Nausea can be experienced with or without vomiting. It is important to know that nausea, frequently called morning sickness, can actually be experienced at any time of the day. Similarly, it usually occurs during the first trimester and subsides after that for most women, but some will experience nausea all throughout their pregnancies.

Swollen or tender breasts: The third most frequently cited symptom of pregnancy is changes in the breasts. These changes are usually indicated by swelling or tenderness. Changes to the breasts can start as early as 1 to 2 weeks after conception.

Fatigue or Tiredness: Following conception, as early as the first week after, many women cite feeling tired as a sign of pregnancy. This fatigue is commonly experienced by those who are expecting and is recognized as a typical symptom of pregnancy.

The previous symptoms are usually the first signs you experience when pregnant. There are other signs also commonly experienced by those who are expecting as well:

Backaches: Lower backaches are commonly reported by women who discover that they are pregnant. This symptom can occur with the onset of pregnancy, but it is often experienced later as the pregnancy progresses. This makes it an easy pregnancy symptom at week 27 to week 34.

Headaches: Experiencing headaches at the onset of pregnancy is another common early sign of pregnancy. Experts believe that the sudden rise of hormones in your body leads you to experience the headaches.

Headaches during pregnancy may also be caused by the increase of blood flow. There is an approximately 50% increase in the volume of blood flowing while you are expecting.

Frequent urination: Don’t be surprised if you feel like you have to pee more often. Increase urination starts for most people between 6 to 8 weeks.

You will find that increased urination will pick back up or continue throughout your pregnancy as the expanding baby and uterus place pressure on your bladder.

Food cravings or food aversions: The reason for certain food cravings or food aversions is not known. Don’t be surprised if you find yourself drawn to something you normally do not care for, or avoiding things that you normally like.

The food that expecting women crave or seek to avoid varies and are quite sporadic. It is alright to allow yourself the freedom to pursue those cravings and avoid the things you don’t want as long as you are getting the nutrition you need for a healthy pregnancy.

These cravings or aversions can occur early in pregnancy or anytime throughout your pregnancy.

Darkening of the Areolas: Some people lump darkening of the areolas into the symptom of pregnancy referred to as breast changes. That’s alright, it is important to note that if the areolas, area around your nipples, darkens, that is normal. It is a common occurrence within those who are expecting.

Mood Swings: Expecting mothers frequently experience mood swings. This believed to be primarily caused by the hormonal changes that affect the neurotransmitters of the brain. The types of mood swings can vary from woman to woman. Some may experience elevated highs and lows, whereas others alternate between states of happiness to states of depression or anxiety.

It is important to note that mood swings are normal; however, if you find yourself struggling with depression or extended periods of sadness, you should contact your healthcare provider. Some women prefer to go directly to a counselor or mental health professional.

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The parainfluenza virus is often referred to by other names, such as canine influenza virus, greyhound disease and race flu. This virus used to affect only horses and is believed to have adapted to become contagious to dogs as well. Currently, no other species are at risk of this particular strain of the virus. Parainfluenza virus is easily spread from dog to dog and causes symptoms which may become fatal. The highest instances of this respiratory infection are seen in areas with high dog populations, such as race tracks, boarding kennels and pet stores, but it remains highly contagious to any dog of any age.

Symptoms of parainfluenza virus include many general symptoms seen in other infections, viruses and diseases. Symptoms can vary in intensity and commonly affect younger puppies and aging dogs the worst. This virus is commonly mistaken for kennel cough, as the symptoms between the two are similar. It's important to keep in mind that kennel cough usually produces no additional symptoms, other than the cough. Symptoms to look for when parainfluenza virus is suspected are as follows:

  • Dry or hacking cough that may worsen with activity
  • Fever
  • Difficulty with breathing, wheezing
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Runny eyes, eye inflammation or conjunctivitis
  • Possible pneumonia with depression, loss of appetite and lethargy

When parainfluenza virus is suspected but only a cough exists, certain tests will be required to differentiate between kennel cough and the more serious parainfluenza virus. A chest x-ray can help to determine the presence of pneumonia. Blood testing may also be important to rule out other possibilities and to inspect over a period of weeks to determine the actual cause of illness. Quickly discovering a proper diagnosis can be helpful when deciding if the dog must be quarantined or to begin effective treatment as soon as possible.

Treatment options for parainfluenza virus vary based upon a number of options. One of the most important factors is to contain the virus and treat it before it can spread to other dogs. Many dogs can recover from this virus naturally, but they remain contagious and the virus can easily spread through respiratory secretions and through the air. For this reason, the virus is usually treated aggressively with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. If necessary, a cough suppressant may be used. Intravenous fluids may help to keep the dog hydrated and strengthen the immune system, preventing secondary bacterial infections or other complications.

It's not recommended to treat parainfluenza virus in dogs from your home, but the following tips may help if you decide this is the best option for your family. Likewise, you may find this information beneficial for home care after hospitalization and treatment for the virus:

  • Limit your dog's exercise and play or rest quietly with the dog
  • Keep the dog away from other dogs in the household during treatment and for at least one week following
  • Feed soft food if throat irritation is present
  • Encourage sufficient fluid intake by providing adequate water at all times
  • Avoid exposure to loud noises, chemical fumes or other events that may cause undue stress
  • Remove collars to encourage sufficient air intake
  • Set up a humidifier

Avian influenza (bird flu) in feral pigeons - what are the risks?

Bird flu, fowl plague, bird influenza, Asian bird flu, HPAI, LPAI, H5N1, H7N2, H7, H5N2

Influenza has been known about since 1878 and is caused by a type ‘A’ influenza virus. It has historically been known as ‘fowl plague’. There are three types of influenza virus: type A, type B and type C. Most forms of influenza are solely associated with humans, but the type A influenza virus has been found in pigs, horses and occasionally in birds and other mammals. Types B and C are human-specific and are not found in animals, mammals or birds. The type associated with recent outbreaks of avian influenza (bird flu) in south-east Asia is the type A influenza virus.

Thousands of influenza viruses, belonging to many sub-types, have been found in both domesticated and wild birds all over the world. Currently, avian influenza is recognised in two forms:

  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
  • Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)

The highly pathogenic form ('pathogenic' refers to the ability of an infecting agent to produce disease - hence, a virus that is highly pathogenic is capable of producing severe disease) is the most virulent form of the disease and can spread rapidly, particularly when found in intensively farmed domestic poultry. The mortality rate for birds infected with the highly pathogenic form can be up to 100% and the disease can develop so fast that in some cases birds will die without ever having showed any signs that they had contracted the disease. The highly pathogenic form is so virulent that one gram of infected chicken excrement can contain enough highly pathogenic virus to infect 100,000 birds. Conversely, the low pathogenic form results in a milder, less significant form of the disease with infected birds rarely becoming ill or demonstrating symptoms, but they still have the potential to pass the disease on to other birds or animals. Certain low pathogenic forms can, however, mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

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The best test to determine if you are taking a good, high strength echinacea is the tongue test. After you have taken the tincture, the back of your tongue should feel numb or tingly. This feeling will soon pass, but you know you are using a good quality product. So when you feel the cold coming on - reach for the echinacea tincture. It is important to try to take echinacea before the full onset of a cold or flu to give the best chance of a swift recovery.

No treatment of colds would be complete without Garlic and Ginger.

Garlic has a distinctive taste and smell and it was very highly thought of by the ancient Egyptians, who ensured that the slaves building the Great Pyramids at Cheops were given a daily supply.

The Romans also acknowledged garlic's strengthening powers and fed it to their soldiers before battle. Garlic has anti-bacterial properties that help the immune system to fight infection, it is an excellent boost to the immune system.

The reason for this is garlic contains several helpful compounds, including allicin, one of the plant kingdom's most potent antibiotics. Garlic combines well with echinacea and together make a strong fighting force against infections.

Onion is a close relative of Garlic and has similar properties, containing similar antiviral chemicals. Use onions and leeks in your cooking when you have a cold or are around people who do.

Ginger is another of natures' antiviral herbs. It contains nearly a dozen antiviral compounds. Ginger is pain relieving, antiseptic and antioxidant. It is valuable for preventing and treating colds, sore throats and inflammation of mucus membranes.

Ginger reduces pain and fever and has a mild sedative effect that will encourage rest. And it is tasty! (with no lingering odours!) Drink a tea, or soak fresh ginger in hot water, take as a tincture and include it in your food. Ginger is also delicious in a fruit smoothy (a mix of soft chilled fruits put in a blender).

(Virus de la grippe H1N1, Grippe A (H1N1), Grippe porcine humaine)

La grippe H1N1 est une affection contagieuse des voies respiratoires qui provoque des symptômes de la grippe saisonnière.

Les noms de « grippe porcine » ou « influenza porcine » ont été utilisés initialement pour désigner cette affection car, selon les analyses de laboratoire, cette souche de virus grippal était composée de gènes apparentés à ceux du virus causant la grippe chez les porcs. Tout comme les êtres humains, les porcs peuvent contracter la grippe. Cependant, nous savons maintenant que le virus grippal H1N1 est composé de gènes issus de différents virus grippaux qui circulent parmi les espèces porcines, aviaires et humaine. Cette souche était la cause de grippe la plus commune en 2009, quand elle a causé la maladie dans le monde entier (pandémie).

La grippe H1N1 est causée par un virus de l'influenza A. Les lettres H et N du nom du sous-type correspondent aux protéines qui se trouvent sur la surface du virus; on les utilise pour distinguer les différents sous-types de l'influenza A.

Les gènes des virus de l'influenza se transforment constamment. On appelle ce processus une mutation. Lorsqu'un virus grippal porcin est détecté parmi les humains, on dit que le virus a franchi la barrière des espèces. Ceci signifie que le virus a muté de manière à pouvoir causer l'infection parmi les humains. Puisque les humains ne possèdent pas la protection ou l'immunité naturelle contre le virus, ils sont plus susceptibles de le contracter. Le virus grippal H1N1 est composé de gènes issus de différents virus grippaux qui circulent parmi les espèces porcines, aviaires et humaine.

Le virus grippal H1N1 est contagieux. Une fois transmis de personne à personne, le virus se propage rapidement selon les mêmes voies que la grippe saisonnière, croit-on. La période de contagion va de 24 heures avant l'apparition des symptômes jusqu'à 7 jours ou plus après que la grippe se soit déclarée.

L'influenza se propage de personne à personne lorsque le virus entre dans le corps par les yeux, le nez ou la bouche. La toux et les éternuements répandent les germes dans l'air, lesquels peuvent être respirés par les autres personnes. Le virus peut également demeurer sur des surfaces solides comme les poignées de porte, les touches des guichets automatiques de banque et les comptoirs. Une personne qui touche à l'une de ces surfaces avec ses mains et qui touche par la suite ses yeux, sa bouche ou son nez peut contracter le virus. En général, l'influenza n'est pas transmis par l'ingestion de nourriture ou d'eau.

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Stay at home as much as possible to prevent passing on the infection.

Paracetamol and/or ibuprofen can lower your temperature and also ease aches and pains. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent lack of fluid in the body (dehydration). It is best not to smoke. Decongestant drops, throat lozenges and saline nasal drops may be helpful to ease nose and throat symptoms.

Note: parents and carers should not use over-the-counter cough and cold medicines in children under 6 years old. There is no evidence that they work and they can cause side-effects such as allergic reactions, effects on sleep, or even hallucinations.

Antiviral medicines called oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu®) and zanamivir (trade name Relenza®) are sometimes used. Antiviral medicines do not kill the virus but interfere with the way the virus multiplies. Antiviral medicines do not cure flu or offer long-term protection against flu. If you do not have an antiviral medicine you are still likely to make a full recovery. However, antiviral medicines may reduce the risk of developing complications. They may also reduce the severity and duration of symptoms by a day or two.

An antiviral medicine may be prescribed if you are at increased risk of developing complications when you have flu (see list below). Treatment is usually taken for five days. GPs are only allowed to prescribe an antiviral medicine when national surveillance schemes show there is a lot of flu in the community. An antiviral medicine is also often used in people who are admitted to hospital with flu.

Medication may also be prescribed to certain people to prevent flu - for example, if you live in a residential home and there is an outbreak of flu in the home. It is also given if you are at increased risk of complications and have been in close contact with a person with flu.

Antiviral medicines should be given within 48 hours of getting the flu (within 36 hours for zanamivir in children) or of having contact with someone who has the flu. This is because the sooner they are given, the better they work.

Antibiotics kill germs called bacteria, but not viruses. Therefore, they are not routinely prescribed for viral illnesses such as flu or flu-like illnesses. However, they may be used if a complication develops like a chest infection caused by a germ (bacterium) or pneumonia (see below).

A small number of people with flu become ill enough to need hospital admission. This is usually because they have developed complications from flu.

If you are normally well then you are unlikely to develop complications. You are likely to recover fully. However, see a doctor if symptoms change or become worse. Complications are more likely to develop if you are in any of the at-risk groups listed below.

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. für Menschen mit erhöhtem Ansteckungsrisiko, zum Beispiel medizinisches und pflegendes Personal.

Grippeviren ändern ständig ihre Struktur – daher werden jedes Jahr neue Impfstoffe entwickelt. Aus diesem Grund lautet die Empfehlung, den Impfschutz jedes Jahr vor Beginn der Grippesaison erneuern zu lassen, also im Oktober oder November.

Für Menschen ab dem 60. Lebensjahr ist zudem eine Impfung gegen Pneumokokken empfehlenswert. Mit ihr lässt sich zum Beispiel einer Lungenentzündung durch diese Bakterien vorbeugen. Erkältung oder Grippe? Machen Sie den Test!

Woher kommen die Bezeichnungen „Grippe“ und „Influenza“?

Der Begriff Grippe leitet sich her von dem französischen Wort grippe und bedeutet "Grille" oder "Laune". Dies ist wahrscheinlich darauf zurückzuführen, dass die Virusgrippe den Menschen plötzlich und launenhaft befällt.

Die seit dem 18. Jahrhundert gebräuchliche Bezeichnung Influenza kommt von dem italienischen Wort influenza, das "Beeinflussung" oder "Einfluss" bedeutet. In diesem Fall ist der Einfluss der Sterne gemeint. Denn früher glaubte man, dass bestimmte Sternenkonstellationen Krankheiten, Seuchen und Ähnliches verursachen können.

Übrigens: Nicht alles, was "Grippe" heißt, entsteht auch durch Grippeviren! So hat eine Magen-Darm-Grippe ebenso wenig mit der echten Influenza zu tun wie die als Sommergrippe bezeichnete Erkältungskrankheit. Und auch mit „grippaler Infekt“ ist nicht die Influenza gemeint, sondern eine Erkältung.

Anfangs kann die Grippe (Influenza) Symptome verursachen, die an eine Erkältung denken lassen. Bei Krankheitsverlauf und -schwere besteht aber in der Regel ein großer Unterschied zwischen Grippe und Erkältung.

Testen Sie, ob Sie eher erkältet sind oder womöglich die echte Grippe haben.

Zudem macht sich eine beginnende Grippe durch mehrere Symptome gleichzeitig bemerkbar, während sich Erkältungszeichen typischerweise nach und nach entwickeln. Dabei sind die Grippesymptome meist auch deutlich intensiver als Erkältungssymptome.

Typische erste Symptome für die echte Grippe sind:

Das bei einer echten Influenza hohe Fieber erreicht Temperaturen von mehr als 39 (bis zu 41) Grad Celsius. Es kann tagelang anhalten. Darüber hinaus verursacht die Grippe oft folgende Symptome:

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Why are some influenza viruses transmitted so easily between people while others are still restricted mainly to birds?

Are we better prepared for flu pandemics than we were in the past?

Avian influenza (bird flu) in feral pigeons - what are the risks?

Bird flu, fowl plague, bird influenza, Asian bird flu, HPAI, LPAI, H5N1, H7N2, H7, H5N2

Influenza has been known about since 1878 and is caused by a type ‘A’ influenza virus. It has historically been known as ‘fowl plague’. There are three types of influenza virus: type A, type B and type C. Most forms of influenza are solely associated with humans, but the type A influenza virus has been found in pigs, horses and occasionally in birds and other mammals. Types B and C are human-specific and are not found in animals, mammals or birds. The type associated with recent outbreaks of avian influenza (bird flu) in south-east Asia is the type A influenza virus.

Thousands of influenza viruses, belonging to many sub-types, have been found in both domesticated and wild birds all over the world. Currently, avian influenza is recognised in two forms:

  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
  • Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)

The highly pathogenic form ('pathogenic' refers to the ability of an infecting agent to produce disease - hence, a virus that is highly pathogenic is capable of producing severe disease) is the most virulent form of the disease and can spread rapidly, particularly when found in intensively farmed domestic poultry. The mortality rate for birds infected with the highly pathogenic form can be up to 100% and the disease can develop so fast that in some cases birds will die without ever having showed any signs that they had contracted the disease. The highly pathogenic form is so virulent that one gram of infected chicken excrement can contain enough highly pathogenic virus to infect 100,000 birds. Conversely, the low pathogenic form results in a milder, less significant form of the disease with infected birds rarely becoming ill or demonstrating symptoms, but they still have the potential to pass the disease on to other birds or animals. Certain low pathogenic forms can, however, mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

Avian influenza (bird flu) is a notifiable disease in the UK and is listed in section 88 of the Animal Health Act 1981. Section 15 (1) of the Act says:

“Any person having in their possession or under their charge an animal affected or suspected of having one of these diseases must, with all practicable speed, notify that fact to a police constable.”

Loosely translated this means that if you suspect or are aware of the presence of a notifiable disease there is a legal obligation to notify a DEFRA Divisional Veterinary Manager immediately. DEFRA is the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and is responsible for overseeing animal health in the UK.

Avian influenza in birds is spread via secretions from the eyes, respiratory tract and from faecal matter, with droplets of liquid sneezed by infected birds spreading the disease extremely rapidly in environments where large numbers of birds are housed. In wild birds the situation is different with many migratory birds (including waterfowl, sea birds and shore birds) carrying the virus for long distances and being implicated in the international spread of the disease. Migratory waterfowl - most notably wild ducks - are the natural reservoir of bird flu viruses and these birds are also the most resistant to infection. They can carry the virus over great distances and excrete it in their droppings, yet develop only mild and short-lived illness themselves. There is a great deal of speculation about the importance of this very large reservoir of influenza viruses in wild birds as it is a source of viruses for other species, including humans, lower mammals, and birds. The high rate of infection allows for the maintenance and emergence of new and potentially highly dangerous strains by means of mutation and/or genetic reassortment.

Some strains of avian influenza can be transmitted to humans and other animals but this is normally only the case following high levels of exposure to infected birds and/or their faecal matter. People most at risk would be those involved in intensive farming, in particular the poultry industry. These strains will normally only cause mild symptoms in humans but a current south-east Asian strain has caused a number of deaths. Although humans can be infected from birds the current highly pathogenic H5N1 strain does not readily infect people and there is very little chance, if any, for human-to-human spread of the disease.

The main significance for human health is that birds could be the source of new strains of influenza virus. Existing bird strains could mutate to form a new strain, which could, in turn, readily infect humans. Likewise, if mammals are infected with both human and avian strains of the disease at the same time the mixing of genetic material from the two viruses might produce new strains. These strains would have the potential to spread readily between humans. If a new strain of avian flu was to mutate, humans would have little or no immunity to it and a serious worldwide epidemic could occur.

Although avian influenza has hit the headlines on numerous occasions over the last few years the disease is yet to have a major impact in the UK, with only minor outbreaks which have been confined to poultry production units. The most recent outbreaks of avian influenza have been the low pathogenic strain with an outbreak of H7N2 in Conwy, North Wales in May 2007 and more recently an outbreak of the H7 strain in St Helens, Merseyside in June 2007. In both cases restrictions that were imposed on the sites concerned were removed promptly, in the case of Conwy within 5/6 weeks of investigation and in the case of St Helens within a day of investigation. The most recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian flu was the strain H5N1 identified on a poultry unit in Holton, Suffolk in February 2007. Amongst restrictions imposed on the facility were a 3 km Protection Zone and a 10 km Surveillance Zone along with a much wider Restriction Zone. All restrictions were removed from the farm just over one month later.

Although avian influenza has been restricted, in the main, to the mass production of poultry, the feral pigeon has inevitably been identified as one species that has the potential to carry and pass the disease onto humans based on the birds’ close association with man. The main focus of attention has been the racing pigeon industry due to the fact that it involves the transportation of pigeons across international borders. Clearly, if pigeons are released in EU countries where avian influenza is active, when they return to lofts in the UK there is clear potential for those birds to carry and transmit the disease to other domesticated birds, wild birds and animals and indeed humans. As it is migratory birds that are considered to be the main carriers of avian influenza, racing pigeons must also fall into this category as they are frequently required to cross international borders.

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Weil das Grippe-Virus durch veränderte Genabschnitte ständig neue Subtypen entwickelt, kann man mehrmals im Leben an der Grippe erkranken. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Infektionskrankheiten, die man nur einmal bekommt, weil das Immunsystem dann wirksame Schutzmechanismen gegen den Erreger entwickelt hat, wird man also gegen Grippe nicht dauerhaft immun.

Dies gilt zumindest für das häufigere Influenza-A-Virus. Es gibt jedoch verschiedenen Grippe-Viren-Typen. Typ B verändert sich viel langsamer, so dass man meist nur einmal im Leben an einer Grippe durch Influenza-B-Viren erkrankt, häufig bereits im Kindesalter. Die Krankheit verläuft meist mild.

Ebenfalls meist mild ist der Verlauf der sogenannten Sommergrippe, die eigentlich gar keine „echte Grippe“ ist. Denn sie wird nicht durch Influenza-Viren ausgelöst, sondern durch Enteroviren. Wie der Name schon sagt, tritt sie meist im Sommer auf und verläuft ähnlich wie eine Erkältungskrankheit.

Wie man eine Sommergrippe von einer Grippe unterscheidet und Informationen zur Behandlung der Sommergrippe lesen sie im Beitrag Sommergrippe

Wer den Verdacht hat, sich mit dem Grippe-Virus infiziert zu haben, sollte zu einem Arzt gehen. Insbesondere Personen mit einem erhöhten Risiko wie ältere Menschen oder chronisch Kranke sollten bereits bei den ersten Anzeichen einer Grippe ihren Hausarzt aufsuchen.

In vielen Fällen kann der Arzt anhand der Krankengeschichte und einer körperlichen Untersuchung bereits feststellen, ob ein Patient an einer Influenza oder nur an einem grippalen Infekt (Erkältung) erkrankt ist. Wenn es dem Betroffenen aber sehr schlecht geht oder die Gefahr besteht, dass die Erkrankung einen schweren Verlauf nimmt, ist ein Virus-Nachweis sinnvoll. Wenn dieser positiv ausfällt, kann sofort mit einer gegen Viren wirkenden Behandlung begonnen werden.

Einen wichtigen Hinweis, ob es sich tatsächlich um Grippe-Viren handelt, gibt der Influenza-Schnelltest. Für diesen Test wird aus dem Nasen- oder Rachenraum Speichel mit einem Wattestäbchen abgestrichen und auf einen Teststreifen gebracht. Färbt sich der Test, ist eine Influenza-Infektion sehr wahrscheinlich.

Manchmal muss das Material aber weiter in ein Labor geschickt werden, wo man durch eine Genanalyse das Virus hundertprozentig identifizieren kann.

Wurden bei einem Patienten Grippe-Viren nachgewiesen, muss der Arzt dies dem Gesundheitsamt melden. So können Vorsichtsmaßnahmen getroffen werden, die eine größere Ausbreitung der Krankheit verhindern sollen. Im Krankenhaus etwa werden Erkrankte in einem Einzelzimmer isoliert. Besucher und medizinisches Personal müssen Schutzkleidung tragen, wenn sie das Krankenzimmer betreten. Auch regelmäßiges Händewaschen dämmt die Weitergabe der Viren an andere Personen ein.

Die Grippe wird durch Viren hervorgerufen, die man wissenschaftlich als Influenza-Viren bezeichnet. Insgesamt gibt es drei unterschiedliche Grippeviren-Gattungen: A, B und C. Aber nur Influenza A-Viren können den Menschen wirklich gefährlich werden. Anders als die B-Viren, die meist nur mildere Krankheitsverläufe provozieren und die C-Viren, die nur sehr sporadisch auftreten, sind sie für die schweren Grippeepidemien verantwortlich. Sie sind sehr wandlungsfähig und werden in eine ganze Menge Untergruppen eingeteilt.

Diese Subgruppen, die zum Beispiel H1N1 oder H3N2 heißen, gliedern sich nach den Proteinen auf der Oberfläche der Influenza-A-Viren, mit deren Hilfe diese in die Wirtszellen eindringen und sich anschließend aus dieser wieder befreien können. H steht dabei für Hämagglutinin, N für Neuraminidase.

Tritt die Grippe zeitlich und örtlich gehäuft auf, spricht man von einer Epidemie. Überschreitet die Erkrankungswelle Länder oder sogar Kontinente nennt man das Pandemie. Grippewellen treten beinahe jedes Jahr in der Winterszeit auf. Alle zehn bis 40 Jahre kommt es zu einer Grippe-Pandemie, die aber unterschiedlich schwer verlaufen kann. An der „Schweinegrippe“ starben im Jahr 2009 weltweit 18.000 Menschen.

You should be aware of the early signs and symptoms of poisoning. It is important to remove the person from the source of exposure quickly. Remove contaminated clothing and wash off any chemical which has soaked through. You may save a life.

  • Be able to determine whether or not a person has been poisoned by a pesticide.
  • Learn to recognize kinds of poisoning and their symptoms.
  • Become familiar with chemical families and their toxicity.

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    Iodine deficiency is most common in parts of the world farther from large water bodies. Therefore, people living in inland areas and those in arid regions are usually iodine deficient because they do not eat marine foods.

    According to a WHO (World Health Organization) statement made in 2007, about 2 billion of the world’s population do not get sufficient iodine from their diets. The WHO called iodine deficiency the single, most important but preventable cause of mental retardation.

    Besides those who live too far away from marine life and so do not get enough iodine in their diet, other groups of people who are prone to iodine deficiency include:

    • Pregnant women
    • People exposed to radiation
    • People with selenium deficiency

    Iodine deficiency can also be caused by chemicals such as perchlorates, thiocyanates and also goitrogens such as calcium. In addition, tobacco and alcohol intake may increase the risk of this deficiency.

    In addition, women are more likely than men to develop iodine deficiency.

    A 24-hour urine iodine collection is the most common medical test for diagnosing iodine deficiency. The body eliminates 90% of the iodine ingested daily in the urine, therefore, the level of iodine in urine is a good indication of the amount of iodine found in the body.

    Iodine deficiency causes a number of medical disorders including goiter and cretinism.

    Other symptoms of iodine deficiency include depression, fatigue, hair loss, weight gain, impaired memory and mental abilities, slow heartbeats and increased sensitivity to cold.

    Goiter is the medical term for the enlargement of the thyroid gland. When this gland swells, it can also cause the swelling of the larynx and neck.

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    6.) Depending on where you may be traveling and what activities you may engage in, consider a vaccine for hepatitis B, yellow fever, typhoid, pre-exposure rabies, and cholera.

    7.) Make sure your normal "childhood" vaccines are up to date: measles, mumps, rubella, diptheria, and pertussis (DTP vaccine).

    Fibromyalgia is not well understood by the medical community. It is known, though, that certain people are more at risk of developing fibromyalgia than others. The symptoms of fibromyalgia can include everything from widespread pain to fatigue; menstrual pain to sleep disturbances. Because of the variety of fibromyalgia symptoms, there are a number of associated conditions linked to fibromyalgia.

    Although there is not one singular test that can conclusively determine whether you have fibromyalgia, there are certain procedures that can be performed to rule out other similar disorders. Learn just how fibromyalgia is diagnosed as well as the various doctors that can benefit you during your fibromyalgia treatment.

    Since the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, there is no fibromyalgia cure. However, by treating the symptoms you may be experiencing, your doctor should be able to provide you with fibromyalgia relief. One aspect of your treatment will likely include a medication. An assortment of drugs are available to ease your fibromyalgia pain, help you sleep or treat other fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Sometimes conventional medicine is just not enough to provide you with the relief from fibromyalgia that you need. Fibromyalgia treatment often includes various types of alternative therapy, many of which have been proven to be very effective. There are also numerous things you can do at home to help yourself feel better everyday.

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    Die Grippe (Influenza) ist eine Viruserkrankung, die hauptsächlich saisonal in den Herbst- und Wintermonaten auftritt und in den meisten Fällen unkompliziert verläuft.

    Die Grippe (Influenza) ist eine weitverbreitete Viruserkrankung, die uns auch in Deutschland jedes Jahr aufs Neue beschäftigt, wenn die sogenannte Grippewelle während der Wintermonate wieder aufkommt. Diese saisonale Grippe wird meist von Grippeviren aus der Gruppe B verursacht. Das gehäufte Aufkommen von Grippefällen ist nicht zu verwechseln mit einer Pandemie, von der zuletzt während der „Neuen Grippe“, der sogenannten Schweinegrippe, die Rede war. Solche Pandemien werden von Influenzaviren aus der Gruppe A ausgelöst.

    In der Regel verlaufen Erkrankungen mit Grippe unkompliziert und sind nach ein oder zwei Wochen überstanden. Schonung und Ruhe sind bei einer Grippe die wichtigsten Maßnahmen. Beschwerden wie Fieber und Schmerzen lassen sich symptomatisch gut mit Medikamenten behandeln. Bei komplizierten Verläufen werden weitere Maßnahmen eingeleitet wie zum Beispiel die Gabe von Antibiotikum bei zusätzlichen bakteriellen Infektionen. Komplizierte Verläufe von Grippe können bei Menschen mit einem schwachen Immunsystem, Schwangeren oder alten Menschen auftreten. Durch eine Schutzimpfung kann man sich gegen die saisonale Grippe impfen lassen. Die Grippe-Impfung bietet zwar keinen garantierten, hundertprozentigen Schutz, lässt die Grippe aber zumindest weniger schwer verlaufen, wenn es zu einer Infektion kommt.

    Grippeerreger verändern ihre Genetik und mutieren immer wieder, weshalb eine völlige Immunität durch eine bereits durchgestandene Grippe nicht möglich ist. Dabei bleiben die Erreger sich aber recht ähnlich, weshalb bei erwachsenen Menschen aufgrund des immunologischen Gedächtnisses die Grippe oft weniger heftig verläuft als bei jungen Menschen oder Kindern. Im Alter wird dieser Effekt durch das schwächere Immunsystem der älteren Menschen wieder aufgehoben.

    Die Symptome einer Erkältung oder echten Grippe sind sich sehr ähnlich. Der Selbsttest hilft Ihnen bei der Diagnose

    Bei der Influenza A verhält es sich ein wenig anders: Dieser Grippetyp kann seine Genetik innerhalb kurzer Zeit drastisch verändern. Der Erreger breitet sich unter günstigen Bedingungen sehr schnell aus, weil in der Bevölkerung wenig bis gar kein immunologischer Schutz gegen ihn besteht. Pandemien werden deshalb von Grippeviren aus der Gruppe A verursacht. Sie kommen nur alle paar Jahre vor und lassen sich durch moderne Kontrolleinrichtungen gut in den Griff bekommen.

    In den meisten Fällen ist das erste Grippe-Symptom plötzlich auftretendes, teilweise hohes Fieber, häufig begleitet von Schüttelfrost. Es folgen Atemwegsbeschwerden, zunächst trockener Husten, später Husten mit Auswurf, Schnupfen und Halsschmerzen. Magen-Darm-Beschwerden wie Übelkeit, Erbrechen und Durchfall sind ebenfalls häufige Anzeichen einer Influenza.

    Der akute Ausbruch der Grippe ist eines der wesentlichen Merkmale, anhand derer Sie die Grippe von einer Erkältung unterscheiden können. Während die Grippe eher plötzlich auftritt und fast immer mit hohem Fieber verbunden ist, beginnt die Erkältung langsam und das Fieber ist – wenn es überhaupt zu Fieber kommt – nicht besonders hoch.

    Die Grippe verläuft in der Regel unkompliziert. Selten kann es im Verlauf zu Komplikationen kommen. Menschen mit einer Grunderkrankung oder einem schwachen Immunsystem, ältere Menschen oder Schwangere sind etwas häufiger von Komplikationen während einer Grippe betroffen. Vor allem die zusätzliche Infektion mit Bakterien (Superinfektion) verursacht teils heftige Verläufe. Zu folgenden Grippe-Komplikationen kann es kommen:

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    • starkes Krankheitsgefühl
    • plötzlich auftretendes, hohes Fieber
    • Halsschmerzen
    • Husten
    • Schnupfen, laufende Nase

    Darüber hinaus verursacht der Virus-Infekt oft folgende Symptome:

    • Schüttelfrost
    • starke Kopf-, Muskel-, Rücken- und Gliederschmerzen
    • Schmerzen hinter dem Brustbein
    • Heiserkeit
    • Luftnot
    • Übelkeit
    • Appetitlosigkeit
    • massive Erschöpfung

    Zunächst ähneln die Symptome einer Grippe denen einer Erkältung. Große Unterschiede zeigen sich erst im Krankheitsverlauf und in Schwere der Erkrankung. Ein erster Indikator für eine echte Grippe ist der plötzliche und heftige Beginn, der sich keineswegs schleichend ankündigt. Mehrere Symptome treten gleichzeitig und intensiv auf, während Anzeichen einer Erkältung sich erst nach und nach entwickeln. Bei einer Influenza kommt es schnell zu einem typischen Symptom: das hohe Fieber, welches eine Temperatur von 39 bis 41 Grad Celsius erreichen kann und tagelang anhält. Der Puls geht schneller, es kommt zu Schweißausbrüchen, gesteigerter Atmung, glänzenden Augen, Schwindel, Wahrnehmungsstörungen und Verwirrtheit. Weiterhin kann das Fieber Krämpfe auslösen. Eine mögliche Therapie besteht, nach Rücksprache mit dem Arzt, in der Behandlung durch Medikamente, die das Fieber senken können. Weiterhin fördert das geschwächte Immunsystem von Grippepatienten, die Entwicklung von bakteriellen Infektionen. Es kann somit insbesondere bei älteren Menschen zu Komplikationen kommen. Entzündungen des Nervensystems und Lungenentzündungen sind mögliche Folgen.

    Der Virus-Infekt ist schon während der Inkubationszeit, also dem Zeitraum zwischen Infektion und Ausbruch einer Erkrankung, ansteckend. Die Inkubationszeit beträgt bei einer Grippe ein paar Stunden bis drei Tage. Nach Ausbruch der Influenza besteht die Gefahr einer Ansteckung dann noch etwa drei bis fünf Tage. Kinder können das Virus sogar bis zu sieben Tage, nach Auftreten der ersten Symptome, weitergeben.

    Wie sieht die Behandlung einer Grippe (Influenza) aus?

    Die Therapie der Grippe hängt davon ab, ob die Erkrankung als mild oder schwer eingestuft wird und, ob eine zusätzliche Infektion mit Bakterien vorliegt. In vielen Fällen können Patienten lediglich durch eine symptomatische Behandlung versuchen, die Beschwerden der Krankheit zu lindern. Je nach Fall ist es bei einer Virusgrippe ratsam, nach Rücksprache mit dem behandelnden Arzt, spezielle Grippemittel oder Antibiotika einzusetzen.

    Die Aktivität der akuten Atemwegserkrankungen durch das Virus ist in der 2. Kalenderwoche im Jahr 2018 deutschlandweit gesunken. In der laufenden Grippe-Saison sind nach Angaben des Robert Koch Instituts bislang 14 Betroffene gestorben, von denen sechs mit Influenza-B-Viren infiziert waren. Ein Großteil der Patienten (79 Prozent) war 60 Jahre oder älter. Seit der 40. Meldewoche im Jahr 2017 wurden insgesamt 6.433 Influenzainfektionen bestätigt.

    Wie kann ich mich umfassend gegen das Virus schützen?

    Die Grippeimpfung wird nicht von allen gesetzlichen Krankenkassen übernommen. Falls Sie zur Risikogruppe gehören, kann das negative Konsequenzen für Ihre Gesundheit bedeuten. Sollten Sie sich schützen wollen, obwohl Ihre Kasse nicht zahlt, müssen Sie ein Privatrezept in Anspruch nehmen und die Impfung beim Arzt selbst finanzieren.

    Wenn Sie Ihre Gesundheit durch umfassende Schutzimpfungen sicherstellen wollen, profitieren Sie von dem DFV-AmbulantSchutz. Unsere Kranken­zusatz­versicherung übernimmt nicht nur die Kosten für alle Schutzimpfungen, die die Ständige Impfkommission am Robert Koch-Institut (STIKO) empfiehlt. Der DFV-AmbulantSchutz leistet auch für weitere sinnvolle Schutzimpfungen und Vorsorgeuntersuchungen. Der Versicherungsschutz gewährleistet die Übernahme Ihrer gesetzlichen Zuzahlungen sowie Schutz­impfungen als Prophylaxe für Auslandsreisen.

    Bei der Deutschen Familienversicherung erhalten Sie 100 % Kostenerstattung für ambulante Behandlungen, ganz einfach und vernünftig

    A new Yeast Infection & Candida breakthrough that has already helped over 17,542 sufferers in New York and millions worldwide end their Yeast Infection or Candida is currently being attacked by large pharmaceutical companies.

    This new breakthrough shared in this online video has helped sufferers cure their Yeast Infection or Candida with no side effects and end the need for prescription dugs. Best of all this can all be accomplished with just a few items found in your local grocery store.

    However many angry and greedy pharmaceutical companies have requested government organizations in United States to ban the new groundbreaking online video that reveals how to naturally eliminate a Yeast Infection or Candida.

    They claim it is against capitalistic practices and that it would destroy the pharmaceutical industry. They are afraid it will effect their bottom line and put them out of business.

    Want to learn how to eliminate your Yeast Infection or Candida? Simply watch this video while you still can.

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    There are many different flu viruses. Each year, a new flu vaccine is developed. It is designed to fight 4 flu viruses that scientists expect to be most common that year. This yearly vaccine is also called the "seasonal flu vaccine" or the "annual flu vaccine." "Seasonal" doesn't mean you need to get a flu vaccine every spring, summer, fall, and winter. You only need it once a year.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not recommend the nasal spray this flu season. Studies found the nasal spray offered little or no protection for children ages 2 through 17 last flu season.

    The flu vaccine works most of the time. Each year's flu vaccine fights the 4 most common flu viruses for that year. If they come in contact with a different flu virus, they could still get the flu. But getting the flu vaccine is always better than not getting it.

    The inactive flu viruses in the vaccine trick the body into thinking it is being infected, so the body builds immunity against the flu. Then, if a real flu virus tries to infect that person, their body is ready to fight against it.

    Can you still get the flu after you get a flu shot?

    Yes, but even if you get the flu, the vaccine can help lessen the symptoms. The flu vaccine takes about two weeks to work.

    No, a flu shot cannot cause flu illness.

    Someone I know didn't feel well after getting the flu vaccine. Why?

    Flu vaccines have been given since the 1940's, hundreds of millions of times. Almost all people who get one have no serious problems. Sometimes people get sore at the spot where they get a vaccine. Very rarely, some people get a fever, pain or weakness after getting the flu shot. In both cases, this usually goes away in a day or two.

    A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious allergic reactions in very rare cases. Get medical help right away if hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, a fast heartbeat, or dizziness occur after getting the shot. Also, about 1 person in a million can get an illness called Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) following the flu vaccine.

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    …Why flu patients are given unnecessary antibiotics?; Taking antibiotics will not help patients suffering from influenza, a viral disease, but nearly 30 percent of flu patients who were…

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    …90-year-old driving across the country, an increase of 12,400 from the current number of 70,000 in 2017. Older of 80 years on the road also increased, from 22 percent from…