I am always looking for the next time. My kids do not talk to me anymore because they do not want me reporting it to the police if I know it is their dad. My twins are 35 and 31.

30) It's funny when people reach out on such a scary topic. I am feeling the same thing with recurrent illnesses over the years.

My question to those that posted negatively or said we are stupid: Why did you look for this topic in the first place? Are you someone looking to poison someone yourself? Just have some empathy, because, in my opinion, since you refer to our stupidity, you are probably looking to hurt someone else.

29) Is arsenic found in menthylated spirit and hair relaxers?

28) I am really worried. I have a lot of those symptoms and more that I have read elsewhere. Some symptoms that I have are white lines on my fingernails (I read that is a main symptoms of arsenic poisoning on many websites), it burns sometimes when pee(about two times a month this happens), I have weird texture type horizontal lines on my finger nails (also read on many different sites), a dry throat and purplish-red skin. I cannot think of anybody who would be poisoning me. Is there anything else that would cause these symptoms? Please help.

27) I have many of the symptoms, but my fears seem to be far-fetched. A lot is at stake with me gone from the scene though, and my husband is aggressive and acted violently against me several times already. People's intervention prevented serious consequences.

26) I'm confused. All of you are talking about the people you are living with poisoning you. If you think this is happening, why on earth would you stay there?

I know it's tough to move out on your own, you may not have means of support, but geez, if you think you are being poisoned, get out!

Even if you aren't, obviously you don't trust the person(s) you are with and believe they wish to harm you. Find a shelter, the local mission, ask a local church to help you find shelter, but get out if it's that bad!

23) If you are not sure whether someone is poisoning you, check your place for mold as it can produce many weird symptoms. Stop drinking fluoride in tap/spring water, check your mouth for metal fillings (mercury), and also start eating organic as commercial food has pesticides/herbicides (poisons). Many people are being poisoned by everyday life. I am sorry to those who were literally poisoned! Chlorella might help, along with Vitamin C?

20) @anon293093: See if you can get a lock of her hair. It doesn't have to be much, but poison can sometimes be detected in the hair. If it comes up positive for poison, maybe you can get her to file a complaint against him.

19) Please, someone help me. I have a good friend and she been feeling sick, lost her appetizer and she has been losing a lot of weight and gets sick at her stomach from time to time, I will say very often and she is losing her hair.

Her ex-husband decided to come back and live in her house and he has been preparing her meals. When they divorced, it was a bad divorce and turned really ugly to the point that he ended up in jail twice.

He came back crying to her and said he doesn't have a place to live and her daughter is seven years old. She begged her mom to let him in the house so she practically didn't have a choice but to let him in. Now she has been feeling sick like I said before.

Can someone please help me and get back to me with better advice on what to do to help her? I don't like to the way she is looking and I'm very worried.

18) I have been sick with the same symptoms a few times, four major times that I can recall. I am just getting over another bout. The symptoms were very severe stomach cramps, nausea, stomach bloating as if pregnant. weakness, headaches, lightheadedness, feeling as if I was going to fall over, muscles feel weird and weak, and throat felt restricted when I swallow at times. I realized this usually happened when I spent time over to a certain person's home for a weekend or any length of time, I alone would get sick.

I decided to send some samples of my hair to a toxicology lab and get tested to see what was going on. The tests came back showing arsenic in my system, twice as much as should be found in any human body. God had been good and kept me alive this long. Praise God. Someone has been poisoning me for sure, unless my well water at the former house I lived in was tainted. I am having the water there tested now, just to have it ruled out, really. The poison will show in the body with your hair so you will find it there. Please, if you feel as if you may be being poisoned, seek help and get that test done so you will know for sure. It could save your life.

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  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Mild irritant to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Irritant and skin sensitizer
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Fungicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Skin irritant
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Dinitroaniline Compounds - trifluralin(C), Treflan(T)


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Slightly to moderately irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Irritating to skin and eyes
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Picolinic Acid - triclopyr(C), Garlon(T)


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

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Wenn wir krank sind mit einer Virusinfektion, ist es, weil das Virus in Zellen in unserem Körper eingegeben und übernommen ihre Maschinen, um Kopien von sich selbst zu machen. Die Suche nach Möglichkeiten, diesen Prozess zu stören, ist wichtig für die antivirale Arzneimittelentwicklung. Jetzt zeigt eine neue Studie, wie das Grippevirus auf ein Protein in der Wirtszelle angewiesen ist, um ihm zu helfen, seine Mission zu vollenden.

You can also catch flu by touching an infected person, for instance, shaking hands. Adults are contagious 1-2 days before getting symptoms and up to 7 days after becoming ill. This means that you can spread the influenza virus before you even know you are infected.

In this article, we explain the symptoms of flu, how it is treated, how it differs from a cold, and the best ways to prevent flu occurring.

Here are some key points about flu. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

  • Antibiotics cannot be used to treat flu.
  • Approximately 5-20 percent of Americans will develop flu.
  • Experts agree that the best way to prevent flu is to get vaccinated each year.
  • The flu vaccine is not suitable for certain groups of people, such as those who have a severe allergy to chicken eggs.

Confusing flu with a bad cold is common. Flu and cold symptoms may both include a runny/blocked nose, sore throat, and cough.

To help you tell them apart, below are some symptoms of flu that are different from a heavy cold:

  • high temperature
  • cold sweats and shivers
  • headache
  • aching joints and limbs
  • fatigue, feeling exhausted

There may also be gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; these are much more common among children than adults.

Normally, symptoms linger for about 1 week. However, the feeling of tiredness and gloom can continue for several weeks.

It is worth noting that not every person with flu will have all of the symptoms; for instance, it is possible to have flu without fever.

Often, fatigue is one of the earliest signs of flu and cold. With flu, the fatigue is often more extreme. Other early symptoms can include cough, sore throat, fever, body ache, chills, and gastrointestinal changes.

As flu is caused by a virus, antibiotics cannot help, unless the flu has led to another illness caused by bacteria. Antivirals, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza), may be prescribed in some circumstances.

Painkillers can alleviate some of the symptoms, such as headache and body pains. Various painkillers are available to purchase online. It is important to compare different products, and only take them under the advice of a medical professional.

Some painkillers, such as aspirin, should not be given to children under 12.

Individuals with flu should:

  • stay at home
  • avoid contact with other people where possible
  • keep warm and rest
  • consume plenty of liquids
  • avoid alcohol
  • stop smoking
  • eat if possible

It is a good idea for people that live alone to tell a relative, friend, or neighbor that they have flu and make sure someone can check in on them.

A doctor only needs to be informed if:

  • the individual is frail or elderly
  • their temperature remains high after 4-5 days
  • symptoms worsen
  • the individual feels seriously ill
  • they become short of breath and/or develop chest pain

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5) @Steamland-- The question itself is a very judgmental and prejudiced. What makes you think that all pandemic diseases come from Asia? They emerge in other areas of the world all the time. Take Ebola, which emerged in Africa.

The only difference is that in countries where health care systems are very developed, these instances are diagnosed and quarantined much faster. So the chances of the pandemic spreading is reduced and it's usually eliminated altogether this way.

4) @donasmrs-- They are not the same but they mutated from the same virus. They are subtypes of what is called influenza A. Asian flu is H2N2 as the article said and Avian flu is H5N1. They start out in wild birds and sometimes, they infect humans and become an epidemic. There are other types of influenza A that affect other animals like pigs (aka swine flu). But most flu viruses in this category exist in birds, fewer amount affect pigs and humans.

Yes, these viruses change and adapt all the time. That's they're survival mechanism. They're constantly mutating, evolving, taking on new names and jumping from one animal to the next.

3) What about the bird flu that showed up in various parts of the world in 2006 and 2007? Was it the same as Asian flue or was it a slightly different strain of the virus? Does the virus keep changing?

2) @Steamland, as far as we know there are two reasons for this. One is just probability. Asia contains a huge portion of the world's population and is a massive part of the geographic world. People sometimes refer to Asia like it's a single country but about a third of the world is classified as Asia. Add in more than half the world's population and it makes sense than many of the worlds diseases would originate there. Also to blame is the developing nature of many regions within Asia. Not only do billions of people live relatively close together, some live close together in poor hygienic conditions with little access to proper sanitation and clean water. Compound this with the fact that a portion of these people live in close contact with farm animals. Farm animals, like ducks, chickens and pigs are usually the original hosts from which many new diseases mutate and make the jump to humans. Not only that but often these farm animals live in close proximity with each other which can promote mutation conditions in certain viruses and bacteria.

1) Why do all of these horrible pandemic diseases seem to come from Asia? Why don't they originate in places like America?

BALTIMORE (WJZ) — Flu epidemic. The CDC released new numbers Monday showing the flu is widespread in most of the country, including here in Maryland—and doctors say this strain can be more dangerous.

Meghan McCorkell has more on how local hospitals are handling a surge of cases.

Hospitals in Maryland say they have been slammed with flu patients since Christmas.

The flu turned deadly in the United States with 21 children dying this season. One of the latest was seven-year-old Ruby Hanson, whose parents say she may have survived if it weren’t for a pre-existing condition.

“She had a seizure that was caused by the flu,” said Debra Hanson, her mother.

The CDC now reports 43 states, including Maryland, are experiencing high or widespread flu activity. Much of that is the H3N2 strain of Influenza A.

“We do know that in years where this virus circulates, or this type of virus circulates, we do get more deaths on average than the usual year,” said Dr. Joseph Cresee, Centers for Disease Control.

Emergency rooms across the state are now reporting thousands of patients coming in with flu-like symptoms every week.

“This is one of the busier flu years,” said Dr. Lisa Kirkland, Sinai Hospital.

Dr. Kirkland says some of the patients she is seeing thought they were protected because they got a flu shot.

“This year, the flu strain mutated a little bit and there is one component of the flu strain that is causing the flu in people who actually did get the shot,” she said.

Several local hospitals are now limiting visitors to try and stop the spread of the flu. At the University of Maryland Medical Center, no visitors under the age of 18 will be allowed in the hospital, only two adult visitors can see a patient at one time and visitors experiencing flu symptoms are not permitted.

Flu season normally lasts through February and March.

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nach oben Wie infiziert man sich und wie lange ist man ansteckend?

Die Grippeviren sind nur wenige Tausendstel Millimeter groß. Sie befallen Schleimhautzellen, zum Beispiel in der Nase, und vermehren sich dort. Menschen stecken sich mit Grippe meist durch Tröpfcheninfektion an. Das kann beispielsweise geschehen, wenn eine erkrankte Person niest und andere die Tröpfchen einatmen. Influenza-Viren können bis zu mehrere Stunden außerhalb des Körpers überleben, bei niedrigen Temperaturen sogar noch länger. Kommen die Hände in Kontakt mit Gegenständen, auf denen sich virushaltige Sekrete befinden (zum Beispiel Türklinken) und fasst man sich anschließend damit an die Nase oder andere Schleimhäute, ist eine Infektion ebenfalls möglich.

Erkrankte sind ab dem Auftreten der ersten Symptome für ungefähr fünf bis sieben Tage ansteckend. Manchmal sind Betroffene sogar schon vor dem Auftreten der ersten Krankheitszeichen oder länger als eine Woche infektös.

Es gibt eine Reihe von Faktoren, die eine Erkrankung an Grippe und vor allem Komplikationen begünstigen. So zum Beispiel:

  • Schwangerschaft
  • Diabetes und andere Stoffwechselkrankheiten
  • Tumorerkrankungen
  • Alter von über 65 Jahren, hier reagiert das Immunsystem nicht mehr so gut auf neue Erreger
  • Alter von weniger als einem Jahr, hier ist das Immunsystem noch unreif und reagiert nicht so effektiv
  • Chronische Lungenerkrankungen wie Asthma, Lungenemphysem, chronische Bronchitis, Mukoviszidose
  • Chronische Herzkrankheiten
  • HIV-Erkrankung
  • Unterdrückung des Immunsystems im Zuge einer medizinischen Behandlung
  • Unterernährung

Eine Grippe sollte man ernst nehmen

Oft realisiert man gar nicht, dass man eine Grippe hat: In 80 Prozent der Fälle verläuft die Infektion mit Influenza unbemerkt oder nur wie eine leichte Erkältung. Jährlich sind nach Schätzungen der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) 10 bis 20 Prozent der Weltbevölkerung betroffen, aber die Mehrheit davon bekommt das nicht mit.

Ist eine Grippe immer lebensgefährlich?

Influenza kann lebensgefährlich sein, etwa im Rahmen einer Seuche durch einen neuartigen Virustyp, der besonders aggressiv ist. Das kommt aber nur sehr selten vor.

Harmlose Erkältungskrankheiten, oft als "grippaler Infekt" bezeichnet, können ähnliche Symptome wie eine Grippe verursachen: Husten, eine erhöhte Körpertemperatur oder Kopfschmerzen können zum Beispiel auch hier auftreten. Diese von anderen Viren ausgelösten Infektionen unterscheiden sich von Influenza durch die Schwere des Verlaufs: Sie gehen nur selten mit Fieber einher und führen in der Regel nur zu einer kurzzeitigen Abgeschlagenheit, die lediglich etwas Schonung bedarf.

Körperliche Schonung und Bettruhe sind wichtig, damit die Grippe schnell ausheilt.

So wirken Neuraminidasehemmer

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The term "advertorial" is a combination of "advertisement" and "editorial" written in an editorial format as an independent news story, when in fact the advertisement may promote a particular product or interest. Advertorials take factual information and report it in an editorial format to allow the author, often a company marketing its products, to enhance or explain certain elements to maintain the reader's interest. A familiar example is an airline's in-flight magazines that provide an editorial reports about travel destinations to which the airline flies.

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Stomach Flu (Tummy Bug) – Signs, Symptoms and Treatment

Infectious gastroenteritis is often referred to as a tummy bug or the stomach flu. It may be caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa. The incubation period and duration of the infection may vary depending on the causative microorganism and the action of the microbe or toxins.

The signs and symptoms of acute gastroenteritis should be discernible from other gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Proper management is crucial and most of the time, treatment for acute infectious gastroenteritis is only necessary in prolonged cases or immunocompromised patients.

Refer to the article on Causes, Incubation Period and Duration of Infectious Gastroenteritis for further details on these aspects.

The common signs and symptoms include:

  • Nausea
    • Constant and does not always ease after vomiting.
    • Retching is the involuntary but unproductive effort to vomit.
    • Heartburn and chest pain may be present as gastric contents rise up the esophagus coupled with muscle spasm from retching.
  • Vomiting
    • Severe with recurrent retching after expulsion.
    • May settle in the latter stages of the infection although nausea may still be present.
    • Eating solid foods usually aggravates nausea and vomiting.
    • Bloody vomit (hematemesis) is not always present and may only occur with persistent or violent vomiting (refer to gastritis caused by a Mallory-Weiss tear).
  • Diarrhea
    • Frequent, watery stools (large volume) often accompanied by intestinal cramps.
    • Certain infections and persistent diarrhea may result in bloody stools (melena

      black, tarry; hematochezia

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A person is considered to have wasting syndrome if they lose 10% or more of their body weight and have had diarrhea or weakness and fever for more than 30 days, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Photo: Getty Images

A dry cough was the first sign Ron had that something was wrong. He at first dismissed it as bad allergies.

But it went on for a year and a half—and kept getting worse. Benadryl, antibiotics, and inhalers didn't fix the problem. Neither did allergists.

This symptom—an "insidious cough that could be going on for weeks that doesn't seem to resolve," Dr. Malvestutto says—is typical in very ill HIV patients.

Photo: Getty Images

The cough and the weight loss may also presage a serious infection caused by a germ that wouldn't bother you if your immune system was working properly.

"There are many different opportunistic infections and each one can present differently," Dr. Malvestutto says. In Ron's case, it was Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), aka "AIDS pneumonia," which eventually landed him in the hospital.

Other opportunistic infections include toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection that affects the brain; a type of herpes virus called cytomegalovirus; and yeast infections such as thrush.

Photo: Getty Images

About half of people get night sweats during the early stages of HIV infection, Dr. Malvestutto says.

These can be even more common later in infection and aren't related to exercise or the temperature of the room.

Similar to the hot flashes that menopausal women suffer, they're also hard to dismiss, given that they soak your bedclothes and sheets.

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    Die Zeit zwischen einer Infektion mit dem Influenzavirus und dem Ausbruch der Erkrankung beträgt normalerweise ein bis drei Tage. Danach kommt es schlagartig zu charakteristischen Grippesymptomen wie hohem Fieber (bis 41°C) mit trockenem Husten, Schnupfen, Kopf-, Muskel- und Gliederschmerzen sowie einem allgemeinen Krankheitsgefühl. Gelegentlich können auch Atembeschwerden auftreten. Demnach kann eine Grippe als Erkrankung des gesamten Atemtraktes beschrieben werden, die jedoch Symptome im ganzen Körper verursacht. Charakteristisch ist der abrupte Beginn der Symptome, so dass die Patientinnen und Patienten oftmals noch Jahre später den Zeitpunkt präzise beschreiben können.

    Aufgrund der raschen Virusvermehrung ist die Infektionsgefahr für andere Personen mit dem Einsetzen von Husten und Niesen der Erkrankten/des Erkrankten am größten. Dabei ist die Virenkonzentration bei erkrankten Kindern meist höher als bei anderen Altersgruppen. Die leichte Übertragbarkeit der Influenzaviren kann in solchen Situationen bei Kontakt zu anderen Menschen zu einer explosionsartigen Verbreitung der Grippe führen.

    Verläuft die Influenza unkompliziert, bessern sich die Beschwerden normalerweise innerhalb von zwei bis fünf Tagen. Ein Großteil der Patientinnen und Patienten hat die Erkrankung normalerweise nach einer Woche überstanden. Allerdings nimmt zirka jede fünfte Influenza einen komplizierten Verlauf. Die häufigste Komplikation bei einer Grippeerkrankung ist eine Pneumonie (Lungenentzündung), wobei von der durch das Grippevirus selbst verursachten „primären Pneumonie“ die größten Gefahren ausgehen. Diese äußert sich meistens in einer Verschlechterung des Allgemeinzustands ein bis zwei Tage nach Krankheitsbeginn mit Atemnot und eventuell einer Blaufärbung von Haut und Schleimhäuten (Zyanose). Da sich bestimmte Bakterien, wie beispielsweise Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae oder Haemophilus influenzae, direkt an die Influenzaviren binden können, kann es aber auch infolge der akuten Influenza zu einer sogenannten „bakteriellen Superinfektion“ kommen. Bei dieser Form der Lungenentzündung steigt nach einer zwei- bis dreitägigen Phase der Besserung das Fieber erneut an und geht häufig mit Symptomen wie Husten und einem eitrigen Auswurf einher.

    Die häufigste Form der Influenza-Pneumonie ist jedoch eine gemischt viral-bakterielle Lungenentzündung, die sich entweder in einem allmählichen Fortschreiten der Erkrankung oder einer vorübergehenden Besserung und anschließenden Verschlechterung der Symptome äußert. Neben einer Pneumonie treten bei einer Influenza gelegentlich noch weitere Komplikationen auf. Dazu gehören beispielsweise eine Entzündung des Herzmuskels oder Herzbeutels, der Nasennebenhöhlen, des Mittelohrs, der Muskeln, der Hirn- beziehungsweise Rückenmarkshäute oder eine Schädigung des Gehirns.

    Die Diagnose einer Grippe ergibt sich während einer Grippeepidemie aus der Krankengeschichte und der körperlichen Untersuchung der Patientin/des Patienten. In manchen Fällen werden auch spezifische Laboruntersuchungen zum Virusnachweis durchgeführt. Dadurch können beispielsweise Informationen über die vorhandenen Virustypen oder die Verbreitung der Grippe erhalten werden. Derartige Laboruntersuchungen spielen zudem eine bedeutende Rolle zur Identifikation der Erreger bei neu aufgetretenen Formen der Grippe. Damit können beispielsweise Mutationen der Gene von Influenzaviren analysiert und eine Abgrenzung gegenüber der saisonalen Grippe vorgenommen werden.

    Für die weitere Diagnostik der Grippe stehen je nach Krankheitsphase verschiedene Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfügung. Dabei kommen unter anderem Untersuchungen von Nasensekret und Auswurf, Rachenabstriche sowie Blutuntersuchungen zum Einsatz.

    Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter Influenza-A/B-Schnelltest.

    Ist eine Person bereits an Grippe erkrankt, können bei rechtzeitiger Therapie die Influenzaviren direkt bekämpft werden. Hierfür gibt es bestimmte Medikamente – sogenannte Neuraminidasehemmer (Oseltamivir und Zanamivir). Sie blockieren die Freisetzung von neu gebildeten Viruspartikeln aus bereits infizierten Zellen und hemmen so die Vermehrung der Influenzaviren im Körper. Da nach einer anfänglichen Phase der raschen Erregerausbreitung die Zahl der Viren 24 bis 48 Stunden nach Ausbruch der Krankheit wieder abnimmt, müssen Neuraminidasehemmer am besten innerhalb der ersten zwölf Stunden (allerspätestens innerhalb von 48 Stunden) nach Auftreten der ersten Symptome zur Anwendung kommen.

    Die rechtzeitige Verabreichung von Oseltamivir oder Zanamivir lindert die grippebedingten Beschwerden (wie zum Beispiel Kopfschmerzen, Husten, Fieber) und verkürzt die Dauer der Grippeerkrankung. Außerdem senkt die Therapie das Risiko für Komplikationen (zum Beispiel Pneumonie). Oseltamivir gibt es als Saft oder Tabletten. Zanamivir kann dagegen nur inhaliert werden. Daher wird häufig bevorzugt Oseltamivir eingesetzt. Ergeben sich Hinweise auf eine bakterielle (Zusatz-)Infektion, muss eine entsprechende antibiotische Therapie eingeleitet werden. Bei Komplikationen ist mitunter auch die Gabe von Sauerstoff notwendig, bei Erschöpfung der Atmung muss maschinell beatmet werden.

    Bettruhe kann Komplikationen vorbeugen

    Die weitere Therapie bei Influenzaerkrankungen richtet sich allein gegen die Symptome. So können zum Beispiel gegen die Kopf-, Muskel- und Gliederschmerzen sowie das Fieber Schmerzmittel mit gleichzeitig fiebersenkender Wirkung (beispielsweise Paracetamol oder Ibuprofen) verabreicht werden. Allerdings sollten Medikamente mit dem Wirkstoff Acetylsalicylsäure (zum Beispiel Aspirin®) keinesfalls Kindern unter zwölf Jahren gegeben werden, da hierdurch in seltenen Fällen das gefürchtete Reye-Syndrom ausgelöst werden kann. Dabei handelt es sich um eine akute Erkrankung des Gehirns und der Leber, die unbehandelt tödlich verlaufen kann. Um Risiken in der Anwendung von Arzneimitteln zu vermeiden, sollten diese generell nur auf ärztliche Anordnung eingenommen werden.

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    Much research has been carried out to better understand the threat posed by the pigeon (feral and domesticated) and research is ongoing in many parts of the world, particularly in those countries worst affected. A thorough scientific research programme was undertaken following the outbreak of the highly pathogenic strain H5N2 in the north-eastern United States (in 1983/4) to assess the potential for wild birds to spread disease amongst local farms. The following species were included in this survey:

    • Wild and free-flying domestic ducks and geese
    • Wild or free-flying domestic birds (including pigeons)
    • Rodents
    • Dead or sick birds within the quarantine area

    Attempts to isolate the virus were conducted on a sample of 4,132 birds, of which 473 were pigeons, and of this number 92.6% were collected from infected farms. A further 81 feet, taken from dead pigeons, were also assessed for the purposes of the research - this is because pigeons commonly feed on agricultural sites and by walking in infected faecal matter the birds could potentially pass on the disease. In order to assess the sample, tracheal (throat) and vent (anus) swabs were taken from each bird. None of the 4,132 birds collected tested positive for the H5N2 strain. Blood samples taken from 383 pigeons were also negative for antibodies (antibodies are protective substances that are produced by the defensive network of the body in response to an infection) to avian influenza, an indication that infection by this virus had not occurred in these birds. An additional 50 pigeons, collected from within the quarantine zone, were also negative for the influenza virus. Experimental attempts made to infect pigeons with the highly pathogenic H5N2 strain of avian influenza did not result in either multiplication of the virus or any evidence of antibodies in the blood. The results of all of these studies indicated that pigeons were not infected with avian influenza and did not spread it.

    In another outbreak of avian influenza in the USA in 1993 (in the period February to May) blood samples were collected from 17 flocks of pigeons located within the quarantine area for evidence of antibodies to avian influenza. Flock sizes varied from 2000 - 3000 birds and represented a total of between 34,000 and 51,000 birds. Approximately 10 birds per flock were sampled (a total of 160 birds) and in every instance all pigeons tested were negative for antibodies to this avian influenza.

    Another study published in 1996 on the susceptibility of pigeons to avian influenza found that groups of pigeons inoculated with two strains of highly pathogenic influenza virus, or two strains of non-pathogenic virus, remained healthy during the 21-day trial period. The sample did not shed virus and did not develop antibodies to this disease - further evidence that pigeons are not a factor in the spread of avian influenza. More recent scientific evidence, from experimental work in 2001/2002, has shown that pigeons infected with the highly pathogenic form of the virus (designated H5N1 of Hong Kong origin) did not develop signs of this disease and did not have detectable changes to the disease in their tissues. Neither was the virus found in their tissues and nor was it re-isolated from swabs of tissues. These findings indicated once again that pigeons (along with starlings, rats and rabbits used in these studies) are largely resistant to infection with this highly pathogenic strain of the virus.

    It is quite clear from all the information available that avian influenza continues to be a threat to both humans and birds, but the likelihood of its transmission to humans as a result of contact with the feral pigeon or its faeces is virtually nil. The feral pigeon is reputed to be the ultimate disease-carrier, harbouring the capability to spread a huge variety of diseases to both humans and other birds and animals, but in reality this is a myth. As can be seen from the findings of several research programmes, the feral pigeon is at the bottom of the list of those species that have the potential to spread avian influenza and it is likely that this is the case with most of the other diseases that are commonly associated with the pigeon.

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    Flu Season 2015: Influenza In US ‘Widespread,’ But Fear May Outpace Threat

    Nurses prepare influenza vaccine injections during a flu shot clinic at Dorchester House, a health care clinic, in Boston, Massachusetts, Jan. 12, 2013. Photo: Reuters

    With an unforeseen mutation in this year’s dominant influenza virus and a faulty vaccine, 43 states have seen “widespread” transmission of the flu this season, according to the latest report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Flu activity was rampant in 29 states during the final week of December, up from 22 states a week earlier. Twenty-one pediatric deaths have been reported.

    The most prevalent virus of the 2014-2015 flu season has been influenza A H3N2, a particularly severe infection responsible for the three deadliest flu seasons since 2000. Health officials, however, said this year's threat was not entirely unexpected. “I don’t think it’s anything we haven’t seen before,” Richard Webby, virology expert with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, told International Business Times. “We know H3N2 dominates a season, we know it tends to be more severe.”

    Three out of four of the last 12 flu seasons reached epidemic levels, according to the Associated Press. Several so-called drift viruses – versions of H3N2 that are slightly genetically different from the main virus – have spread this season, meaning Americans have become more susceptible to the flu. “The antibodies that people made last time probably don’t work as well against [the new strain,]” Webby said. “That’s a consequence of the virus changing.”

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    Doctors often prescribe antibiotic eye drops or ointments for pink eye. But antibiotics don’t usually help, according to the American Academy of Ophthalmology. They can do more harm than good. Here’s why:

    Antibiotics are not usually necessary for pink eye.
    Pink eye can be caused by a virus, an allergy, or bacteria.

    Pink eye is usually caused by a virus. Viral pink eye usually goes away on its own in a week or so. Antibiotics do not kill viruses.

    Pink eye can also be an allergic reaction to some­thing like pollen, dust mites, pets, contact lenses, or cosmetics. This kind of pink eye gets better when you avoid the things that are causing the allergy. Antibiotics don’t help allergies.

    A third type of pink eye is caused by bacteria. This can be helped by an antibiotic. However, mild bac­terial pink eye almost always goes away within ten days without medication.

    Antibiotics can cause problems.
    Antibiotics can cause itching, stinging, burning, swelling and redness. They can cause more discharge. And they can cause allergic reactions in some people.

    Antibiotics can be a waste of money.
    Generic antibiotic drops and ointments can cost $12 to $60. For newer, brand name drugs, you can pay over $130. And if you have an antibiotic-resistant infection, you will need more doctor visits and costly medicines.

    Who should use antibiotics for pink eye?
    You might need antibiotic eye drops and ointments for bacterial pink eye if:

    • Your symptoms are severe.
    • Your immune system is weak. This might happen if you have another illness.
    • Your infection does not get better in a week without treatment.

    Know the symptoms of different kinds of pink eye.

    • Viral pink eye: Symptoms can include watery eyes along with a cold, flu, or sore throat.
    • Allergic pink eye: Symptoms include itchy eyes, swollen eyelids and a runny or itchy nose. It is more common in people who have other allergies, such as hay fever or asthma.
    • Bacterial pink eye: Symptoms include a thick, often yellow-green discharge that lasts all day (usually not with a cold or flu).

    This report is for you to use when talking with your health-care provider. It is not a substitute for medical advice and treatment. Use of this report is at your own risk.

    © 2013 Consumer Reports. Developed in cooperation with the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Symptome. Oft realisiert man gar nicht, dass man eine Grippe hat: In 80 Prozent der Fälle
    verläuft die Infektion mit Influenza unbemerkt oder nur wie eine leichte

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    If treatment and medications are given on time without much delay then for a healthy individual it might take around 48 to 75 hours to get relief from the symptoms and five to seven days to recover completely from the flu. ‘General fatigue and weakness might be persistent for a week or two which would settle with proper rest, care and healthy diet,’ says Dr Jiandani. (Read: Prevent swine flu with these 10 dos and don’ts)

    These are known as the classic "flu-like" symptoms and are not unlike the symptoms of other illnesses such as malaria. Indeed many people have mistaken the onset of malaria for a bout of flu and have not taken appropriate action with sometimes serious consequences.

    • Rest
    • Drink plenty of fluids
    • Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco
    • Take medication to relieve the symptoms

    It is passed from person to person by droplet transmission, usually by breathing in diphtheria bacteria after an infected person has coughed, sneezed or even laughed. It can also be spread by handling used tissues or by drinking from a glass used by an infected person.

    In tropical countries the infection may occur as skin ulcers and is known as cutaneous diphtheria which presents as infected skin lesions which lack a characteristic appearance.

    After two to six weeks, the effects of toxins produced by the bacteria become apparent with severe muscle weakness, mainly affecting the muscles of the head and neck. Inflammation of the heart muscle may cause heart failure. Myocarditis, polyneuritis, and airway obstruction are common complications of respiratory diphtheria; death occurs in 5%-10% of respiratory cases.

    Transmission is usually by direct person to person contact. Avoid very close contact with infected people particularly kissing and sharing bottles or glasses. It spreads quickly amongst infected people in crowded places. Cutaneous lesions are also important in transmission.

    Diphtheria remains endemic in developing countries and the countries of the former Soviet Union have reported an epidemic which began in 1990.

    Treatment: is specialised and requires medical supervision in hospital where Diphtheria antitoxin is given as an intramuscular or intravenous injection as soon as possible. The infection is then treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin.

    Prevention: There is a vaccine for diphtheria. Most people in the UK receive their first dose as a child in the form of a combined vaccine called DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis).
    Immunisation: is very effective but protective immunity is not present longer than 10 years after the last vaccination, so it is important for adults at risk to get a booster of tetanus-diptheria (Td) vaccine every 10 years.

    Legionnaires Disease

    TB is much more common in some parts of the world than in the UK. The risk to travellers is limited since transmission of the disease usually requires prolonged close contact. Sometimes the disease can be overwhelming; producing meningitis and coma; this particularly dangerous form is usually found in children and those who have not previously been vaccinated or exposed to the disease. Recently, antibiotic-resistant strains of tuberculosis have appeared.

    Tuberculosis can develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze from an infected person and it can also spread through infected sputum and there is a form spread through milk from infected cows. The risk of contracting TB increases with the frequency of contact with people who have the disease, and with crowded or unsanitary living conditions and poor nutrition.

    Pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection. The disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection, or it may lie dormant for years before causing disease. The extent of the disease can vary from minimal to massive involvement, but without effective therapy, the disease becomes progressive.

    Infants, the elderly, and individuals who are immunocompromised, those undergoing transplant surgery who are taking anti rejection medications are at higher risk for progression of the disease or reactivation of dormant disease. Those who have not received BCG immunisation are advised to do so and if for travel purposes, at least six weeks before departure to ensure a protective level of immunity.

    Treatment with anti microbial drugs is effective but is prolonged and requires medical supervision. It is also expensive and not always available abroad. Incomplete treatment of TB infections (such as failure to take medications for the prescribed length of time) can contribute to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria.