Better plans and designs while creating dams and irrigation schemes can prevent this disease from spreading among the nearby population.
Symptoms of AIDS are caused by the deterioration of the immune system and the decline of CD4+ T cells, which are the immune system's key infection fighters. As soon as HIV enters the body, it begins to destroy these cells. Some common symptoms include:
- Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
- Dry cough
- Memory loss, depression and neurological disorders
- Profound, unexplained fatigue
- Rapid weight loss
- Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
- Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelids
- Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin or neck
- White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat
Because people with AIDS have weakened immune systems, they're more prone to infections, called opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections are caused by organisms that typically don't cause disease in healthy people but affect people with damaged immune systems. These organisms attack when there's an opportunity to infect.
Deterioration of the immune system is caused by the decline in CD4+ T cells, which are key infection fighters. As soon as HIV enters the body, it begins to destroy these cells.
Symptoms of opportunistic infections common with AIDS include:
- Coughing and shortness of breath
- Difficult or painful swallowing
- Extreme fatigue
- Mental symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness
- Nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting
- Seizures and lack of coordination
- Severe, persistent diarrhea
- Severe headaches
- Vision loss
- Weight loss
Many opportunistic infections associated with AIDS cause serious illness. Some may be prevented. Below is a list of infections and how they affect the body.
Cryptoccoccal Menigitis — This is a yeast-like fungus infection that usually involves the brain and lungs, although it can affect almost any organ. The fungus that causes this condition is found in soil throughout the world. It is most common in soil contaminated by bird droppings. This disease most often occurs when a person's CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
HIV-related Encephalopathy — Encephalopathy is a term for diseases that alter brain function or structure, leading to problems with cognitive function, or mental processes, and memory. In people with HIV and AIDS, encephalopathy is usually caused by an infectious agent, such as a bacteria, virus or prion.
Encephalopathy most often occurs when a person's CD4+T cell count falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Toxoplasma-seropositive patients who have a CD4+T cell count of less than 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood should be treated with prophylaxis to prevent developing encephalopathy.
A team led by Dr. Russell Stothard, head of the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative at the Natural History Museum, London, recently conducted a field evaluation, which reported that even if stool or urine examinations are negative, a tissue biopsy might reveal eggs. Detection of antibody might as well be useful for epidemiological surveys as well as clinical research and management.
Schistosomiasis can be successfully treated using an oral drug Praziquantel. Though a single dose of this drug can cure the infection, it is not effective in preventing re-infection of the patient, which is highly probable in an affected area. Researches are presently being carried on to develop a vaccine for this disease.
The toxic metalloid, antimony was initially used in low doses to treat schistosomiasis, but this is not used in present days. Another drug called Oxamniquine is used outside the U.S to treat Schistosoma mansoni.
Investigations are being carried on a new Egyptian drug, Mirazid for the treatment of this disease.
Other forms of oral medication that are being experimented with are medicinal castor oil, Gopo Berry (by Dr Chidzere of Zimbabwe in 1980s), etc.
Acrolein, copper sulfate, and niclosamide can be used to eliminate the fresh-water snails that cause the disease.
Crayfish breeding can also be helpful for the purpose though it must be done with caution.
Avoiding water bodies previously detected with snails.
Use of sapindus plant(Phytolacca dodecandra) to prevent the disease by controlling snails. Aklilu Lemma and Legesse Wolde-Yohannes received the Right Livelihood Award in 1989 for their research.
Better plans and designs while creating dams and irrigation schemes can prevent this disease from spreading among the nearby population.
Influenza B: Cause, Symptom, Treatment and Prevention
Influenza B can cause respiratory and stomach symptoms. It can be easily treated. Vaccine and staying away from virus can prevent it.
Influenza or the flu refers to a respiratory infection that can be caused by a variety of viruses. The virus will move through the air and become inhaled through the mouth or nose. Approximately 5-20 percent of people catch the flu each year in the United States. Influenza can cause a serious infection or death in newborns, the elderly and people with some chronic illnesses. The viruses that cause influenza are classified as A, B or C types, depending on how their proteins are composed. Type B viruses are the most common in humans.
All flu viruses travel in the air as droplets of moisture. It spreads when people talk, cough or sneeze, releasing this moisture. Some people inhale this moisture in the air while others touch objects like a keyboard or telephone that are covered in the virus and then transfer them to the eyes, mouth or nose by touching these areas.
The influenza virus alters and creates new strains constantly so those that have already been affected by the flu may have developed antibodies to ward of a specific type of flu virus. If you are exposed to a virus in the future that is similar to those you have experienced before or you have been given a vaccination against a certain type of flu, it will be easier for the body to fight off the infection.
The antibodies a person has developed will not be able to prevent an infection caused by new strains of the virus or subtypes of the virus that are different than those you have already been exposed to.
1. Body Symptoms
In some cases, niacin, an essential nutrient part of the B vitamin complex that causes blood vessels to dilate, may provide relief from dizziness and vertigo.
In cases where dizziness and vertigo are very severe and vomiting won’t allow use of oral medications, high-dose corticosteroids given with IV fluids may be used to treat the CNS inflammation causing the symptom.
If dizziness or vertigo is linked to specific changes in body position, a physical therapist may be able to offer instruction on exercises for building tolerance and comfort with those position changes.
Since dizziness can result from the flu, treating muscle aches, fever, and other flu symptoms with aspirin and other medications may help to resolve dizziness which is related to the flu.
Complete Neurax Worm (Brutal) or $1.99USD(iOS)
Complete Prion on Normal (Evolved)
February 26, 2013, Version 1.5 (mobile)
March 29, 2014, early access evolution 4 (Evolved) 
The Necroa Virus is an expansion pack that was released with the Mutation 1.5 update.
Unclassified. Early analysis suggests extreme regenerative abilities.
The Necroa Virus is a special plague type that has aggressive metabolic demands, and unknown with "extreme regenerative capabilities". Its most notable trait is that when it infects humans, they become zombies (if the Cytopathic Reanimation symptom has been evolved via mutation or DNA points). The plague can be unlocked by purchasing it for $1.99USD, or by beating the Neurax Worm disease type on brutal for mobile devices, or by beating the Prion disease on normal or higher in Plague Inc: Evolved.
The interface is a Magnetic Resonance Image ( MRI ) of a human male, in which his brain is highlighted blue and white (normal). As the plague evolves, the brain image gradually develops expanding, glowing red-black spots on the frontal lobe along with the blue and white. The brain eventually turns completely red and black when it becomes a zombie. Once zombified, the more severe the disease becomes and traits it has, the more gruesome and decayed the interface portrays the zombie. The Necroa Virus' signature color is black, compared to the red of the normal disease types, the golden orange of the Neurax Worm, the green of the Simian Flu, or the purple of the Shadow Plague.
The Necroa Virus is usually very easy to cure, unless the player has plenty of cure-preventing genes like Genetic Mimic, or by making it more severe and/or lethal. The player must be quick to evolve Cytopathic Reanimation before the cure is deployed, unless the player is aiming for the achievement Not Another Zombie Game. Once achieved, the cure will become useless in stopping the disease, and some people who die from the disease will reanimate and become zombies. However, once the cure is complete, all infected individuals will eventually be cured, thus preventing any lethal non-zombie symptoms from ravaging the human population along with the zombies. A zombie population counter will immediately replace the infected counter upon evolution of Cytopathic Reanimation. Zombies will then appear and begin to either eat or turn other humans, whether healthy or infected, into more zombies. This will initially overwhelm all countries infected by one's disease, and allow the zombie population to grow exponentially. Once zombies have formed, the player will gain access to various abilities and symptoms that will increase the lethality and effectiveness of one's zombies, along with other abilities to assist the player.
After a certain amount of time, a certain country, generally a healthy one, will start Z Com, a military organization dedicated to destroying zombies. Humans allied with Z Com soldiers will defend against the zombies. Z Com will be humanity's greatest protector and threat against your disease, and eventually, Z Com may establish a second base in another healthy country unless the player can destroy the original Z Com base quickly enough. Z Com will try to decrease and eventually eradicate the zombie population of the world starting with the country they're based in. If not stopped fast enough, your zombie hordes will begin to succumb to decay, even if the player has all of the abilities that gradually stall this. This will allow Z Com to expand unchecked to more and more countries. Ultimately, Z Com will triumph against the player if they have established themselves in too many countries, and will eventually destroy all zombies which have not yet decayed, resulting in a game over for the player. Thus, it is imperative to attack new and inexperienced Z Com base as they can be easily overwhelmed and destroyed by a zombie horde.
If a country is destroyed by zombies, the zombies there will begin to starve and die off, so it is advised that the player use a Zombie Horde starting at the destroyed country, and should move them to a healthy or weak country for more food. This is indicated by a zombie bubble. The player can tap it for DNA points. Z Com's bases are represented by a fortress symbol in a blue box. Make sure the number of zombies is high before attacking a base, or else they will be massacred. Once Z Com is eliminated, and all humans are either eaten or turned into zombies, the game is over and the player wins.
There is also an in-game hidden story for the Necroa Virus. If Egypt is infected first, a popup may appear saying that explorers are going deeper into the newly-discovered tombs of Giza. The hieroglyphics will warn the explorers of an ancient plague capable of destroying humanity. The mummy excavated will have "strange bite marks". When zombies infect the world, a news headline may pop up saying that the Necroa Virus may have come from the Pyramid of Giza, indicating that the Necroa Virus is much older than Patient Zero.
There are more hidden stories. If the USA is infected first, a popup can appear saying that DarkWater is missing a scientist, meaning that Patient Zero could be this scientist. Later on, other popups will say that DarkWater has created the Necroa Virus, and another one saying that they are planning to make a kind of "zombie pacifier". If a player infects the UK first, it may say that PfiGlax made the Necroa Virus. Moreover, if the Plague is started in Ukraine, people may try to see if it was created by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Each of the stories will have three achievements for each country.
6.) Depending on where you may be traveling and what activities you may engage in, consider a vaccine for hepatitis B, yellow fever, typhoid, pre-exposure rabies, and cholera.
7.) Make sure your normal "childhood" vaccines are up to date: measles, mumps, rubella, diptheria, and pertussis (DTP vaccine).
Fibromyalgia is not well understood by the medical community. It is known, though, that certain people are more at risk of developing fibromyalgia than others. The symptoms of fibromyalgia can include everything from widespread pain to fatigue; menstrual pain to sleep disturbances. Because of the variety of fibromyalgia symptoms, there are a number of associated conditions linked to fibromyalgia.
Although there is not one singular test that can conclusively determine whether you have fibromyalgia, there are certain procedures that can be performed to rule out other similar disorders. Learn just how fibromyalgia is diagnosed as well as the various doctors that can benefit you during your fibromyalgia treatment.
Since the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, there is no fibromyalgia cure. However, by treating the symptoms you may be experiencing, your doctor should be able to provide you with fibromyalgia relief. One aspect of your treatment will likely include a medication. An assortment of drugs are available to ease your fibromyalgia pain, help you sleep or treat other fibromyalgia symptoms.
Sometimes conventional medicine is just not enough to provide you with the relief from fibromyalgia that you need. Fibromyalgia treatment often includes various types of alternative therapy, many of which have been proven to be very effective. There are also numerous things you can do at home to help yourself feel better everyday.
If you are looking for information on frozen shoulder syndrome often caused by fibromyalgia then click here.
Die Grippe (Influenza) ist eine Viruserkrankung, die hauptsächlich saisonal in den Herbst- und Wintermonaten auftritt und in den meisten Fällen unkompliziert verläuft.
Die Grippe (Influenza) ist eine weitverbreitete Viruserkrankung, die uns auch in Deutschland jedes Jahr aufs Neue beschäftigt, wenn die sogenannte Grippewelle während der Wintermonate wieder aufkommt. Diese saisonale Grippe wird meist von Grippeviren aus der Gruppe B verursacht. Das gehäufte Aufkommen von Grippefällen ist nicht zu verwechseln mit einer Pandemie, von der zuletzt während der „Neuen Grippe“, der sogenannten Schweinegrippe, die Rede war. Solche Pandemien werden von Influenzaviren aus der Gruppe A ausgelöst.
In der Regel verlaufen Erkrankungen mit Grippe unkompliziert und sind nach ein oder zwei Wochen überstanden. Schonung und Ruhe sind bei einer Grippe die wichtigsten Maßnahmen. Beschwerden wie Fieber und Schmerzen lassen sich symptomatisch gut mit Medikamenten behandeln. Bei komplizierten Verläufen werden weitere Maßnahmen eingeleitet wie zum Beispiel die Gabe von Antibiotikum bei zusätzlichen bakteriellen Infektionen. Komplizierte Verläufe von Grippe können bei Menschen mit einem schwachen Immunsystem, Schwangeren oder alten Menschen auftreten. Durch eine Schutzimpfung kann man sich gegen die saisonale Grippe impfen lassen. Die Grippe-Impfung bietet zwar keinen garantierten, hundertprozentigen Schutz, lässt die Grippe aber zumindest weniger schwer verlaufen, wenn es zu einer Infektion kommt.
Grippeerreger verändern ihre Genetik und mutieren immer wieder, weshalb eine völlige Immunität durch eine bereits durchgestandene Grippe nicht möglich ist. Dabei bleiben die Erreger sich aber recht ähnlich, weshalb bei erwachsenen Menschen aufgrund des immunologischen Gedächtnisses die Grippe oft weniger heftig verläuft als bei jungen Menschen oder Kindern. Im Alter wird dieser Effekt durch das schwächere Immunsystem der älteren Menschen wieder aufgehoben.
Die Symptome einer Erkältung oder echten Grippe sind sich sehr ähnlich. Der Selbsttest hilft Ihnen bei der Diagnose
Bei der Influenza A verhält es sich ein wenig anders: Dieser Grippetyp kann seine Genetik innerhalb kurzer Zeit drastisch verändern. Der Erreger breitet sich unter günstigen Bedingungen sehr schnell aus, weil in der Bevölkerung wenig bis gar kein immunologischer Schutz gegen ihn besteht. Pandemien werden deshalb von Grippeviren aus der Gruppe A verursacht. Sie kommen nur alle paar Jahre vor und lassen sich durch moderne Kontrolleinrichtungen gut in den Griff bekommen.
In den meisten Fällen ist das erste Grippe-Symptom plötzlich auftretendes, teilweise hohes Fieber, häufig begleitet von Schüttelfrost. Es folgen Atemwegsbeschwerden, zunächst trockener Husten, später Husten mit Auswurf, Schnupfen und Halsschmerzen. Magen-Darm-Beschwerden wie Übelkeit, Erbrechen und Durchfall sind ebenfalls häufige Anzeichen einer Influenza.
Der akute Ausbruch der Grippe ist eines der wesentlichen Merkmale, anhand derer Sie die Grippe von einer Erkältung unterscheiden können. Während die Grippe eher plötzlich auftritt und fast immer mit hohem Fieber verbunden ist, beginnt die Erkältung langsam und das Fieber ist – wenn es überhaupt zu Fieber kommt – nicht besonders hoch.
Die Grippe verläuft in der Regel unkompliziert. Selten kann es im Verlauf zu Komplikationen kommen. Menschen mit einer Grunderkrankung oder einem schwachen Immunsystem, ältere Menschen oder Schwangere sind etwas häufiger von Komplikationen während einer Grippe betroffen. Vor allem die zusätzliche Infektion mit Bakterien (Superinfektion) verursacht teils heftige Verläufe. Zu folgenden Grippe-Komplikationen kann es kommen:
Rosemary (Rosmarinus) works as an antiseptic and an antimicrobial agent. In The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy, Valerie Ann Worwood suggests using a blend of rosemary, lemon and eucalyptus oils to massage the nose, cheekbones and temples in order to relieve congestion and discomfort.
Thieves is a blend of clove (syzygium aromaticum), lemon, cinnamon bark (cinnamomum), eucalyptus and rosemary that was created by 15th century thieves during the plague. The oil blend is antiviral, antiseptic and antibacterial. It works well in a diffuser to help purify the air in your home or as a throat spray to soothe a sore throat.
A great way to get the benefits of essential oils is by breathing them so that they enter your body through the nose and lungs. You can use them in a diffuser or you can simply add four or five drops of the oil to a pot of boiled water. Cover your head with a towel while carefully leaning over the liquid and breathing in the steam.
Another option is to place a drop or two of the oils on a warm damp washcloth and then place the washcloth on your chest or your forehead to help relieve pain and congestion. Or add five to eight drops of oil to the water as you run your bath for a soothing, relaxing effect.
Essential oils are not a substitute for other proven methods for fighting colds such as getting enough fluids, getting enough rest or seeing your doctor if your symptoms worsen. However, if you are looking for natural ways to boost your body’s defenses during cold and flu season, it is well worth your time to investigate the impact essential oils can have on your health.
Which is your favorite essential oil to fight colds and flu? Share your tips in the section below:
Stomach Flu (Tummy Bug) – Signs, Symptoms and Treatment
Infectious gastroenteritis is often referred to as a tummy bug or the stomach flu. It may be caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa. The incubation period and duration of the infection may vary depending on the causative microorganism and the action of the microbe or toxins.
The signs and symptoms of acute gastroenteritis should be discernible from other gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Proper management is crucial and most of the time, treatment for acute infectious gastroenteritis is only necessary in prolonged cases or immunocompromised patients.
Refer to the article on Causes, Incubation Period and Duration of Infectious Gastroenteritis for further details on these aspects.
The common signs and symptoms include:
- Constant and does not always ease after vomiting.
- Retching is the involuntary but unproductive effort to vomit.
- Heartburn and chest pain may be present as gastric contents rise up the esophagus coupled with muscle spasm from retching.
- Severe with recurrent retching after expulsion.
- May settle in the latter stages of the infection although nausea may still be present.
- Eating solid foods usually aggravates nausea and vomiting.
- Bloody vomit (hematemesis) is not always present and may only occur with persistent or violent vomiting (refer to gastritis caused by a Mallory-Weiss tear).
- Frequent, watery stools (large volume) often accompanied by intestinal cramps.
- Certain infections and persistent diarrhea may result in bloody stools (melena
black, tarry; hematochezia
- Diarrhea may be mild in some infections.
- Constant urging (tenesmus) may persist between evacuations.
- Abdominal discomfort
- Ranging from a dull ache, to colicky or severe abdominal pain.
- Bloating and tenderness often present, especially in bacterial infections.
- Fever may be absent in some cases of infectious gastroenteritis – bacterial toxins may not cause a fever.
- Other microorganism may cause a low, moderate or high fever.
- Varies from >100F/37.7C to 104F/40C – temperatures in excess of 104F/40C requires immediate medical attention.
- Complication of fluid loss – vomiting, diarrhea, perspiration.
- May be moderate to severe and may lead to death if left untreated.
- Dizziness, dry mouth, poor skin turgor and fainting.
- Signs of shock due to severe dehydration – immediate medical attention necessary.