A team led by Dr. Russell Stothard, head of the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative at the Natural History Museum, London, recently conducted a field evaluation, which reported that even if stool or urine examinations are negative, a tissue biopsy might reveal eggs. Detection of antibody might as well be useful for epidemiological surveys as well as clinical research and management.
Schistosomiasis can be successfully treated using an oral drug Praziquantel. Though a single dose of this drug can cure the infection, it is not effective in preventing re-infection of the patient, which is highly probable in an affected area. Researches are presently being carried on to develop a vaccine for this disease.
The toxic metalloid, antimony was initially used in low doses to treat schistosomiasis, but this is not used in present days. Another drug called Oxamniquine is used outside the U.S to treat Schistosoma mansoni.
Investigations are being carried on a new Egyptian drug, Mirazid for the treatment of this disease.
Other forms of oral medication that are being experimented with are medicinal castor oil, Gopo Berry (by Dr Chidzere of Zimbabwe in 1980s), etc.
Acrolein, copper sulfate, and niclosamide can be used to eliminate the fresh-water snails that cause the disease.
Crayfish breeding can also be helpful for the purpose though it must be done with caution.
Avoiding water bodies previously detected with snails.
Use of sapindus plant(Phytolacca dodecandra) to prevent the disease by controlling snails. Aklilu Lemma and Legesse Wolde-Yohannes received the Right Livelihood Award in 1989 for their research.
Better plans and designs while creating dams and irrigation schemes can prevent this disease from spreading among the nearby population.
Influenza B: Cause, Symptom, Treatment and Prevention
Influenza B can cause respiratory and stomach symptoms. It can be easily treated. Vaccine and staying away from virus can prevent it.
Influenza or the flu refers to a respiratory infection that can be caused by a variety of viruses. The virus will move through the air and become inhaled through the mouth or nose. Approximately 5-20 percent of people catch the flu each year in the United States. Influenza can cause a serious infection or death in newborns, the elderly and people with some chronic illnesses. The viruses that cause influenza are classified as A, B or C types, depending on how their proteins are composed. Type B viruses are the most common in humans.
All flu viruses travel in the air as droplets of moisture. It spreads when people talk, cough or sneeze, releasing this moisture. Some people inhale this moisture in the air while others touch objects like a keyboard or telephone that are covered in the virus and then transfer them to the eyes, mouth or nose by touching these areas.
The influenza virus alters and creates new strains constantly so those that have already been affected by the flu may have developed antibodies to ward of a specific type of flu virus. If you are exposed to a virus in the future that is similar to those you have experienced before or you have been given a vaccination against a certain type of flu, it will be easier for the body to fight off the infection.
The antibodies a person has developed will not be able to prevent an infection caused by new strains of the virus or subtypes of the virus that are different than those you have already been exposed to.
1. Body Symptoms
It is a contagious and infectious condition which often manifests itself as major pandemics, which may occur in any season interspersed with seasonal epidemics of varying severity.
Influenza is more prominent during the winter season. In winter, the immune system of the body is weak. As people usually stay indoors and are in close proximity to each other, it spreads quickly during winter.
Prognosis of Influenza
The prognosis of Influenza is more severe and lasts longer than ‘common cold’. Recovery period of flu is about one to two weeks. The person remains contagious for about six days from the date of infection.
Influenza leaves the respiratory epithelium weak and prone to several other infections and attack by other pathogens. Influenza can be life threatening when it develops into pneumonia. It may affect people of any age.
Types of Influenza
There are three types of influenza viruses, they are:
1) Type A influenza virus which generally affects the mammals and birds like ducks, chicken and in some cases human beings. There are three variants of Type A influenza viruses namely H1N1 (e.g swine flu), H1N2 (e.g Asian flu and Hongkong flu), and H1N3 viruses.
2) Type B flu virus that infects only humans. This causes mild fever and is less harmful than type A flu.
3) Type C flu which causes mild respiratory infections. virus C. The symptoms of Type C influenza infection resembles the symptoms of common cold and is not pandemic.This flu infects only humans.
Causes of influenza
Influenza is usually caused due to faulty eating habits (dietetic errors) and unhygienic living conditions, like stuffy rooms. Anxiety, overwork, Lack of exercise and faulty lifestyle also provide grounds for influenza infection. The flu virus spreads easily through the saliva droplets released in the air due to sneezing and coughing of the person infected by flu and can infect and weak person quickly.
The birth of influenza virus is closely associated with birds(Avian flu) and other animals (e.g swine flu). Thus Influenza pandemics often originate in places where human beings live in close proximity of animals.
Symptoms of Influenza
The symptoms of influenza are:
- High fever (upto 40 ° C)
- Chills and headache
- Sore throat
- Dry cough
- Irritated eyes
- Nasal congestion and Congestion of the lungs
- Body aches including Muscle and joint pain
Realize that your sincere efforts will give you health beyond your expectations. Do not dwell upon your temporary discomforts. Instead, indulge in positive activity, such as exercise, gardening or helping others.
All symptoms will pass in time. The pain today will be a memory tomorrow. The discomforts you endure now mean an absence of suffering, later. You are healing yourself with your courage and wisdom. You have much to be thankful for.
Lymphoma is not difficult to diagnose once a patient and doctor begin to look for signs of cancer. However, Lymphoma–especially non-Hodgkin lymphoma–can be something of a silent killer.
Symptoms are frequently minor or nonexistent in the early stages and mimic symptoms of common, non-threatening illness.
Lymphoma symptoms are not specific to the disease. For this reason, it is very important that you tell your doctor during regular checkups about any symptoms that you might be experiencing including:
Swollen lymph nodes Lymphoma may cause swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, chest, abdomen and on the skin. Lymph nodes in the neck frequently swell in cases of sinus infection or can be symptomatic of the flu. But if they persist for a long time or occur apart from other sickness they might be cause for concern. Lymph node swelling in the armpits or abdomen might be cause for more immediate concern. Lymphoma may also cause swelling in the chest area which may interfere with breathing. Lymphomas of the skin often appear as itchy red or purple lumps. Swollen lymph nodes are usually tender and painful to some degree. However, in the case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lymph nodes might swell and become firm without any evident pain.
It should be noted that cat scratch disease can closely resemble lymphoma. It may come as a surprise to classic rock listeners to learn that "Cat Scratch Fever" is not just a Ted Nugent song but an actual illness more formally known as cat scratch disease or Bartonellosis. It is caused by a bacteria spread through contact with an infected cat and can result in lymph node infection. For more on cat scratch disease, please see this page from the CDC.
If you have one or more of these symptoms, and feel that they are part of an overall pattern sugesting lymphoma, you need to consult a physician as soon as possible.
For most people, preventive care is the most important weapon in the fight against lymphoma. Lymphoma is often diagnosed during routine exams, x-rays, or even during pregnancy. By having regular checkups and monitoring your overall health, you increase your chances of early diagnosis and, therefore, successful treatment.
Learn About Dehydration Causes, Treatment and Prevention
There are two types of dehydration that a person can experience: chronic dehydration and acute dehydration. Both types of dehydration can be caused by a variety of sources. The most common sources of dehydration are: flu, diarrhea, blood loss, vomiting, malnutrition and the most common problem of not replenishing liquids lost from sweating and urination.
The many signs and symptoms of dehydration most commonly start with excessive thirst, but may rapidly progress to more concerning troubles. The body will react to the need for water by giving of signs that you should recognize. The initial signs and symptoms of mild dehydration in adults start to appear when a person has lost approximately 2% of their total fluid. These mild dehydration symptoms may include but not limited to:
If fluid intake is not increased and the total loss reaches around 5%, the following effects of dehydration may be experienced:
- Increased heart rate
- Increased respiration
- Decreased sweating
- Decreased urination
- Increased body temperature
- Extreme fatigue
- Muscle cramps
- Tingling of the limbs
Soon, if the body approaches a 10% fluid loss, emergency help is needed IMMEDIATELY! This level of fluid loss can and is very dangerous and often fatal! Symptoms and signs of severe dehydration include:
- Muscle spasms
- Racing pulse
- Shriveled skin
- Dim vision
- Painful urination
- Difficulty breathing
- Chest and Abdominal pain
Be aware that these are not the only signs and symptoms of severe dehydration that may be noticed, they are just the most commonly seen and experienced ones. The symptoms of dehydration will be different in each individual because the body is a complex network of systems and each person is unique. The age of an individual may also influence the manifestation of symptoms. The signs of dehydration in an infant or adolescent will not be the same as those experienced by a teenager, full grown adult or in an older person.
Always remember that dehydration prevention is the number one way to stop dehydration before it gets out of control - drink plenty of fluids and stay inside on extremely hot and humid days. Also be aware that heatstroke can come on rapidly when working outside.
Dehydration is caused by the loss of water so the best the treatment of dehydration to increase the intake of fluids. Also, when a person becomes dehydrated there may be a loss of electrolytes. Electrolytes are important for the electro-chemical reactions within cells and a decrease of electrolytes in the body may cause an interference of the chemical reactions needed for healthy cell operation. This can lead to a serious condition that may cause death in extreme cases. The two primary electrolytes that are need to be replenished are sodium and potassium salts. These may be found in the common sports drinks used by atheletes. Another source of electrolytes are the variety of pediatric hydration drinks designed for infants. A third source is fruits and vegetables and their juices. Electrolytes are also found in salty snacks and foods but be aware that eating any food while dehydrated may increase the dehydration since increased fluids are required for digestion.
If a person is showing minor symptoms of dehydration, give them plenty of water. Inform them to drink slowly, in small sips. Secondly, begin to replace electrolytes with the drinks mentioned above. If the electrolyte rich drinks are not available, slowly replenish the body's liquids with water and follow that up after symptoms have decreased with a small salty snack or a light meal.
If a person is showing some of the more severe symptoms of dehydration as listed above, call an ambulance immediately. He or she may be past the point where ingestion of the proper fluids will help; get them medical attention as soon as possible.
Avian influenza (bird flu) is a notifiable disease in the UK and is listed in section 88 of the Animal Health Act 1981. Section 15 (1) of the Act says:
“Any person having in their possession or under their charge an animal affected or suspected of having one of these diseases must, with all practicable speed, notify that fact to a police constable.”
Loosely translated this means that if you suspect or are aware of the presence of a notifiable disease there is a legal obligation to notify a DEFRA Divisional Veterinary Manager immediately. DEFRA is the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and is responsible for overseeing animal health in the UK.
Avian influenza in birds is spread via secretions from the eyes, respiratory tract and from faecal matter, with droplets of liquid sneezed by infected birds spreading the disease extremely rapidly in environments where large numbers of birds are housed. In wild birds the situation is different with many migratory birds (including waterfowl, sea birds and shore birds) carrying the virus for long distances and being implicated in the international spread of the disease. Migratory waterfowl - most notably wild ducks - are the natural reservoir of bird flu viruses and these birds are also the most resistant to infection. They can carry the virus over great distances and excrete it in their droppings, yet develop only mild and short-lived illness themselves. There is a great deal of speculation about the importance of this very large reservoir of influenza viruses in wild birds as it is a source of viruses for other species, including humans, lower mammals, and birds. The high rate of infection allows for the maintenance and emergence of new and potentially highly dangerous strains by means of mutation and/or genetic reassortment.
Some strains of avian influenza can be transmitted to humans and other animals but this is normally only the case following high levels of exposure to infected birds and/or their faecal matter. People most at risk would be those involved in intensive farming, in particular the poultry industry. These strains will normally only cause mild symptoms in humans but a current south-east Asian strain has caused a number of deaths. Although humans can be infected from birds the current highly pathogenic H5N1 strain does not readily infect people and there is very little chance, if any, for human-to-human spread of the disease.
The main significance for human health is that birds could be the source of new strains of influenza virus. Existing bird strains could mutate to form a new strain, which could, in turn, readily infect humans. Likewise, if mammals are infected with both human and avian strains of the disease at the same time the mixing of genetic material from the two viruses might produce new strains. These strains would have the potential to spread readily between humans. If a new strain of avian flu was to mutate, humans would have little or no immunity to it and a serious worldwide epidemic could occur.
Although avian influenza has hit the headlines on numerous occasions over the last few years the disease is yet to have a major impact in the UK, with only minor outbreaks which have been confined to poultry production units. The most recent outbreaks of avian influenza have been the low pathogenic strain with an outbreak of H7N2 in Conwy, North Wales in May 2007 and more recently an outbreak of the H7 strain in St Helens, Merseyside in June 2007. In both cases restrictions that were imposed on the sites concerned were removed promptly, in the case of Conwy within 5/6 weeks of investigation and in the case of St Helens within a day of investigation. The most recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian flu was the strain H5N1 identified on a poultry unit in Holton, Suffolk in February 2007. Amongst restrictions imposed on the facility were a 3 km Protection Zone and a 10 km Surveillance Zone along with a much wider Restriction Zone. All restrictions were removed from the farm just over one month later.
Although avian influenza has been restricted, in the main, to the mass production of poultry, the feral pigeon has inevitably been identified as one species that has the potential to carry and pass the disease onto humans based on the birds’ close association with man. The main focus of attention has been the racing pigeon industry due to the fact that it involves the transportation of pigeons across international borders. Clearly, if pigeons are released in EU countries where avian influenza is active, when they return to lofts in the UK there is clear potential for those birds to carry and transmit the disease to other domesticated birds, wild birds and animals and indeed humans. As it is migratory birds that are considered to be the main carriers of avian influenza, racing pigeons must also fall into this category as they are frequently required to cross international borders.
Much research has been carried out to better understand the threat posed by the pigeon (feral and domesticated) and research is ongoing in many parts of the world, particularly in those countries worst affected. A thorough scientific research programme was undertaken following the outbreak of the highly pathogenic strain H5N2 in the north-eastern United States (in 1983/4) to assess the potential for wild birds to spread disease amongst local farms. The following species were included in this survey:
- Wild and free-flying domestic ducks and geese
- Wild or free-flying domestic birds (including pigeons)
- Dead or sick birds within the quarantine area
Attempts to isolate the virus were conducted on a sample of 4,132 birds, of which 473 were pigeons, and of this number 92.6% were collected from infected farms. A further 81 feet, taken from dead pigeons, were also assessed for the purposes of the research - this is because pigeons commonly feed on agricultural sites and by walking in infected faecal matter the birds could potentially pass on the disease. In order to assess the sample, tracheal (throat) and vent (anus) swabs were taken from each bird. None of the 4,132 birds collected tested positive for the H5N2 strain. Blood samples taken from 383 pigeons were also negative for antibodies (antibodies are protective substances that are produced by the defensive network of the body in response to an infection) to avian influenza, an indication that infection by this virus had not occurred in these birds. An additional 50 pigeons, collected from within the quarantine zone, were also negative for the influenza virus. Experimental attempts made to infect pigeons with the highly pathogenic H5N2 strain of avian influenza did not result in either multiplication of the virus or any evidence of antibodies in the blood. The results of all of these studies indicated that pigeons were not infected with avian influenza and did not spread it.
In another outbreak of avian influenza in the USA in 1993 (in the period February to May) blood samples were collected from 17 flocks of pigeons located within the quarantine area for evidence of antibodies to avian influenza. Flock sizes varied from 2000 - 3000 birds and represented a total of between 34,000 and 51,000 birds. Approximately 10 birds per flock were sampled (a total of 160 birds) and in every instance all pigeons tested were negative for antibodies to this avian influenza.
Another study published in 1996 on the susceptibility of pigeons to avian influenza found that groups of pigeons inoculated with two strains of highly pathogenic influenza virus, or two strains of non-pathogenic virus, remained healthy during the 21-day trial period. The sample did not shed virus and did not develop antibodies to this disease - further evidence that pigeons are not a factor in the spread of avian influenza. More recent scientific evidence, from experimental work in 2001/2002, has shown that pigeons infected with the highly pathogenic form of the virus (designated H5N1 of Hong Kong origin) did not develop signs of this disease and did not have detectable changes to the disease in their tissues. Neither was the virus found in their tissues and nor was it re-isolated from swabs of tissues. These findings indicated once again that pigeons (along with starlings, rats and rabbits used in these studies) are largely resistant to infection with this highly pathogenic strain of the virus.
It is quite clear from all the information available that avian influenza continues to be a threat to both humans and birds, but the likelihood of its transmission to humans as a result of contact with the feral pigeon or its faeces is virtually nil. The feral pigeon is reputed to be the ultimate disease-carrier, harbouring the capability to spread a huge variety of diseases to both humans and other birds and animals, but in reality this is a myth. As can be seen from the findings of several research programmes, the feral pigeon is at the bottom of the list of those species that have the potential to spread avian influenza and it is likely that this is the case with most of the other diseases that are commonly associated with the pigeon.
PCRC, Unit 4, Sabre Buildings, Sabre Close, Newton Abbot, Devon, TQ12 6TW
Zur Verhinderung oder Therapie von Sekundärinfektionen kann der Einsatz von Antibiotika sinnvoll sein. Bei sehr hohem Fieber ist zudem die Gabe von Antipyretika (z.B. Paracetamol) zu erwägen.
Die Wirkung einer vorbeugenden oder therapeutischen Gabe von Vitamin C ist umstritten.
Der Krankheitsverlauf ist sehr unterschiedlich, meist relativ harmlos ohne Folgen, z.T. aber auch lebensgefährlich (v.a. bei Kindern und älteren immungeschwächten Personen).
Die akute Erkrankung klingt in der Regel etwa nach 5 bis 7 Tagen ab. Einzelne Symptome (z.B. Husten, Abgeschlagenheit) können jedoch noch über einen längeren Zeitraum weiter bestehen. Je nach Schwere der durchgemachten Erkrankung ist eine Rekonvaleszenz über Tage, aber auch über Wochen möglich.
Eine mögliche Komplikation der Influenza, der bei bestimmten Virusstämmen auftritt, ist der so genannte Zytokinsturm. Dabei versagt die adaptive Immunantwort und es kommt zu einer Überreaktion des Immunsystems im Sinne einer sich selbst verstärkenden Kaskadenreaktion. Die dazu fähigen Zellen des Immunsystems (T-Zellen, Makrophagen) schütten große Mengen an Zytokinen aus, die eine massive Entzündungsreaktion hervorrufen. Sie tritt klinisch als schwere, perakute Influenzapneumonie mit Dyspnoe, Lungenblutungen und möglichem Organversagen in Erscheinung.
Bestimmte Erregervarianten des Influenzavirus begünstigen die Entstehung eines Zytokinsturms. Sie bilden Proteine, auf die das Immunsystem offensichtlich besonders empfindlich reagiert. Häufig unterscheiden sie sich nur in einigen wenigen Genabschnitten von weniger pathogenen Stämmen.
Egg allergy is common in babies and toddlers - occurring in 1 -2 % of pre-school children.
This page answers the following questions:
What are the symptoms of egg allergy in infants and toddlers?
The symptoms include:
- skin reactions with urticaria (also known as hives) - this is the most common reaction. Read more
- tummy upset and vomiting - even if the egg makes contact with the skin and is not ingested
- anaphylaxis which is a serious allergic reaction with breathing difficulty and shock - this is much less common than with other foods such as peanut, other nuts and milk. Read more
The allergic reactions may be:
- immediate - which occur within a few minutes to an hour of ingesting the egg. These are IgE mediated reactions, so caused by a particular antibody (called IgE) in the body. Read more
- delayed - which may occur up to 24 hours after ingesting the egg. These are usually non-IgE mediated reactions, so they are caused by an immune response but it doesn't involve IgE