The parainfluenza virus is often referred to by other names, such as canine influenza virus, greyhound disease and race flu. This virus used to affect only horses and is believed to have adapted to become contagious to dogs as well. Currently, no other species are at risk of this particular strain of the virus. Parainfluenza virus is easily spread from dog to dog and causes symptoms which may become fatal. The highest instances of this respiratory infection are seen in areas with high dog populations, such as race tracks, boarding kennels and pet stores, but it remains highly contagious to any dog of any age.
Symptoms of parainfluenza virus include many general symptoms seen in other infections, viruses and diseases. Symptoms can vary in intensity and commonly affect younger puppies and aging dogs the worst. This virus is commonly mistaken for kennel cough, as the symptoms between the two are similar. It's important to keep in mind that kennel cough usually produces no additional symptoms, other than the cough. Symptoms to look for when parainfluenza virus is suspected are as follows:
- Dry or hacking cough that may worsen with activity
- Difficulty with breathing, wheezing
- Runny nose
- Runny eyes, eye inflammation or conjunctivitis
- Possible pneumonia with depression, loss of appetite and lethargy
When parainfluenza virus is suspected but only a cough exists, certain tests will be required to differentiate between kennel cough and the more serious parainfluenza virus. A chest x-ray can help to determine the presence of pneumonia. Blood testing may also be important to rule out other possibilities and to inspect over a period of weeks to determine the actual cause of illness. Quickly discovering a proper diagnosis can be helpful when deciding if the dog must be quarantined or to begin effective treatment as soon as possible.
Treatment options for parainfluenza virus vary based upon a number of options. One of the most important factors is to contain the virus and treat it before it can spread to other dogs. Many dogs can recover from this virus naturally, but they remain contagious and the virus can easily spread through respiratory secretions and through the air. For this reason, the virus is usually treated aggressively with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. If necessary, a cough suppressant may be used. Intravenous fluids may help to keep the dog hydrated and strengthen the immune system, preventing secondary bacterial infections or other complications.
It's not recommended to treat parainfluenza virus in dogs from your home, but the following tips may help if you decide this is the best option for your family. Likewise, you may find this information beneficial for home care after hospitalization and treatment for the virus:
- Limit your dog's exercise and play or rest quietly with the dog
- Keep the dog away from other dogs in the household during treatment and for at least one week following
- Feed soft food if throat irritation is present
- Encourage sufficient fluid intake by providing adequate water at all times
- Avoid exposure to loud noises, chemical fumes or other events that may cause undue stress
- Remove collars to encourage sufficient air intake
- Set up a humidifier
Avian influenza (bird flu) in feral pigeons - what are the risks?
Bird flu, fowl plague, bird influenza, Asian bird flu, HPAI, LPAI, H5N1, H7N2, H7, H5N2
Influenza has been known about since 1878 and is caused by a type ‘A’ influenza virus. It has historically been known as ‘fowl plague’. There are three types of influenza virus: type A, type B and type C. Most forms of influenza are solely associated with humans, but the type A influenza virus has been found in pigs, horses and occasionally in birds and other mammals. Types B and C are human-specific and are not found in animals, mammals or birds. The type associated with recent outbreaks of avian influenza (bird flu) in south-east Asia is the type A influenza virus.
Thousands of influenza viruses, belonging to many sub-types, have been found in both domesticated and wild birds all over the world. Currently, avian influenza is recognised in two forms:
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
- Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)
The highly pathogenic form ('pathogenic' refers to the ability of an infecting agent to produce disease - hence, a virus that is highly pathogenic is capable of producing severe disease) is the most virulent form of the disease and can spread rapidly, particularly when found in intensively farmed domestic poultry. The mortality rate for birds infected with the highly pathogenic form can be up to 100% and the disease can develop so fast that in some cases birds will die without ever having showed any signs that they had contracted the disease. The highly pathogenic form is so virulent that one gram of infected chicken excrement can contain enough highly pathogenic virus to infect 100,000 birds. Conversely, the low pathogenic form results in a milder, less significant form of the disease with infected birds rarely becoming ill or demonstrating symptoms, but they still have the potential to pass the disease on to other birds or animals. Certain low pathogenic forms can, however, mutate into highly pathogenic strains.
Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. If they already have a lung disease, it may get worse. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness.
Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully treated and do not have complications. Possible complications of pneumonia may include:
- Bacteremiaand septic shock.Bacteremia is a serious complication in which bacteria from the initial site of infection spread into the blood. It may lead to septic shock, a potentially fatal complication.
- Lung abscesses.Lung abscesses usually are treated with antibiotics. Sometimes surgery or drainage with a needle is needed to remove the pus.
- Pleural effusions, empyema, and pleurisy. These painful or even potentially fatal complications can occur if pneumonia is not treated. The pleura is a membrane that consists of two large, thin layers of tissue. One layer wraps around the outside of your lungs and the other layer lines the inside of your chest cavity. Pleurisy is when the two layers of the pleura become irritated and inflamed, causing sharp pain each time you breathe in. The pleural space is a very thin space between the two pleura. Pleural effusions are the build-up of fluid in the pleural space. If the fluid becomes infected, it is called empyema. If this happens, you may need to have the fluid drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.
- Renal failure
- Respiratory failure
Sometimes pneumonia is hard to diagnose because it may cause symptoms commonly seen in people with colds or the flu. You may not realize it's more serious until it lasts longer than these other conditions. Your doctor will diagnose pneumonia based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Your doctor may be able to diagnose you with a certain type of pneumonia based on how you got your infection and the type of germ causing your infection.
Your doctor will ask about your signs and symptoms and how and when they began. To find out whether you have bacterial, viral, or fungal pneumonia, your doctor also may ask about:
- Any recent traveling you've done
- Your hobbies
- Your exposure to animals
- Your exposure to sick people at home, school, or work
- Your past and current medical conditions, and whether any have gotten worse recently
- Any medicines you take
- Whether you smoke
- Whether you've had flu or pneumonia vaccinations
Your doctor will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. If you have pneumonia, your lungs may make crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds when you inhale. Your doctor also may hear wheezing. Your doctor may find it hard to hear sounds of breathing in some areas of your chest.
If your doctor thinks you have pneumonia, he or she may recommend one or more of the following tests.
- Chest x ray to look for inflammation in your lungs. A chest x ray is the best test for diagnosing pneumonia. However, this test won't tell your doctor what kind of germ is causing the pneumonia.
- Blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) to see if your immune system is actively fighting an infection.
- Blood culture to find out whether you have a bacterial infection that has spread to your bloodstream. If so, your doctor can decide how to treat the infection.
Your doctor may recommend other tests if you're in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems.
- Sputum test. Your doctor may collect a sample of sputum (spit) or phlegm (slimy substance from deep in your lungs) that was produced from one of your deep coughs and send the sample to the lab for testing. This may help your doctor find out if bacteria are causing your pneumonia. Then, he or she can plan your treatment.
- Chest computed tomography (CT) scan to see how much of your lungs is affected by your condition or to see if you have complications such as lung abscesses or pleural effusions. A CT scan shows more detail than a chest x ray.
- Pleural fluid culture. For this test, a fluid sample is taken from the pleural space (a thin space between two layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity). Doctors use a procedure called thoracentesis to collect the fluid sample. The fluid is studied for bacteria that may cause pneumonia.
- Pulse oximetry. For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. Pneumonia can keep your lungs from moving enough oxygen into your bloodstream. If you're very sick, your doctor may need to measure the level of oxygen in your blood using a blood sample. The sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. This test is called an arterial blood gas test.
- Bronchoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the lungs' airways. If you're in the hospital and treatment with antibiotics isn't working well, your doctor may use this procedure. Your doctor passes a thin, flexible tube through your nose or mouth, down your throat, and into the airways. The tube has a light and small camera that allow your doctor to see your windpipe and airways and take pictures. Your doctor can see whether something is blocking your airways or whether another factor is contributing to your pneumonia. Your doctor may use this procedure to collect samples of fluid from the site of pneumonia (called bronchoalveolar lavage or BAL) or to take small biopsies of lung tissue to help find the cause of your pneumonia.
Your doctor may also diagnosis you with a certain type of pneumonia. Pneumonia is named for the way in which a person gets the infection or for the germ that causes the infection.
- Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). CAP is the most common type of pneumonia and is usually caused by pneumococcus bacteria. Most cases occur during the winter. CAP occurs outside of hospitals and other health care settings. Most people get CAP by breathing in germs (especially while sleeping) that live in the mouth, nose, or throat.
- Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP). HAP is when people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. HAP tends to be more serious than CAP because you're already sick. Also, hospitals tend to have more germs that are resistant to antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial pneumonia.
- Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is when people who are on a ventilator machine to help them breathe get pneumonia.
- Atypical pneumonia. Atypical pneumonia is a type of CAP. It is caused by lung infections with less common bacteria than the pneumococcus bacteria that cause CAP. Atypical bacteria include Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae.
- Aspiration pneumonia. This type of pneumonia can occur if you inhale food, drink, vomit, or saliva from your mouth into your lungs. This may happen if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. Aspiration pneumonia can cause lung abscesses.
Acute chest pain and Flu-like symptoms
- Acute chest pain AND Flu-like symptoms - Causes of All Symptoms
- Acute chest pain OR Flu-like symptoms - 184 causes
Results: Causes of Acute chest pain AND Flu-like symptoms
Note: Do not use for diagnosis; see limitations of results.
Herzmuskel- oder Herzbeutelentzündungen
Die Inkubationszeit, also die Zeit von der Ansteckung bis zum Ausbruch der Grippe, beträgt zwischen 18 Stunden und drei Tagen. Bereits in dieser Zeit besteht Ansteckungsgefahr, auch wenn sich noch keine Symptome einer Grippe zeigen. Bis zu einer Woche nach der Ansteckung lassen sich bei Erwachsenen – bei Kindern bis zu zwei Wochen – noch Viren im Auswurf (Sekret) nachweisen. Selbst bei einem günstigen Verlauf und wenn die Grippebeschwerden bereits abgeklungen sind, können Betroffene noch andere Menschen mit Grippe anstecken.
Ursache der Grippe ist eine Infektion mit Influenzaviren. Es werden drei Gruppen von Grippeviren unterschieden: Influenza A, B und C. Influenzaviren der Gruppe C bedingen nur eine milde Grippe, die häufig gar nicht als Grippe, sondern eher als Erkältung wahrgenommen wird. Viren der Gruppe B sind hingegen für die jährliche, saisonale Grippe in den nasskalten Jahreszeiten verantwortlich. Influenza-A-Viren bedingen schwere Grippeerkrankungen, die sich zu Grippewellen oder Pandemien ausweiten können.
Die Ansteckung mit den ursächlichen Grippeerregern erfolgt sehr häufig durch Tröpfcheninfektion beim Niesen oder Husten (direkte Ansteckung). Auch über indirekten Kontakt ist eine Ansteckung mit Grippe möglich. Der Grund: Grippeviren können auch außerhalb des Körpers noch einige Tage infektiös sein. Über Handinnenflächen (nach dem Hineinniesen in die Hand) werden Grippeviren beispielsweise oft weiter verbreitet. Über Türgriffe, Tische, Haltestangen in öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln und alle Gegenstände, die von vielen Menschen berührt werden, kann man sich deshalb mit Grippe anstecken. Die Erreger müssen dann nur noch über die eigenen Hände durch Nase und Mund in die Schleimhäute gelangen.
Entgegen der weitverbreiteten Regel „Hand vor den Mund“ ist es sinnvoll, wenn Sie beim Niesen oder Husten den Arm vor dem Mund halten. So vermeiden Sie, dass sich andere Menschen durch indirekten Kontakt bei Ihnen mit Grippe anstecken. Außerdem vermindern Sie trotzdem das Risiko für eine Tröpfcheninfektion, da Sie nicht in den Raum husten, sondern in Ihre Armbeuge.
Kontakt mit Influenzaviren muss nicht zwangsläufig zu einer Grippe führen. Schwere und Verlauf der Grippe sind von Mensch zu Mensch verschieden, auch wenn die Grippe durch den gleichen Erregertyp verursacht wurde. Dabei spielt auch das Immunsystem eine große Rolle. Häufig ist das Immunsystem in Stresssituationen, bei länger anhaltender, nährstoffarmer Ernährung, in der Schwangerschaft oder bei Erkrankungen geschwächt – dann hat die Grippe leichteres Spiel.
Mit zunehmendem Alter und durchgemachten Influenza-Erkrankungen werden Sie in der Regel auch widerstandsfähiger gegen eine Grippe. Obwohl sich Grippeviren ständig verändern (sie mutieren), gibt es doch Verwandtschaften zwischen den einzelnen Typen. Ihr Immunsystem erinnert sich an die Erreger der bereits durchgemachten Grippe-Erkrankungen und baut somit eine sogenannte Teilimmunität auf. Unter Umständen kann diese Teilimmunität dazu beitragen, dass bei bestimmten Grippeviren die Grippe nicht mehr so schwer verläuft oder es gar nicht erst zum Ausbruch der Grippe kommt.
Die Immunsysteme von Babys und Kleinkindern haben noch keine oder sehr wenige Grippe-Erkrankungen durchgemacht. Deshalb stecken sie sich auch besonders schnell mit Grippe an. Im hohen Alter nimmt der im Laufe des Lebens aufgebaute Immunschutz durch das bei alten Menschen schwächere Immunsystem wieder etwas ab, sodass die Grippe bei älteren Menschen schwerer verlaufen kann.
Influenza-Diagnose: Andere Erkrankungen ausschließen
Wenn Sie mit den typischen Symptomen einer Virusgrippe zum Arzt gehen, wird dieser häufig schon nach einem ausführlichen Gespräch (Anamnese) und gegebenenfalls einer körperlichen Untersuchung die Diagnose Grippe stellen. Typische Grippe-Beschwerden sind:
Um die Grippe zweifelsfrei zu diagnostizieren, wird der Arzt bei Ihnen einen Nasen- oder Rachenabstrich durchführen. Dabei nimmt er mit einem langen Wattestäbchen von der Schleimhaut an Nase und Rachen einen Abstrich. Das mit dem Abstrich entnommene Sekret wird im Labor virologisch untersucht. Der Abstrich wird durchgeführt, wenn eine eindeutige Diagnose nötig ist, zum Beispiel bei Schwangeren oder Menschen mit einer Grunderkrankung, oder um den Virustyp eindeutig festzustellen. Das Entnehmen des Abstrichs ist etwas unangenehm, in der Regel aber nicht schmerzhaft.
Kozak PP, Gallup J, Cummins LH, Gillman SA. Endogenous mold exposure: environmental risk to atopic and nonatopic patients. In: Gammage RB, Kay SV (eds). Indoor Air and Human Health. Chelsea, Mich: Lewis Publishers; 1985:149-170
Peltola J, Anderson MA, Raimo M, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Salkinoja-Salonen M., 1999 Membrane toxic substances in water-damaged construction materials and fungal pure cultures In: Johanning E. Bioaerosols, Fungi, Mycotoxins: Health effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control 1. New York: Eastern New York Occupational & Environmental Health Center. p 432–443
Peraica, M.; Radic, B.; Lucic, A.; Pavlovic, M., September 1, 1999, Diseases Caused by Molds in Humans , Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Reshetilova TA, Soloveva TF, Baskunov BP, Kozlovskii AG., 1992 Investigation of alkaloid formation by certain species of fungi of the Penicillium genus Mikrobiologiya 61:873-879
This site is not intended to give medical advice. Seek the advice of a professional for medication, treatment options, and complete knowledge of any illness. The opinions expressed here are exclusively my personal opinions do not necessarily reflect my peers or professional affiliates. The information here does not reflect professional advice and is not intended to supersede the professional advice of others.
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Amphetamine Abuse & Addiction Effects, Signs & Symptoms
Amphetamines are a type of central nervous system stimulant. They provide a sense of increased wakefulness, energy, attention, concentration, sociability, self-confidence, improved mood, and decreased appetite. They are frequently prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. Amphetamines appears to have a calming effect on individuals with ADHD and sometimes afternoon sleepiness has been observed in adults with the condition. Amphetamines are also used to treat narcolepsy, treatment resistant depression and obesity. When overused these medications can be addictive. Additionally, some individuals without ADHD may use amphetamines during times when high levels of productivity are required. The increase in the ability to perform and accompanying psycho-social effects often leads these individuals to continue taking amphetamines even after the demand for productivity has passed.
Twelve month incidence rates were estimates at.2% for both the 12 – 17 and 18 and older age groups. While these estimates were the same for both genders in the 18 and older age group for those ages 12-17, gender effects were reported with girls (.3%) having higher rates or amphetamine type stimulant disorder than males (.1%). While admissions for treatment were roughly the same for males (54%)and females (46%) who did not use the substance intravenously, male were 3-4 times more likely to use amphetamines intravenously than females. 12 month incidence rates were found to be higher among those age 18 – 29 (.4%) compared to those ages 45 – 64 (.1%). For 12-17 year olds, Amphetamine type stimulant abuse estimated prevalence rates were highest among Caucasians and African Americans (.3%), compared with Hispanics (.1%) and Asian Americans (.01%). In this age group, Amphetamine abuse was practically absent in Native Americans. In those ages 18 and above, however, the highest estimated prevalence rates were found among Native Americans and Native Alaskans (.6%) compared with Caucasians (.2%) and Hispanics (.2%). This particular type of substance abuse disorder was virtually non-existent in African Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Past year prevalence rates of non- medical use of amphetamines across all children through college age was estimated at 5%-9% with past year prevalence rates of the disorder estimated at 5%-35% of across all individuals of college age.
The most frequently disorders that co-occur with stimulant use disorders are other substance abuse disorders, in particular substances with sedative properties which are commonly used to avoid the negative effects experienced when the stimulant begins to wear off. With Amphetamine abuse, the most common type of co-occurring substance abuse is marijuana. Other co-occurring disorders include:
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Gambling Disorder
- Neurological Disorders
Genetic: If you have a parent with an amphetamine use problem, it is possible you inherited a susceptibility to develop the same disorder. In addition, temperament, the inherited building blocks of personality, can predispose you to develop a problem with amphetamine use. Individuals who are open to novelty, are curious and frequently experiment with ways to increase happiness, prefer feeling overactive rather than underactive, and have difficulties coping with delayed gratification are more likely than their peers to develop an amphetamine use disorder
* Exercise regularly for at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week.
o Lots of fruits, vegetables, grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products (heart-healthy foods)
o Lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts
o Limited amounts of foods with saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugars.
* Limit your intake of alcohol.
I tried to do the interaction checker 4 u but u will have to do it, zoloft is sertraline add lamictal, zoloft and ativan it will tell you all the interactions its very simple if u have any problems let me know ok (interactions checker)
Asian influenza, commonly known as the Asian flu, is a viral respiratory illness caused by the H2N2 strain of Type A influenza. The H2N2 Asian flu is the result of avian influenza — that is, a flu normally found in birds — crossed with a human influenza virus. The Asian flu results in symptoms similar to many other strains of influenza, including fever, body aches, chills, cough, weakness, and loss of appetite. The Asian flu was responsible for a Category 2 flu pandemic from 1956 to 1958, meaning that it was a worldwide spread of the virus with a case-to-fatality ratio between 0.1 and 0.5 percent. H2N2 became extinct in the wild circa 1968.
Influenza is an illness caused by many subtypes that can change, mutate, and cross with other strains. Occasionally a bird or animal flu can reassort its genetic material, cross the animal-human species barrier, and begin infecting the human population. The H2N2 Asian flu was the result of a cross between a virus found in wild ducks and a human influenza virus.
Asian flu causes many of the symptoms commonly reported in an influenza virus. Influenza is a respiratory illness, so a dry cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing are all widely reported among flu sufferers. Influenza usually results in a high fever and body aches or chills. An individual might have no appetite and subsequently lose weight. Recovery from the H2N2 can take many weeks; complications include pneumonia, seizures, heart failure, and death.
Asian influenza caused a worldwide pandemic in 1956, when the virus jumped from ducks to humans and then began human-to-human transmission. It originated in the province of Guizhou, China, and traveled to Singapore and Hong Kong. From there, the Asian influenza virus spread to the rest of the world. Although the illness infected humans across the globe, it remained a relatively mild pandemic and is rated as a Category 2 on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Pandemic Severity Index Chart. This chart rates pandemic flu from one to five — mild to severe — according to the number of influenza deaths reported in the U.S.
A vaccine for H2N2 was introduced in 1957, and the pandemic slowed down. There was a second wave in 1958, and H2N2 went on to become part of the regular wave of seasonal flu. In 1968, the H2N2 Asian flu disappeared from the human population and is believed to have gone extinct in the wild. Vials of H2N2 influenza remain in laboratories across the world.
6) How come I get the flu after Thanksgiving?