flu season normally lasts through February and March.

      Experts say they are expecting another surge in flu cases later in the season.

      I was prescribed Lamictal for BiPolar. I started off at 25mg a day for 14 & then 5omg for 14 days. I am on my 4th day ( of the 50mg) & am having horrible "flu" like symptoms. Has anyone else experienced this. Thanks for any info.:)

      I have hoarseness weight gain achiness in my legs and feet and more I askes to be dropped to 50 as I was on 100mg and had more side effects

      Are your feet swollen and hands? do you feel weak? and you mentioned you have gained weight, What other side effects do you have because they may be serious.

      contact your doc, and once again i ask u r u on other meds cause of the interactions?

      Hi Im bi polar and I have been on in it for 3 or 4 years was on 200mg now Im on 300mg, no side effects but 4 me. Its a common side effect to have flu like symtoms, (body aches and chills).
      I would still recommend u tell your doc.

      hope this helps

      i did talk to my doc and i think it is time for a second opinion. did anyone gain weight. i also have gained 15 lbs most fluid but how good is that on the rest of your body. i am afraid it is going to effect my heart

      Try to avoid fluids that have to much sodium in them..that causes water retention. even bottled water. there is on form nestle gas free (at least here) free of sodium, also dont add sault to your meals, as sodium is a prservative that pratically comes in everything.

      I appreciate everyone's comments. That is really the only side-effect I have had is the flu like symptoms. I have not gained weight at all. To the one that commented on the retention of fluid, that is not normal, if your Dr insist you stay on Lamictal maybe you could request they put you on 25mg of Hydrochlorothiazide a day. That will drop that water weight real quick. I haven't heard of weight gain with Lamictal. Actually, one of the side effects is "Anorexia". Has anyone else experienced weight gain ( or loss) with Lamictal?

      Several side effects are possible with Lamictal. Weight gain does appear to be one of them, although it is not among the most commonly reported Lamictal side effects. This data comes from clinical trials where the drug was extensively studied and side effects were documented.

      In studies, between 1 and 5 percent of people taking Lamictal for bipolar disorder treatment experienced weight gain. However, weight gain was not reported as a side effect in people taking it to control seizures.