Die Zeit zwischen einer Infektion mit dem Influenzavirus und dem Ausbruch der Erkrankung beträgt normalerweise ein bis drei Tage. Danach kommt es schlagartig zu charakteristischen Grippesymptomen wie hohem Fieber (bis 41°C) mit trockenem Husten, Schnupfen, Kopf-, Muskel- und Gliederschmerzen sowie einem allgemeinen Krankheitsgefühl. Gelegentlich können auch Atembeschwerden auftreten. Demnach kann eine Grippe als Erkrankung des gesamten Atemtraktes beschrieben werden, die jedoch Symptome im ganzen Körper verursacht. Charakteristisch ist der abrupte Beginn der Symptome, so dass die Patientinnen und Patienten oftmals noch Jahre später den Zeitpunkt präzise beschreiben können.
Aufgrund der raschen Virusvermehrung ist die Infektionsgefahr für andere Personen mit dem Einsetzen von Husten und Niesen der Erkrankten/des Erkrankten am größten. Dabei ist die Virenkonzentration bei erkrankten Kindern meist höher als bei anderen Altersgruppen. Die leichte Übertragbarkeit der Influenzaviren kann in solchen Situationen bei Kontakt zu anderen Menschen zu einer explosionsartigen Verbreitung der Grippe führen.
Verläuft die Influenza unkompliziert, bessern sich die Beschwerden normalerweise innerhalb von zwei bis fünf Tagen. Ein Großteil der Patientinnen und Patienten hat die Erkrankung normalerweise nach einer Woche überstanden. Allerdings nimmt zirka jede fünfte Influenza einen komplizierten Verlauf. Die häufigste Komplikation bei einer Grippeerkrankung ist eine Pneumonie (Lungenentzündung), wobei von der durch das Grippevirus selbst verursachten „primären Pneumonie“ die größten Gefahren ausgehen. Diese äußert sich meistens in einer Verschlechterung des Allgemeinzustands ein bis zwei Tage nach Krankheitsbeginn mit Atemnot und eventuell einer Blaufärbung von Haut und Schleimhäuten (Zyanose). Da sich bestimmte Bakterien, wie beispielsweise Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae oder Haemophilus influenzae, direkt an die Influenzaviren binden können, kann es aber auch infolge der akuten Influenza zu einer sogenannten „bakteriellen Superinfektion“ kommen. Bei dieser Form der Lungenentzündung steigt nach einer zwei- bis dreitägigen Phase der Besserung das Fieber erneut an und geht häufig mit Symptomen wie Husten und einem eitrigen Auswurf einher.
Die häufigste Form der Influenza-Pneumonie ist jedoch eine gemischt viral-bakterielle Lungenentzündung, die sich entweder in einem allmählichen Fortschreiten der Erkrankung oder einer vorübergehenden Besserung und anschließenden Verschlechterung der Symptome äußert. Neben einer Pneumonie treten bei einer Influenza gelegentlich noch weitere Komplikationen auf. Dazu gehören beispielsweise eine Entzündung des Herzmuskels oder Herzbeutels, der Nasennebenhöhlen, des Mittelohrs, der Muskeln, der Hirn- beziehungsweise Rückenmarkshäute oder eine Schädigung des Gehirns.
Die Diagnose einer Grippe ergibt sich während einer Grippeepidemie aus der Krankengeschichte und der körperlichen Untersuchung der Patientin/des Patienten. In manchen Fällen werden auch spezifische Laboruntersuchungen zum Virusnachweis durchgeführt. Dadurch können beispielsweise Informationen über die vorhandenen Virustypen oder die Verbreitung der Grippe erhalten werden. Derartige Laboruntersuchungen spielen zudem eine bedeutende Rolle zur Identifikation der Erreger bei neu aufgetretenen Formen der Grippe. Damit können beispielsweise Mutationen der Gene von Influenzaviren analysiert und eine Abgrenzung gegenüber der saisonalen Grippe vorgenommen werden.
Für die weitere Diagnostik der Grippe stehen je nach Krankheitsphase verschiedene Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfügung. Dabei kommen unter anderem Untersuchungen von Nasensekret und Auswurf, Rachenabstriche sowie Blutuntersuchungen zum Einsatz.
Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter Influenza-A/B-Schnelltest.
Ist eine Person bereits an Grippe erkrankt, können bei rechtzeitiger Therapie die Influenzaviren direkt bekämpft werden. Hierfür gibt es bestimmte Medikamente – sogenannte Neuraminidasehemmer (Oseltamivir und Zanamivir). Sie blockieren die Freisetzung von neu gebildeten Viruspartikeln aus bereits infizierten Zellen und hemmen so die Vermehrung der Influenzaviren im Körper. Da nach einer anfänglichen Phase der raschen Erregerausbreitung die Zahl der Viren 24 bis 48 Stunden nach Ausbruch der Krankheit wieder abnimmt, müssen Neuraminidasehemmer am besten innerhalb der ersten zwölf Stunden (allerspätestens innerhalb von 48 Stunden) nach Auftreten der ersten Symptome zur Anwendung kommen.
Die rechtzeitige Verabreichung von Oseltamivir oder Zanamivir lindert die grippebedingten Beschwerden (wie zum Beispiel Kopfschmerzen, Husten, Fieber) und verkürzt die Dauer der Grippeerkrankung. Außerdem senkt die Therapie das Risiko für Komplikationen (zum Beispiel Pneumonie). Oseltamivir gibt es als Saft oder Tabletten. Zanamivir kann dagegen nur inhaliert werden. Daher wird häufig bevorzugt Oseltamivir eingesetzt. Ergeben sich Hinweise auf eine bakterielle (Zusatz-)Infektion, muss eine entsprechende antibiotische Therapie eingeleitet werden. Bei Komplikationen ist mitunter auch die Gabe von Sauerstoff notwendig, bei Erschöpfung der Atmung muss maschinell beatmet werden.
Bettruhe kann Komplikationen vorbeugen
Die weitere Therapie bei Influenzaerkrankungen richtet sich allein gegen die Symptome. So können zum Beispiel gegen die Kopf-, Muskel- und Gliederschmerzen sowie das Fieber Schmerzmittel mit gleichzeitig fiebersenkender Wirkung (beispielsweise Paracetamol oder Ibuprofen) verabreicht werden. Allerdings sollten Medikamente mit dem Wirkstoff Acetylsalicylsäure (zum Beispiel Aspirin®) keinesfalls Kindern unter zwölf Jahren gegeben werden, da hierdurch in seltenen Fällen das gefürchtete Reye-Syndrom ausgelöst werden kann. Dabei handelt es sich um eine akute Erkrankung des Gehirns und der Leber, die unbehandelt tödlich verlaufen kann. Um Risiken in der Anwendung von Arzneimitteln zu vermeiden, sollten diese generell nur auf ärztliche Anordnung eingenommen werden.
Much research has been carried out to better understand the threat posed by the pigeon (feral and domesticated) and research is ongoing in many parts of the world, particularly in those countries worst affected. A thorough scientific research programme was undertaken following the outbreak of the highly pathogenic strain H5N2 in the north-eastern United States (in 1983/4) to assess the potential for wild birds to spread disease amongst local farms. The following species were included in this survey:
- Wild and free-flying domestic ducks and geese
- Wild or free-flying domestic birds (including pigeons)
- Dead or sick birds within the quarantine area
Attempts to isolate the virus were conducted on a sample of 4,132 birds, of which 473 were pigeons, and of this number 92.6% were collected from infected farms. A further 81 feet, taken from dead pigeons, were also assessed for the purposes of the research - this is because pigeons commonly feed on agricultural sites and by walking in infected faecal matter the birds could potentially pass on the disease. In order to assess the sample, tracheal (throat) and vent (anus) swabs were taken from each bird. None of the 4,132 birds collected tested positive for the H5N2 strain. Blood samples taken from 383 pigeons were also negative for antibodies (antibodies are protective substances that are produced by the defensive network of the body in response to an infection) to avian influenza, an indication that infection by this virus had not occurred in these birds. An additional 50 pigeons, collected from within the quarantine zone, were also negative for the influenza virus. Experimental attempts made to infect pigeons with the highly pathogenic H5N2 strain of avian influenza did not result in either multiplication of the virus or any evidence of antibodies in the blood. The results of all of these studies indicated that pigeons were not infected with avian influenza and did not spread it.
In another outbreak of avian influenza in the USA in 1993 (in the period February to May) blood samples were collected from 17 flocks of pigeons located within the quarantine area for evidence of antibodies to avian influenza. Flock sizes varied from 2000 - 3000 birds and represented a total of between 34,000 and 51,000 birds. Approximately 10 birds per flock were sampled (a total of 160 birds) and in every instance all pigeons tested were negative for antibodies to this avian influenza.
Another study published in 1996 on the susceptibility of pigeons to avian influenza found that groups of pigeons inoculated with two strains of highly pathogenic influenza virus, or two strains of non-pathogenic virus, remained healthy during the 21-day trial period. The sample did not shed virus and did not develop antibodies to this disease - further evidence that pigeons are not a factor in the spread of avian influenza. More recent scientific evidence, from experimental work in 2001/2002, has shown that pigeons infected with the highly pathogenic form of the virus (designated H5N1 of Hong Kong origin) did not develop signs of this disease and did not have detectable changes to the disease in their tissues. Neither was the virus found in their tissues and nor was it re-isolated from swabs of tissues. These findings indicated once again that pigeons (along with starlings, rats and rabbits used in these studies) are largely resistant to infection with this highly pathogenic strain of the virus.
It is quite clear from all the information available that avian influenza continues to be a threat to both humans and birds, but the likelihood of its transmission to humans as a result of contact with the feral pigeon or its faeces is virtually nil. The feral pigeon is reputed to be the ultimate disease-carrier, harbouring the capability to spread a huge variety of diseases to both humans and other birds and animals, but in reality this is a myth. As can be seen from the findings of several research programmes, the feral pigeon is at the bottom of the list of those species that have the potential to spread avian influenza and it is likely that this is the case with most of the other diseases that are commonly associated with the pigeon.
PCRC, Unit 4, Sabre Buildings, Sabre Close, Newton Abbot, Devon, TQ12 6TW
Flu Season 2015: Influenza In US ‘Widespread,’ But Fear May Outpace Threat
Nurses prepare influenza vaccine injections during a flu shot clinic at Dorchester House, a health care clinic, in Boston, Massachusetts, Jan. 12, 2013. Photo: Reuters
With an unforeseen mutation in this year’s dominant influenza virus and a faulty vaccine, 43 states have seen “widespread” transmission of the flu this season, according to the latest report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Flu activity was rampant in 29 states during the final week of December, up from 22 states a week earlier. Twenty-one pediatric deaths have been reported.
The most prevalent virus of the 2014-2015 flu season has been influenza A H3N2, a particularly severe infection responsible for the three deadliest flu seasons since 2000. Health officials, however, said this year's threat was not entirely unexpected. “I don’t think it’s anything we haven’t seen before,” Richard Webby, virology expert with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, told International Business Times. “We know H3N2 dominates a season, we know it tends to be more severe.”
Three out of four of the last 12 flu seasons reached epidemic levels, according to the Associated Press. Several so-called drift viruses – versions of H3N2 that are slightly genetically different from the main virus – have spread this season, meaning Americans have become more susceptible to the flu. “The antibodies that people made last time probably don’t work as well against [the new strain,]” Webby said. “That’s a consequence of the virus changing.”
Doctors often prescribe antibiotic eye drops or ointments for pink eye. But antibiotics don’t usually help, according to the American Academy of Ophthalmology. They can do more harm than good. Here’s why:
Antibiotics are not usually necessary for pink eye.
Pink eye can be caused by a virus, an allergy, or bacteria.
Pink eye is usually caused by a virus. Viral pink eye usually goes away on its own in a week or so. Antibiotics do not kill viruses.
Pink eye can also be an allergic reaction to something like pollen, dust mites, pets, contact lenses, or cosmetics. This kind of pink eye gets better when you avoid the things that are causing the allergy. Antibiotics don’t help allergies.
A third type of pink eye is caused by bacteria. This can be helped by an antibiotic. However, mild bacterial pink eye almost always goes away within ten days without medication.
Antibiotics can cause problems.
Antibiotics can cause itching, stinging, burning, swelling and redness. They can cause more discharge. And they can cause allergic reactions in some people.
Antibiotics can be a waste of money.
Generic antibiotic drops and ointments can cost $12 to $60. For newer, brand name drugs, you can pay over $130. And if you have an antibiotic-resistant infection, you will need more doctor visits and costly medicines.
Who should use antibiotics for pink eye?
You might need antibiotic eye drops and ointments for bacterial pink eye if:
- Your symptoms are severe.
- Your immune system is weak. This might happen if you have another illness.
- Your infection does not get better in a week without treatment.
Know the symptoms of different kinds of pink eye.
- Viral pink eye: Symptoms can include watery eyes along with a cold, flu, or sore throat.
- Allergic pink eye: Symptoms include itchy eyes, swollen eyelids and a runny or itchy nose. It is more common in people who have other allergies, such as hay fever or asthma.
- Bacterial pink eye: Symptoms include a thick, often yellow-green discharge that lasts all day (usually not with a cold or flu).
This report is for you to use when talking with your health-care provider. It is not a substitute for medical advice and treatment. Use of this report is at your own risk.
© 2013 Consumer Reports. Developed in cooperation with the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Symptome. Oft realisiert man gar nicht, dass man eine Grippe hat: In 80 Prozent der Fälle
verläuft die Infektion mit Influenza unbemerkt oder nur wie eine leichte
If treatment and medications are given on time without much delay then for a healthy individual it might take around 48 to 75 hours to get relief from the symptoms and five to seven days to recover completely from the flu. ‘General fatigue and weakness might be persistent for a week or two which would settle with proper rest, care and healthy diet,’ says Dr Jiandani. (Read: Prevent swine flu with these 10 dos and don’ts)
These are known as the classic "flu-like" symptoms and are not unlike the symptoms of other illnesses such as malaria. Indeed many people have mistaken the onset of malaria for a bout of flu and have not taken appropriate action with sometimes serious consequences.
- Drink plenty of fluids
- Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco
- Take medication to relieve the symptoms
It is passed from person to person by droplet transmission, usually by breathing in diphtheria bacteria after an infected person has coughed, sneezed or even laughed. It can also be spread by handling used tissues or by drinking from a glass used by an infected person.
In tropical countries the infection may occur as skin ulcers and is known as cutaneous diphtheria which presents as infected skin lesions which lack a characteristic appearance.
After two to six weeks, the effects of toxins produced by the bacteria become apparent with severe muscle weakness, mainly affecting the muscles of the head and neck. Inflammation of the heart muscle may cause heart failure. Myocarditis, polyneuritis, and airway obstruction are common complications of respiratory diphtheria; death occurs in 5%-10% of respiratory cases.
Transmission is usually by direct person to person contact. Avoid very close contact with infected people particularly kissing and sharing bottles or glasses. It spreads quickly amongst infected people in crowded places. Cutaneous lesions are also important in transmission.
Diphtheria remains endemic in developing countries and the countries of the former Soviet Union have reported an epidemic which began in 1990.
Treatment: is specialised and requires medical supervision in hospital where Diphtheria antitoxin is given as an intramuscular or intravenous injection as soon as possible. The infection is then treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin.
Prevention: There is a vaccine for diphtheria. Most people in the UK receive their first dose as a child in the form of a combined vaccine called DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis).
Immunisation: is very effective but protective immunity is not present longer than 10 years after the last vaccination, so it is important for adults at risk to get a booster of tetanus-diptheria (Td) vaccine every 10 years.
TB is much more common in some parts of the world than in the UK. The risk to travellers is limited since transmission of the disease usually requires prolonged close contact. Sometimes the disease can be overwhelming; producing meningitis and coma; this particularly dangerous form is usually found in children and those who have not previously been vaccinated or exposed to the disease. Recently, antibiotic-resistant strains of tuberculosis have appeared.
Tuberculosis can develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze from an infected person and it can also spread through infected sputum and there is a form spread through milk from infected cows. The risk of contracting TB increases with the frequency of contact with people who have the disease, and with crowded or unsanitary living conditions and poor nutrition.
Pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection. The disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection, or it may lie dormant for years before causing disease. The extent of the disease can vary from minimal to massive involvement, but without effective therapy, the disease becomes progressive.
Infants, the elderly, and individuals who are immunocompromised, those undergoing transplant surgery who are taking anti rejection medications are at higher risk for progression of the disease or reactivation of dormant disease. Those who have not received BCG immunisation are advised to do so and if for travel purposes, at least six weeks before departure to ensure a protective level of immunity.
Treatment with anti microbial drugs is effective but is prolonged and requires medical supervision. It is also expensive and not always available abroad. Incomplete treatment of TB infections (such as failure to take medications for the prescribed length of time) can contribute to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria.
I am always looking for the next time. My kids do not talk to me anymore because they do not want me reporting it to the police if I know it is their dad. My twins are 35 and 31.
30) It's funny when people reach out on such a scary topic. I am feeling the same thing with recurrent illnesses over the years.
My question to those that posted negatively or said we are stupid: Why did you look for this topic in the first place? Are you someone looking to poison someone yourself? Just have some empathy, because, in my opinion, since you refer to our stupidity, you are probably looking to hurt someone else.
29) Is arsenic found in menthylated spirit and hair relaxers?
28) I am really worried. I have a lot of those symptoms and more that I have read elsewhere. Some symptoms that I have are white lines on my fingernails (I read that is a main symptoms of arsenic poisoning on many websites), it burns sometimes when pee(about two times a month this happens), I have weird texture type horizontal lines on my finger nails (also read on many different sites), a dry throat and purplish-red skin. I cannot think of anybody who would be poisoning me. Is there anything else that would cause these symptoms? Please help.
27) I have many of the symptoms, but my fears seem to be far-fetched. A lot is at stake with me gone from the scene though, and my husband is aggressive and acted violently against me several times already. People's intervention prevented serious consequences.
26) I'm confused. All of you are talking about the people you are living with poisoning you. If you think this is happening, why on earth would you stay there?
I know it's tough to move out on your own, you may not have means of support, but geez, if you think you are being poisoned, get out!
Even if you aren't, obviously you don't trust the person(s) you are with and believe they wish to harm you. Find a shelter, the local mission, ask a local church to help you find shelter, but get out if it's that bad!
23) If you are not sure whether someone is poisoning you, check your place for mold as it can produce many weird symptoms. Stop drinking fluoride in tap/spring water, check your mouth for metal fillings (mercury), and also start eating organic as commercial food has pesticides/herbicides (poisons). Many people are being poisoned by everyday life. I am sorry to those who were literally poisoned! Chlorella might help, along with Vitamin C?
20) @anon293093: See if you can get a lock of her hair. It doesn't have to be much, but poison can sometimes be detected in the hair. If it comes up positive for poison, maybe you can get her to file a complaint against him.
19) Please, someone help me. I have a good friend and she been feeling sick, lost her appetizer and she has been losing a lot of weight and gets sick at her stomach from time to time, I will say very often and she is losing her hair.
Her ex-husband decided to come back and live in her house and he has been preparing her meals. When they divorced, it was a bad divorce and turned really ugly to the point that he ended up in jail twice.
He came back crying to her and said he doesn't have a place to live and her daughter is seven years old. She begged her mom to let him in the house so she practically didn't have a choice but to let him in. Now she has been feeling sick like I said before.
Can someone please help me and get back to me with better advice on what to do to help her? I don't like to the way she is looking and I'm very worried.
18) I have been sick with the same symptoms a few times, four major times that I can recall. I am just getting over another bout. The symptoms were very severe stomach cramps, nausea, stomach bloating as if pregnant. weakness, headaches, lightheadedness, feeling as if I was going to fall over, muscles feel weird and weak, and throat felt restricted when I swallow at times. I realized this usually happened when I spent time over to a certain person's home for a weekend or any length of time, I alone would get sick.
I decided to send some samples of my hair to a toxicology lab and get tested to see what was going on. The tests came back showing arsenic in my system, twice as much as should be found in any human body. God had been good and kept me alive this long. Praise God. Someone has been poisoning me for sure, unless my well water at the former house I lived in was tainted. I am having the water there tested now, just to have it ruled out, really. The poison will show in the body with your hair so you will find it there. Please, if you feel as if you may be being poisoned, seek help and get that test done so you will know for sure. It could save your life.