This graph was produced in 2014 from our last 16,000 patients at the Norman Parathyroid Center. Each of these patients had a parathyroid tumor removed from their neck. There are 16 symptoms of hyperparathyroidism (some symptoms listed above are generalized and overlap each other). This graph shows how many symptoms the average patient had (on the vertical y-axis) and what their blood calcium was (on the bottom x-axis). The black dots are the average number of symptoms all patients had at each calcium level. The thin vertical lines are statistical error bars showing that there is some variability. a few patients at every calcium level had zero symptoms, while a few patients at every calcium level had all 16 symptoms. People with higher calcium levels do not have more symptoms. So if your doctor says "your symptoms can't be from hyperparathyroidism because your calcium is not high enough", then you print this graph and educate them. The number of symptoms a patient has is NOT related to how high the calcium level is.

UPDATE: In January 2017 we published the largest study of parathyroid patients of all time (20,081 consecutive adults). We looked at the symptoms and the complications (stones, osteoporosis, etc, etc) in patients that have very high calcium and compared them to parathyroid patients with only very mild elevations of calcium. The two groups were those with hyperparathyroidism with calcium levels below 11.0 mg/dl (2.75 mmol/l) and those with calcium levels above 11. The result: NO DIFFERENCE! People with calcium levels of 12.5 do NOT have more symptoms, or stones, or osteoporosis, or fatigue (or anything) than people with calcium of 10.5. A calcium of 12.5 is not worse than a calcium of 10.5. It's all about the duration, not the height. Read and print the entire article here. This is a great article for you to print and educate your doctors with!

Our Hypercalcemia page has a cool Hypercalcemia Calculator that will give the exact upper limit of normal calcium for your age.

Another extremely common problem is that patients will go to their doctor with one (or often several) of the symptoms listed on this page. The doctor will run some tests and nothing shows up. The doctor then says "Everything is fine. Your lab work is all fine except for a slightly elevated calcium level which can't be the problem. Let's just wait for 6 months and check it again". This often goes on for years until eventually somebody decides to look into the high calcium, or incredible as it seems, the patient changes doctors and the new doctor says "Hey, what the heck are we doing about all these high calcium levels?". This doctor gets it! 26% of our last 20,000 cases of hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed when that patient went to a new doctor--on their first visit!.

Again, we want to stress the fact that almost all patients with high calcium will have some of the symptoms listed on this page. How bad these symptoms are is not necessarily related to how high your calcium is elevated. If it's elevated a little bit (around 10.7), you may be depressed, forgetful, constantly tired, etc, etc. You do not need to have a calcium of 12 or higher to get symptoms.

To illustrate this point, during the month of February 2010 Drs Norman and Politz operated on 195 patients with hyperparathyroidism. Three had already had a stroke. One stroke patient had calcium levels around 12.8. The other two never had a calcium level above 11.7, but they had calcium levels over 10.1 for 12 years. Similarly, 36 of the 195 parathyroid patients that month already had kidney stones. Half of them never had a single calcium level above 11.3. Tiredness and/or depression was seen in 82% of all the patients during this month, yet 3/4 of them never had calcium levels above 11.3, some never had a calcium level higher than 10.8. Ninety percent of these patients had osteopenia or osteoporosis, yet this was not predictable by how high their calcium was.

Again, the symptoms you get--even the bad complications like kidney stones, heart problems, stroke, cancer, kidney failure, and osteoporosis are NOT related to how high your calcium levels are. So if your doctor says "lets just wait and see what happens since your calcium is not that high"--that is when you print this page and take it to him/her and educate them! This is bad advice. A high calcium level, regardless of how "high" it is, is not normal and your body will not like it. Waiting until your calcium goes above 11.5 is absolutely the worst advice you could ever get (malpractice?). and is given by doctors who don't know much about this disease. Let's face it. most doctors might see hyperparathyroidism once in a blue moon. Even endocrinologists will see diabetes patients all day long, and see one parathyroid patient every couple of weeks or months. They are extremely up to date on diabetes and thyroid disease because they see this daily. Sadly, there are some endocrinologists that are not up to date on parathyroid disease. It's probably because they don't see it very often.

Remember - It is almost never normal to have a high blood calcium level.

It is well known that almost all people with parathyroid disease will have obvious parathyroid symptoms, while some aren't quite so sure they have any. For this latter group (about 2-5%), it can only be known several months after the operation to remove the bad parathyroid gland. Almost all of those patients who thought they didn't have any parathyroid symptoms preoperatively will claim to sleep better at night, be less irritable, and find that they remember things much easier than they could when their calcium levels were high (nervous system problems). Just ask your family members if you have become more irritable or cranky over the past couple of years!

The most common symptoms are those listed at the top of the list. with about 75% of people with hyperparathyroidism having 4 or 5 of the first 6 listed. MOST people will have several symptoms--the average person will have between 4 and 6 (see the dots on the graph above). Also be aware that the symptoms that people get are somewhat different depending on their age (teenagers get different symptoms than people in their 60's). Read more about the age differences in parathyroid symptoms on our age page. Important: when young people get hyperparathyroidism, their symptoms are usually different than when a parathyroid tumor develops in older people.

In many cases, it's the spouse or children who has detected a change in personality over the past several years -- "He/She is more cranky than he/she used to be; he/she has a shorter fuse and is quicker to anger than he/she used to be". In some cases, its ONLY the spouse who notices a big difference in the patient with the parathyroid problem, while the person with the parathyroid problem will claim they don't see much difference in their personality. After the parathyroid operation, spouses typically comment that their husband or wife sleeps better, can remember things better, and is easier to get along with -- "After the operation, he/she quickly returned to his/her old self again!". As Dr Norman says: "A good parathyroid surgeon can save a lot of marriages!"

FATIGUE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. The number one symptom that people with hyperparathyroidism complain about is fatigue. Just over 82% of our last 28,000 patients said this was their main problem. Many patients are diagnosed with parathyroid disease because they went to their doctor saying "I'm tired all the time, something must be wrong". Often the doctor will say "I can't find anything wrong", but the patient says "I know my body, and I'm telling you, something is wrong!" Many will say that they noticed "something changed last year", or "for the past 4 years I've been tired and I just thought it was menopause". A lot of people with hyperparathyroidism say that they are ok in the morning, but by noon they just can't get going any more. They can't stay motivated past noon or 1 o'clock in the afternoon. This all makes sense when we understand that our nervous system runs on calcium and when the calcium is high in the blood, this makes our nerves conduct electricity a bit slower--we interpret this as tiredness, fatigue, poor sleeping, poor memory, and other issues regarding how we feel. Almost all patients with a parathyroid tumor will feel remarkably better a week or two after the tumor has been removed. Most say "it was like the fog was lifted from me overnight". Read our testimonial page to see what other parathyroid patients say about this. This is the best part of our job. our patients love us because we give them back their energy and their "joy of life".

BONE PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Patients with persistently elevated calcium levels due to overproduction of parathyroid hormone can also have complaints of bone pain. Bone pain is due to the activity of the parathyroid hormone on the bones, causing the calcium to be pulled OUT of the bones. In the severe form of parathyroid disease--or parathyroid disease that has been present for several years, bones can give up so much of their calcium that the bones become brittle and break (osteoporosis and osteopenia). This problem is even more of a concern in older patients. Bones can also have small hemorrhages within their center which will cause bone pain. This is why many patients with parathyroid disease will have a DEXA bone density scan performed by their doctor. The doctor is looking to see how much calcium has already been lost due to the excess parathyroid hormone. Although mini-parathyroid surgery has made it so ALL patients with parathyroid disease should be operated on for cure, those with osteoporosis or a decrease in bone density really should have it done! Also. If you have this disease and have not had a DEXA bone density scan--you need to get one. This will allow us to determine how much bone calcium you have lost and how best to get it replaced. has a complete page on osteoporosis due to parathyroid disease (click here).

Does everybody with hyperparathyroidism get osteoporosis? YES, some faster than others. Some people will have osteoporosis when they are 25 years old if they have a parathyroid tumor. Heck, where do you think all the extra calcium in the blood and urine comes from? It's coming from your bones!

Get the Calcium-Pro App FOR SMART PHONES AND TABLETS. The experts at the Norman Parathyroid Center developed an app that will diagnose your hyperparathyroidism, tell you what tests you need and which ones to avoid, and tell you what your risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney stones and even your increased risk for several cancers based upon your calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels. Get this Award-Winning app. It is smarter than your doctor.

DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Another frequent symptom of parathyroid disease is depression. Just under 48% of our last 22,000 patients were either diagnosed with "depression" or were put on an anti-depressant within the previous 2 years. The vast majority of patients have some depression symptoms such as lack of energy, sadness, inability to sleep well, anxiety, nervousness, irritability, (etc) that their doctor felt was consistent with the diagnosis of "depression" so they were put on an anti-depressant medication (examples: Effexor, Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac, Lexapro, Wellbutrin, Celexa, etc). Thus, because hyperparathyroidism is a rare problem, most doctors are not aware that depression, tiredness, lack of energy, etc are some of the most common symptoms of this disease--so they treat the symptoms instead of treating the disease! Sadly, your doctor can miss the proper diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism because they don't see this disease very often (or they don't recognize it when they see it!). Read our blog on this topic, you will see common stories of the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism.

IMPORTANT, almost all parathyroid patients that have been given the diagnosis of depression and have been put on one of these drugs can be taken off of the antidepressant medication after the operation. You should wait about 2 months after the operation for your hormones and calcium levels to stabilize, and then work with your doctor to see if you can be weaned from the drugs. Almost all can. But, don't do it on your own, do this with your doctor's help.

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f) hier und da auch Durchfall, Übelkeit und Erbrechen

Wichtige Schritte bei Symptome Grippe bzw. einer Influenza:

Bei einer leichten Erkältung muss niemand gleich zum Arzt laufen. Die meisten Patienten kennen bereits ihren Körper und wissen, was am besten hilft. Kommt Fieber ins Spiel, sollte niemand damit scherzen, weil es hier nicht nur um den eigenen Körper geht. Wer mit einer richtigen Grippe in die Arbeit geht, sollte einem das überhaupt gelingen, steckt damit eventuell unschuldige Menschen an. Deswegen sollte der Weg zum Arzt, doch an erster Stelle stehen. Bei der Influenza sind ebenso andere Maßnahmen erforderlich, als bei einer einfachen Erkältung. Bei den Influenza A Viren wird beispielsweise Amantadin zur Therapie eingesetzt. Das sind Medikamente, die nur der Arzt verschreibt. Influenza Viren sollte niemand unterschätzen, da sie wirklich gefährlich sein können. Hühnersuppe alleine hilft in dem Fall nur wenig weiter.

You may have found our site because you are concerned that you may have a parasitic infection. In this section, we will help you by telling you which parasite symptoms are most commonly associated with parasitic infections. Armed with a little knowledge, you will then be able to take the right actions to move you in a healthier, parasite-free direction.

The parasite symptoms that are associated with parasites and the infections they cause vary greatly and can indicate other causes. Some parasites can exist in the body for years and never produce a single symptom. Others will have symptoms so severe you would require immediate medical attention. It can be very hard to pinpoint an exact cause of some of the symptoms or even be misdiagnosed.

Chronic fatigue or extreme tiredness is a common symptom of a parasitic infection. The reason someone infected by a parasite may feel so tired is because the parasite living in the intestines will sap the nutrients out of the food he or she digests. The parasite will thrive, and its human host will be under nourished.

Iron deficiency, or anemia, is often caused by worm parasites in the intestines. This is a major contributor to feeling chronically fatigued. Some differences between chronic fatigue and just your run-of-the-mill tiredness are that chronic fatigue will not improve with rest, becomes worse with both mental and physical activity, and is associated with feeling weak and sore muscles.

Since many human parasites make their home in the digestive track, their hosts are likely to experience digestive related symptoms. Most of these are very unpleasant and can be embarrassing. They include belching, excessive flatulence or gas, vomiting, bloody stools, and diarrhea. Some may experience fecal incontinence or oily stools.

It’s typically those microscopic and pesky protozoa that cause the more uncomfortable symptoms like diarrhea or loose stools. This is because they release prostaglandin which is substance that causes a loss in chloride and sodium. The result is stools that are watery because the body is attempting to rid itself of the attacker.

Constipation can also be caused because some of the larger parasitic worms can lodge themselves in the intestines and cause a blockage. Over-the-counter stool softeners and a healthy diet should clear up natural bouts of constipation. You may have a parasitic worm causing a blockage if stool softeners don’t provide relief.

A common condition caused by these intestinal parasites is irritable bowel syndrome. This is a painful and uncomfortable condition that is a result of the parasite irritating the wall of the intestine and causing swelling. Many doctors have been quick to dismiss IBS as just something people must cope with. In the year 2000, researchers in England did a study that showed a significant link between the parasite giardia and irritable bowel syndrome. Ridding the body of this parasite gave great relief to the patients who had previously been diagnosed with IBS.

Since parasites don’t always stay put in the intestines, but rather move about and enter the blood stream, nervous system, and the organs, joint and muscle pain can be a symptom to look out for. This joint pain can commonly be mistaken for arthritis when in reality it is caused by inflammation due to the parasites becoming encased in a sac and existing despite our body’s best efforts to expel it.

Some parasites can cause a person to become agitated, nervous, or anxious. Researchers believe this is due to the body reacting in a way to try and rid itself of the foreign body. It’s also known that parasites release waste which can have an adverse effect on the central nervous system.

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Beginning in early 2015, the H5N2 subtype was found in poultry and wild birds in the Midwest and Southeast. The role of wild birds in the introduction and movement of the H5N2 subtype in to these new regions is unclear as the timing of these findings is poorly associated with known wild bird movements at that time, given that the first cases in domestic turkeys in Minnesota occurred at the end of winter, proceeding the arrival of migratory birds from the southern U.S. As of October 6, 2015, 48 million poultry have died or been euthanized as a result of HPAI outbreaks, and the last detection occurred on June 17, 2015. A total of 85 cases of HPAI have been reported in wild birds. The last detection was on July 31, 2015.

Up-to-date listings of HPAI cases can be found at the following locations:

Wild Birds (pdf, USDA-APHIS site)

The novel H5N1 HPAIV that was found in a green-winged teal in Washington is not the same as the Asian H5N1 strain that can infect people and has been the news for several years. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the strains of Eurasian/North American HPAI currently in the US are of low risk to human health.

Aquatic birds, especially ducks, shore birds and gulls are considered natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses. The novel HPAI strains so far are not killing wild waterfowl. However, domestic poultry exposed to these novel virus strains become very ill and most quickly die. In some poultry the only sign of the disease is sudden death. In most infected domestic flocks. The numbers of sick and dying birds increases rapidly over several days. HPAI is devastating to the US poultry industry through production and bird losses, and through the loss of export markets. USDA, State Agriculture and Departments of Natural Resources, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and other agencies are working together to find infected poultry and stop the spread of disease and to educate producers and hunters

How does it spread?

The virus is spread through contact with fecal droppings, saliva and nasal discharges of infected birds. One gram of infected feces contains enough virus to infect one million additional birds. Unlike LPAI, HPAI causes a systemic infection in the bird, spreading the virus to meat and eggs. The virus can survive in dead birds, especially if they are kept cool, for a few days. HPAI also survives in cold, moist environments and tolerates freezing - virus frozen in contaminated ponds can infect birds when the ice melts.

The novel HPAI viruses currently in the US are of little risk to people, and are killed in food by using proper cooking methods and temperatures. Cook game bird meat thoroughly; poultry should reach an internal temperature of 165°F to kill disease organisms and parasites.

What should hunters do to prevent spreading the disease?

Because HPAI can spread from bird carcasses, hunters should take extra precautions so they don't bring the virus home to their own or their neighbors' poultry. In the Pacific flyway, captive falcons became ill and many died after being fed infected wild ducks. Hunters should:

  • Dress your game birds in the field whenever possible.
  • If you must dress birds at home, clean them in an area your poultry and pet birds cannot access. Ideally, there would be a solid barrier between your game cleaning area and where your birds are housed.
  • Keep a separate pair of shoes to wear only in your game cleaning area. If this is not possible, wear rubber footwear and clean/disinfect your shoes before entering or leaving the area.
  • Use dedicated tools for cleaning game, whether in the field or at home. Do not use those tools around your poultry or pet birds.
  • Always wear rubber gloves when cleaning game.
  • Double bag the offal and feathers. Tie the inner bag, and be sure to take off your rubber gloves and leave them in the outer bag before tying it closed.
  • Place the bag in a trash can that poultry and pet birds cannot access. This trash can should also be secure against access by children, pets, or other animals.
  • Wash hands with soap and water immediately after handling game. If soap and water are not available, use alcohol wipes.
  • Wash all tools and work surfaces with soap and water. Then, disinfect them following the disinfectant's labeling. Make sure the disinfectant you use is labeled as effective against flu viruses.
  • Bird Flu - Guidance for Hunters (USDA, pdf, 100kb)
    Hunter Wallet Card (USDA, pdf, 75kb)

    What's being done to prevent its spread?

    Federal and state wildlife agencies are conducting continent-wide wild bird and habitat surveillance for HPAI. Surveillance for wild birds is focused on wetland species such as waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds and includes testing live-trapped birds, hunter-harvested waterfowl, and mortality events.

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    La majorité des cas signalés antérieurement de personnes ayant contracté la grippe H1N1 ont pu se remettre complètement sans recourir à des soins médicaux ni à des médicaments antiviraux. Cependant, l'incidence des éclosions nous renseignent que le traitement à l'aide d'antiviraux pourrait être nécessaire, surtout pour les personnes qui présentent des symptômes modérés ou graves et celles qui risquent de subir des complications de la grippe (par ex. les personnes qui ont des troubles médicaux sous-jacents).

    Pour les personnes atteintes, améliorez votre état et prévenez la propagation du virus en prenant les précautions suivantes:

    • demeurez à la maison si vous avez contracté le virus. Ne vous rendez pas au travail ni à l'école;
    • gardez au moins 1 mètre de distance entre les autres personnes;
    • reposez-vous et buvez beaucoup de liquide;
    • couvrez-vous la bouche et le nez avec un papier-mouchoir lorsque vous toussez ou éternuez. Jetez-le ensuite à la poubelle. Si vous n'avez pas de papier-mouchoir à votre portée, couvrez-vous le nez et la bouche avec votre manche ou vos mains. Lavez soigneusement vos mains par la suite;
    • lavez-vous les mains régulièrement avec du savon et de l'eau. Prenez soin de laver vos mains avec du savon pendant au moins 15 secondes. Utilisez un désinfectant pour les mains à base d'alcool si vous n'avez pas accès au savon ni à l'eau.

    Il existe des façons de vous protéger contre le virus de la grippe H1N1. Recevoir le vaccin contre l'influenza juste avant la saison annuelle de la grippe (en général de novembre à avril en Amérique du Nord) représente de beaucoup la mesure de prévention la plus efficace. Les personnes qui séjournent dans des régions où il y a une éclosion du virus doivent prendre des précautions particulières pour réduire leur risque d'exposition au virus de la grippe H1N1. Voici quelques conseils pour prévenir la grippe:

    • évitez le contact étroit avec des personnes infectées et qui présentent des symptômes de grippe H1N1 (par ex. de la fièvre, une toux);
    • lavez-vous fréquemment et soigneusement les mains avec du savon et de l'eau. Pour pratiquer un bon nettoyage, vous devez vous laver les mains avec du savon et frotter pendant au moins 15 secondes. Utilisez un désinfectant à base d'alcool si vous ne pouvez pas vous laver les mains.

    *Tous les médicaments ont à la fois une dénomination commune (un nom générique) et un nom de marque ou marque. La marque est l'appellation qu'un fabricant choisit pour son produit (par ex. Tylenol®). Le nom générique est le nom du médicament en médecine (par ex. l'acétaminophène). Un médicament peut porter plusieurs noms de marque, mais il ne possède qu'un seul nom générique. Cet article répertorie les médicaments par leur nom générique. Pour obtenir des renseignements sur un médicament donné, consultez notre base de données sur les médicaments. Pour de plus amples renseignements sur les noms de marque, consultez votre médecin ou un pharmacien.

    One of my most frequently googled phrases during my pre-TTC and TTC days was “early pregnancy symptoms.” It’s nearly impossible to not symptom spot, and we all just want to have a tiny peek inside to know if our body is making a baby or not. With that in mind and acknowledging that no two people or two pregnancies are the same, I thought I would share my early, early pregnancy symptoms.

    Intuition: Not Pregnant

    1 DPO – No symptoms

    2 DPO – No symptoms

    3 DPO – Bloated, tired, & headache

    4 DPO – Diarrhea (TMI- sorry), headache, & heartburn

    5 DPO – Bloated, cramps, & tired

    7 DPO – no symptoms

    8 DPO – no symptoms

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    Amphetamine can be given orally, can be snorted or injected intravenously. Symptoms of use will show up immediately if it is injected, within 3-5 minutes if it is snorted and within 15-20 minutes if it is ingested.

    There is a long list of the signs that show up when this drug is used medically or when it is abused. Many of them are typical of any stimulant use.

    Signs and Symptoms of Amphetamine Abuse include:

    • Increased body temperature
    • Euphoria
    • Increased blood pressure
    • Dry mouth
    • Faster breathing
    • Dilated pupils
    • Increased energy and alertness
    • Decreased fatigue
    • Decreased appetite

    Before amphetamine’s addictive problems were known about, this drug was used for weight control, depression, nasal congestion, even hangovers. It appeared to be an inexpensive, long-lasting solution to a number of problems. It has been sold as Desoxyn, Benzedrine, Adderall, DextroStat and Dexedrine.

    After World War II, civilian use of amphetamines increased, and another form of the drug, methamphetamine— easily produced in small domestic labs—also hit the market. As more people used these two forms of the drugs, its addictiveness and other problems began to be obvious.

    In addition to the symptoms of use listed above, less desirable symptoms of amphetamines became noticeable, including:

    • Hostility
    • Paranoia
    • Aggressiveness
    • Cardiovascular system failure
    • Irregular heart beat
    • Nausea
    • Headache
    • Reduction of social inhibitions
    • Altered sexual behavior
    • Blurred vision
    • Chest pain
    • Hallucinations
    • Unrealistic ideas of personal ability and power
    • Convulsions
    • Malnutrition
    • Skin disorders
    • Amphetamine-caused psychosis

    Some people who abused this drug would wear themselves out with amphetamine binges, taking the drug continuously and, not sleeping or eating for as long as a week. Then they would collapse. By repeating this pattern, amphetamine abusers— sometimes called “speed freaks”—would suffer severe damage to their health.

    Long-term amphetamine abusers are likely to be severely malnourished and suffering serious mental effects from the drug use. When they stop using amphetamine, they experience the symptoms of the damage that was created. While they continued to abuse the drug, those symptoms were suppressed, but will show up strongly as soon as the stimulant is gone. Thus withdrawal can include depression, anxiety and extreme fatigue.

    It is very likely that the recovering addict will suffer sharp, intense cravings for more of the drug. For this reason, it is a very good idea for a person to have professional support when coming off amphetamine.

    Another reason for professional support is that the mental aspects of withdrawal can be serious and dangerous. A person may suffer hallucinations, delusions and aggressive or violent behaviors as they come off the drug.

    When a person chooses a Narconon drug and alcohol rehabilitation center for recovery from amphetamine addiction, the withdrawal process is eased by the program’s unique and innovative techniques. First, each person is supported with generous nutritional supplementation. Those abusing any drug, but amphetamine or methamphetamine in particular, are likely to be severely deficient in usual nutrients. Nutritional supplements given around the clock help the body suffer fewer effects of withdrawal. Each person is given gentle “assists” that help relax the mind and body and ease the person through withdrawal.

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    Flea Bites On Humans
    Question about flea bites on humans: Can a flea get in you and be considered a parasite? Hi Mary, Fleas are definitely considered …

    Vaginal Symptoms
    Is it possible to get vaginal burning, burning after urination and vaginal swelling with parasites? My doctors don't know what's wrong with me. …

    Parasite Symptoms
    I have parasites. I believed I had gotten rid of them, but my body still gets this itchy achy feeling, tired, shaky feeling, which I believe are parasite …

    Are Parasites In Humans Contagious?
    A friend of mine who has cancer of the pancreas also has intestinal parasites. He is getting ozone treatment from an acupuncture DR. Can I …

    Parasite Cleanse Not Good Enough?
    I have done a month-long cleanse, used Biltricide, and pyrantel pomoate and still have parasites. HELP! I have taken pinworm medicine on two different …

    Do I Have Parasites?
    Do I have parasites? My symptoms started in March, I believe (it is now Oct.). The symptoms weren't too bad at first. occasional bloating with …

    Symptoms of lymphoma are similar to those of other diseases and afflictions. The most common symptom is a painless swelling in a lymph node (called lymphadenopathy). People often first go to the doctor because they think they have a cold or respiratory infection that will not go away. The neck or armpits are common places noticed first, but the swelling can occur in other parts of the body including the groin (that may cause swelling in the legs or ankles) or the abdomen (that can cause cramping and bloating). Some lymphoma patients notice no swelling at all while others may complain of night sweats, weight loss, chills, a lack of energy or itching. There is usually no pain involved, especially when the lymphoma is in the early stage of development.

    Most people who have nonspecific complaints such as these will not have lymphoma. However, it is important that any person who has symptoms that persist see a doctor to confirm that no lymphoma or serious illness are present. The doctor will perform a complete physical examination and look for swollen lymph nodes under the chin, in the neck and tonsil area, on the shoulders and elbows, armpits, and in the groin. The doctor will also examine other parts of the body to see whether there is swelling or fluid in your chest or abdomen that could be caused by swollen lymph nodes.

    You will be asked about pain and examined for any weakness or paralysis that could be an enlarged lymph node pressing against nerves or the spinal cord. Your abdomen will be examined to see whether any internal organs are enlarged, especially the spleen. If the doctor suspects lymphoma, he or she will likely order further tests including a biopsy, blood tests, x-rays and perhaps a bone marrow evaluation.

    The symptoms of lymphoma are commonly seen in other, less serious illnesses, such as influenza or other viral infection. These symptoms are often overlooked, but in cases of less serious illnesses they would not last very long. With lymphoma, these symptoms persist over time and cannot be explained by an infection or another disease. The checklist below lists the most common symptoms of lymphoma.

    Because of the common nature of these symptoms and because lymphoma symptoms do not appear in all cases, diagnosis is often problematic.

    If you suspect that you, a family member, friend or loved one may have lymphoma, see your doctor or qualified medical professional as soon as possible. Early diagnosis makes an impact on treatment and outcome.

    Painless swelling in the upper body lymph nodes, i.e., the neck, collarbone region, armpits or groin. (A swollen lymph node is normally NOT as painful as an infected lymph node, which is common and can be painful.) This checklist lists the most common symptoms of lymphoma:

    • Chills/temperature swings
    • Fevers (especially at night)
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Loss of appetite
    • Unusual tiredness/lack of energy
    • Persistent coughing
    • Breathlessness
    • Persistent itch all over the body without an apparent cause or rash
    • General fatigue
    • Enlarged tonsils
    • Headache.

    More advanced lymphoma may present with the following symptoms:

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    No more effective than placebo for cough

    OTC antitussive and bronchodilator

    Cochrane review of one study11

    No more effective than placebo for cough

    Not studied in children14

    OTC = over-the-counter; RCT = randomized controlled trial.

    Information from references 7 through 14.

    Fluids. Caregivers are often advised to increase a child's fluid intake. However, in two case series and a prevalence study, some children with respiratory infections but no signs of dehydration developed hyponatremia with increased fluids.15 Therefore, extra fluid intake is not advised in children because of potential harm.

    Table 2 summarizes therapies that may be effective in children with the common cold.8, 13, 16 – 20

    Therapies That May Be Effective for the Common Cold in Children

    Variable, up to 28 days

    High-dose inhaled corticosteroids in children who are wheezing8

    One to five years

    Budesonide (Pulmicort), 1,600 mcg by MDI with nebuhaler or 3,200 mcg by MDI with nebuhaler and face mask, if needed

    Until asymptomatic for 24 hours

    One to five years

    Beclomethasone, 2,250 mcg daily by MDI

    One to three years

    Budesonide 1,600 mcg by MDI with nebuhaler and face mask for first three days, then 800 mcg for another seven days

    Total of 10 days

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      Much research has been carried out to better understand the threat posed by the pigeon (feral and domesticated) and research is ongoing in many parts of the world, particularly in those countries worst affected. A thorough scientific research programme was undertaken following the outbreak of the highly pathogenic strain H5N2 in the north-eastern United States (in 1983/4) to assess the potential for wild birds to spread disease amongst local farms. The following species were included in this survey:

      • Wild and free-flying domestic ducks and geese
      • Wild or free-flying domestic birds (including pigeons)
      • Rodents
      • Dead or sick birds within the quarantine area

      Attempts to isolate the virus were conducted on a sample of 4,132 birds, of which 473 were pigeons, and of this number 92.6% were collected from infected farms. A further 81 feet, taken from dead pigeons, were also assessed for the purposes of the research - this is because pigeons commonly feed on agricultural sites and by walking in infected faecal matter the birds could potentially pass on the disease. In order to assess the sample, tracheal (throat) and vent (anus) swabs were taken from each bird. None of the 4,132 birds collected tested positive for the H5N2 strain. Blood samples taken from 383 pigeons were also negative for antibodies (antibodies are protective substances that are produced by the defensive network of the body in response to an infection) to avian influenza, an indication that infection by this virus had not occurred in these birds. An additional 50 pigeons, collected from within the quarantine zone, were also negative for the influenza virus. Experimental attempts made to infect pigeons with the highly pathogenic H5N2 strain of avian influenza did not result in either multiplication of the virus or any evidence of antibodies in the blood. The results of all of these studies indicated that pigeons were not infected with avian influenza and did not spread it.

      In another outbreak of avian influenza in the USA in 1993 (in the period February to May) blood samples were collected from 17 flocks of pigeons located within the quarantine area for evidence of antibodies to avian influenza. Flock sizes varied from 2000 - 3000 birds and represented a total of between 34,000 and 51,000 birds. Approximately 10 birds per flock were sampled (a total of 160 birds) and in every instance all pigeons tested were negative for antibodies to this avian influenza.

      Another study published in 1996 on the susceptibility of pigeons to avian influenza found that groups of pigeons inoculated with two strains of highly pathogenic influenza virus, or two strains of non-pathogenic virus, remained healthy during the 21-day trial period. The sample did not shed virus and did not develop antibodies to this disease - further evidence that pigeons are not a factor in the spread of avian influenza. More recent scientific evidence, from experimental work in 2001/2002, has shown that pigeons infected with the highly pathogenic form of the virus (designated H5N1 of Hong Kong origin) did not develop signs of this disease and did not have detectable changes to the disease in their tissues. Neither was the virus found in their tissues and nor was it re-isolated from swabs of tissues. These findings indicated once again that pigeons (along with starlings, rats and rabbits used in these studies) are largely resistant to infection with this highly pathogenic strain of the virus.

      It is quite clear from all the information available that avian influenza continues to be a threat to both humans and birds, but the likelihood of its transmission to humans as a result of contact with the feral pigeon or its faeces is virtually nil. The feral pigeon is reputed to be the ultimate disease-carrier, harbouring the capability to spread a huge variety of diseases to both humans and other birds and animals, but in reality this is a myth. As can be seen from the findings of several research programmes, the feral pigeon is at the bottom of the list of those species that have the potential to spread avian influenza and it is likely that this is the case with most of the other diseases that are commonly associated with the pigeon.

      PCRC, Unit 4, Sabre Buildings, Sabre Close, Newton Abbot, Devon, TQ12 6TW

      Flu Season 2015: Influenza In US ‘Widespread,’ But Fear May Outpace Threat

      Nurses prepare influenza vaccine injections during a flu shot clinic at Dorchester House, a health care clinic, in Boston, Massachusetts, Jan. 12, 2013. Photo: Reuters

      With an unforeseen mutation in this year’s dominant influenza virus and a faulty vaccine, 43 states have seen “widespread” transmission of the flu this season, according to the latest report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Flu activity was rampant in 29 states during the final week of December, up from 22 states a week earlier. Twenty-one pediatric deaths have been reported.

      The most prevalent virus of the 2014-2015 flu season has been influenza A H3N2, a particularly severe infection responsible for the three deadliest flu seasons since 2000. Health officials, however, said this year's threat was not entirely unexpected. “I don’t think it’s anything we haven’t seen before,” Richard Webby, virology expert with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, told International Business Times. “We know H3N2 dominates a season, we know it tends to be more severe.”

      Three out of four of the last 12 flu seasons reached epidemic levels, according to the Associated Press. Several so-called drift viruses – versions of H3N2 that are slightly genetically different from the main virus – have spread this season, meaning Americans have become more susceptible to the flu. “The antibodies that people made last time probably don’t work as well against [the new strain,]” Webby said. “That’s a consequence of the virus changing.”

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      The outlook varies, depending on the type of myositis.

      Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. With proper treatment, most people with polymyositis or dermatomyositis eventually regain at least some muscle strength. Often, muscle strength returns to normal. Typically, inclusion body myositis does not improve with treatment. However, the illness usually progresses slowly and does not affect a person's lifespan unless complications lead to serious illness, such as pneumonia caused by swallowing or breathing problems. Eventually, some patients need a cane to help them walk. Others require a wheelchair. If a person with dermatomyositis develops cancer, the prognosis may be worse. Medications taken to treat these muscle diseases may cause complications that affect prognosis. For example, serious infections may complicate the use of immune suppressing medications.

      Infectious myositis. Once the flu passes, muscle symptoms improve. Treatment usually is effective, although recovery can be slow in people with trichinosis. For pyomyositis, the prognosis is good if the infection is treated promptly. If not, the infection can pass into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body.

      Benign acute myositis. Children typically walk normally again within a few days.

      Myositis ossificans. The prognosis is very good. If the bony lump does not disappear on its own, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove it.

      Drug-induced myositis. The prognosis is very good. In most cases, symptoms subside when the drug is stopped.

      National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
      Information Clearinghouse
      National Institutes of Health
      1 AMS Circle
      Bethesda, MD 20892-3675
      Phone: 301-495-4484
      Toll-Free: 1-877-226-4267
      Fax: 301-718-6366
      TTY: 301-565-2966

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
      P.O. Box 5801
      Bethesda, MD 20824
      Phone: 301-496-5751
      Toll-Free: 1-800-352-9424
      TTY: 301-468-5981

      American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA)
      22100 Gratiot Ave.
      East Detroit, MI 48021
      Phone: 586-776-3900
      Toll-Free: 1-800-598-4668

      Muscular Dystrophy Association
      3300 E. Sunrise Drive
      Tucson, AZ 85718
      Toll-Free: 1-800-572-1717

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      my hair is always falling out, i have low energy levels, low libido, major mood swings and I'm not even ovulating! Guess the next step is some medication to get me back on track! Hang in there girls!

      12) i am also having same problems - depression,mood swings,loss of hair,weight gain. In my case I have developed dermoid and endometrium thickness, PCOD. Even after consulting two or three doctors and taking medicines for one year, things did not improve. Now I have switched to homeopathy and is finding some improvement. As it's just one month since I started taking medicines, I am hoping for some positive results.

      11) My first pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage. The doctor monitored my levels with second pregnancy to keep from miscarrying. I also had to take the progesterone with my third pregnancy because levels were actually lower than the doctor wanted.

      I now have diabetes and hypothyroidism and after reading the above info I am wondering if my progesterone has something to do with those two health issues.

      I have issues that really bring me to a conclusion of PMDD. I am going to make an appointment with my doctor to see if the progesterone has anything to do with my diabetes and hypothyroidism as well as needing to find some help with the symptoms that coincide with PMDD as they are ruining my life!

      10) Same case with me. i used to have so much tension and I always had bad moods. I have started taking medicines since last week but still i don't feel much change.

      9) I am in the process of being testing for low hormone levels and thyroid dysfunction because, quite tragically, I've lost at least half of my hair in one month! I'm only 32 and feel like I'm having a nightmare!

      I tell myself things could be much worse, but dealing with hair drastically, severely, suddenly falling out everywhere is emotionally exhausting. Has anyone else had this? What do I do?

      8) I had all these symptoms of depression: panic attacks, hot flashes, insomnia, fuzzy thinking, and I was tired of seeing doctors and them not helping me with my problems.

      So they recommended to me this female doctor and she tested my levels of progesterone and i was very low, so now she is treating me my progesterone. I feel a little better now. I have been treated for three months now but I know this medication is going to help me.

      7) Because male doctors are often not attuned to female symptoms or concerns. The best help might come from a specialist in bioidentical hormones.

      I went to a female specialist who knows exactly the issues women face in menopause and has reversed these to good results with both men and women.

      Seek beyond the standard help and you will get better, healthier results. Often the conservative male doctor just wants to put you on depression meds and chemical manufactured hormones. Don't do it!

      6) I stopped taking the pill so we could get pregnant and it threw my body off and my periods are not regular, so my doctor did a blood test and said my progesterone levels are very low! Yea! Finally I have a answer. I have a lot of these symptoms and can't wait to feel normal again!

      5) Women who have low levels of progesterone often have infertility problems and when they do conceive, they are at a higher risk for miscarriage. You may have low progesterone levels if you have any of these symptoms.

      4) We finally tested my levels. I barely produce progesterone. Depression, practically no libido, metabolic basal rate that is lower than normal, hair loss (scalp and eyebrows), mental fog.

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      A common sign that someone is developing the flu is fever. Fevers caused by this virus can climb as high as 106 degrees F, though this particular type of fever tends to be less severe than other types. Adults also tend to experience lower fever than children when they are infected with the virus. Those infected with this type of flu will also commonly have fatigue and body aches.

      2. Respiratory Symptoms

      As the fever subsides, cough, runny nose and sore throat will become more common. In some cases, these symptoms can become worse, eventually developing into pneumonia or bronchitis if the symptoms are not treated. In most cases, respiratory symptoms will disappear after a week, though it is possible for the cough to last for several weeks.

      3. Stomach Symptoms

      Many strains of the condition will cause irritation in the stomach. Because this is so common, this particular type of flue is often referred to as a stomach flu though the virus does not specifically affect the stomach. Stomach symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite or vomiting.

      • Bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia is one of the most common complications that stems from an infection. This virus damages the lungs which can restrict the airways and increase the risk of developing an additional bacterial infection, including pneumonia. Pneumonia is caused by bacteria increasing rapidly in the airways, causing fluid retention, inflammation and swelling of the lungs' air sacs. If the lungs start to fill with fluid, it can make it hard to breath, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing and fever. This is a serious concern for those with chronic illnesses or elderly people.
      • Encephalitis. This is a rare condition that is caused by the brain becoming inflamed due to exposure to the influenza virus. This condition is signaled by headaches and fever which will develop into confusion, drowsiness, seizures, loss of consciousness or coma.
      • Myositis. Myositis largely impacts children, causing muscle inflammation or tenderness in the legs. This inflammation can make it difficult to move or lead to muscle weakness as well. These symptoms typically last around 1-5 days.
      • Reye's syndrome. Some children and adolescents can develop this neurological disease that causes delirium, nausea, vomiting or confusion. In some cases, this syndrome is caused by taking aspirin to help manage influenza symptoms like fever. Talk to your doctor before giving aspirin to an underage patient to make sure it is safe.
      • Others. In addition to causing more serious complications, the respiratory symptoms associated with this virus may cause bronchitis, sinus infections or ear infections.

      Medical Treatments

      In most cases, there is no need to administer medication to those suffering from the flu. If necessary, antiviral medications such as zanamivir or oseltamivir can be administered to help shorten the duration of the illness or to lower the risk of additional complications developing. Oseltamivir is taken orally and zanamivir is administered with an inhaler like you would use asthma medication. These medications can cause side effects including vomiting. Oseltamivir increases the risk of self-harm or delirium in teenagers.

      Home Remedies

      • Fluids. Drinking plenty of beverages like juice, water and warm soup can help prevent dehydration when suffering from the flu. Make sure you drink enough to keep your urine a pale yellow color.
      • Rest. Make sure you get plenty of sleep to encourage your immune system to fight the infection.
      • OTC pain killers. Pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help manage the body aches associated with the flu. Aspirin should not be given to teens or children as this increases their risk of Reye's syndrome.


      • Flu vaccine. Every year a new flu vaccine is developed that contains the antibodies for the strains of flu anticipated to be prominent that season. These vaccines are commonly administered as a nasal spray or injection.
      • Avoiding spreading virus. While there is no way to completely prevent the flu, there are steps you can take to prevent spreading it to others. Wash your hands, scrubbing them for 15 seconds to rid your skin of traces of the virus. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is also helpful in keeping the skin clean. Cover the mouth and nose when you sneeze, but use a tissue or the inner portion of the arm instead of your hand to avoid getting the virus on your hands where it can be spread. Try to avoid crowded areas like public transportation, child care centers or office buildings during the peak of flu season to avoid coming in contact with the virus.

      Dr W J Grobler BVSc.

      The name "Cat flu" is misleading because even though cats suffer from a similar disease, the disease is not contracted from cats. The symptoms in dogs are due to intestinal involvement and very unlike flu symptoms. Dry, windy weather sees more cases which occur mostly in puppies, but previously unexposed, unvaccinated adult dogs are also at risk. Even with the best treatment available some animals still don't survive, so vaccination is of paramount importance in the prevention of this terrible disease.