Doctors and scientists continue to debate the root cause and even the mechanism of BFS.
The most prominent theory is that BFS is an auto-immune response to a viral infection. Many suffers of BFS have noted that that onset of their symptoms occurred just after a viral illness or infection, such as the flu. Also, many experience an increase in their symptoms during times of illness.
The anatomic site of origin for muscle fasciculations and cramps has been debated for many years. Many authors have argued for a central origin of the abnormal discharges in the anterior horn cells. However some evidence favors a very distal origin in the intramuscular motor nerve terminals. Some researchers have found degeneration and regeneration of motor nerve terminals.
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Although the author(s) have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accordance with the standards accepted at the time of publication, the information contained on this web site cannot replace sound medical advice from qualified professionals.
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Fentanyl is one of the strongest opiate drugs on the market. It is not a long-lasting drug so it is often used for surgery recovery and for breakthrough pain—meaning that when a person is already taking an opiate but has temporary pain that breaks through the opiate barrier, they may be given fentanyl.
Time-release formulations for fentanyl provide strong pain relief over time. They come in two forms—a lollipop and a patch. Fentanyl also comes as a small piece of film that can be dissolved under the tongue and a pill meant to be lodged inside the cheek. In hospital settings, fentanyl can be injected. For the individual abusing the drug outside a hospital, this is highly dangerous, as the difference between a therapeutic dose and a deadly dose is very small.
Several years ago illicit fentanyl entered the scene of the developing opioid crisis, where addicts seeking a stronger high were willing to risk overdose by using heroin cut with the drug. The fact that fentanyl is 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine, even a tiny bit too much can be fatal. When dealers began mixing unknown amounts of fentanyl with heroin and other drugs in order to increase their profits—often selling to an unsuspecting customer—overdose began to take the life of countless individuals across the U.S.
As with any opiate, the main symptoms of fentanyl abuse are euphoria, drowsiness, lethargy and mellowness. Fentanyl very quickly creates a tolerance to high doses, so a dose that is adequate for the intended high one week will probably not create that intended high even a few days later.
There are many other signs and symptoms of using fentanyl, either medically or illicitly, that are not desirable.
- Dizziness and lightheadedness
- Dry mouth
- Retention of urine
- Suppression of breathing
- Severe constipation
- Itching or hives
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Difficulty seeing
- Bad dreams
- Difficulty sleeping
- Swollen extremities
In most cases, addiction is accompanied by a deterioration in personal integrity. It takes many unethical or criminal acts to maintain an addiction over time—either expenditure of large amounts of personal money or thefts, prescription fraud, doctor-shopping or other crimes, to get the drugs that are needed. A fentanyl addict normally has secrets from most or all of the people they encounter regularly. If the thefts are from a workplace, as often happens, they will be living a secret life while at work. Hospitals, pharmacies and nursing homes are often the sites of fentanyl theft by desperate employees.
Different people become addicted at different rates. Some addicts try to prevent addiction by letting time pass between usages of strong opiates and others feel compelled to use the drug continuously once they start, which walks them straight into addiction. Those coming off heavy fentanyl abuse will often be weaned down to a lower level before going through withdrawal, as unsupported withdrawal from strong opiates can be brutal.
If you suspect someone you care about is abusing opioids that may include fentanyl, get them help right away. Waiting until tomorrow could be one day too late.
Recovering from Opioid Addiction at a Narconon Rehab
The Narconon drug and alcohol rehab program located around the world has developed a humane way of helping a person through withdrawal and then taking them all the way to lasting sobriety.
If a person does not need weaning or medical detox, he can safely and tolerably come off his drugs through in the Withdrawal unit at a Narconon center. Each person is immediately given generous doses of nutritional supplements that help alleviate the worst of the body’s reactions to withdrawal. A person coming into a rehab is normally in a severely depleted condition, and these supplements begin the rebuilding process. They also assist the body in starting to eliminate the toxicity that exists from the drugs that were used.
[A] Do you have constipation?
[Q] No constipation.
[A] It’s tough to diagnose this remotely. What exactly are you looking for? Do you want to know some home remedies for typhoid? Do you want to know about typhoid symptoms?
[A] You must most certainly follow your doctor’s advice and get your blood check up done to detect what the problem is – whether its typhoid fever or something else
[A] Here are some home remedies I can suggest – but use them only after you have consulted your doctor:
- Take a lot of rest
- Cold compress if your fever goes over 103
- Drink more water; even orange juice will be good as that will give you more energy
- Stick to easily digestible foods – liquid diet is good if you can tolerate it.
- Warm eater enema may also be administered for some people during typhoid fever.
Question: About a week ago I was suffering from constipation & stomach ache with occasional fever. Last 2 days, I have continuous fever of around 99-100 degree F. My widal test (not from reputed lab ) is +ve.
Answer: Since the Widal test has been done and the result has been positive, your diagnosis is typhoid. Diet and hygiene will play an important role in your treatment.
Here are a few home remedies for treating typhoid:
* Drink 2 tall glasses of warm milk to which Psyllium seeds have been added. Psyllium seeds help in the easy and smooth passage of stools and check constipation.
* To settle a disturbed stomach, drink 2 tender coconut water everyday. Coconut water is alkaline and rich in essential nutrients.
* To battle fatigue and exhaustion, eat 5 dates daily. Soak them overnight in water and eat the next day. Dates provide great strength and vigor.
* Stomach pain can be relieved by consuming a mixture of 1 spoon cumin seed powder and 1 spoon of powdered sugar.
* In order to manage fluctuating temperatures, drink raisin water. Raisins are an excellent tonic during fevers. Avoid popping anti-pyretics.
* Avoid foods which derange and upset the stomach. Stay away from spicy food, tea, coffee, aerated drinks, refined foods and alcohol.
* Increase your fluid intake to prevent typhoid.
* Take rest for a period of 1 week. Your body needs to recover and recuperate.
* Drink boiled and filtered water only.
* Wash hands and feet thoroughly.
* Always keep food in covered containers.
* Eat steaming hot food.
Question: I am suffering from high fever for about 25 days. Recently I have been diagnosed with typhoid. I was being treated for malaria. I have constant high fever which drops after I take Crocin. I have lost my appetite and feel so weak I cannot stand for more than 10 minutes at a stretch. My stomach pains after I take medicine or food. My physician has prescribed Ofloxacin tablet 400mg, twice a day and Efixime tablet U.S.P 200 mg.
Answer: Typhoid is an infectious disease, caused by a microbe salmonella typhii which is transmitted by feco-oral route. Nutritional correction is most critical for ensuring a lasting cure. Typhoid is notorious for becoming a chronic case, so it is of very important that you follow a judicious diet, healthy lifestyle and hygienic practices to prevent a relapse or a progression of the disease.
- Avoid popping too many anti-pyretics like crocin. Also, avoid treating yourself randomly without a definite diagnosis.
- Take adequate rest. Your body needs to recuperate.
- Drink only boiled water.
- Wash your hands and feet after you get home. Wash you hands clean before you eat.
- Always keep food in closed containers.
- Prefer hot food.
The first day of his new diet Larry felt pretty good. He had distilled water for breakfast instead of the usual two cups of coffee and ate fresh fruits for lunch. He had a salad for supper and went to bed early to get plenty of rest. The next morning he woke up feeling miserable. He had a sharp headache that raced up his neck behind his ears. He could hardly breathe. His sinuses were clogged shut. He felt worse than he had in weeks.
The headache stayed all day and into the next day. Now he noticed he had developed a hacking cough that convulsed him. He started spitting up hardened balls of mucus from this lungs.
The third day his nose was continually draining. As fast as he could blow it, his nose would clog back up. All the time, his headache had never left him, even when he tried to sleep.
By the fourth day, the headache had subsided a little.
His cough had worsened, however, and now pieces of hardened gray material were being expelled from his lungs.
“I can’t stand it!” he thought, “Why am I feeling so miserable as soon as I gave up my bad habits?”
Why indeed? First, Larry’s headache is a symptom of caffeine withdrawal. Coffee, tea, cola drinks, and other caffeine-containing substances are addictive poisons. When a person drops his caffeine habit, changes occur in the vascular and nervous systems. These changes occur as the body tries to renormalize itself and eliminate the poisons. Headaches often accompany caffeine
withdrawal, and some people who give up their coffee habit may experience edginess and irritability for a few days.
Larry’s clogged nose and sinuses were related to the consumption of dairy products. Mucus buildup occurs when milk is consumed. After such foods are eliminated, sinus drainage may occur for two weeks or more. The elimination of old mucus is a healthy sign for such deposits may become the breeding places for many diseases.
The coughing and spitting of hardened phlegm resulted from the cleansing of the lungs of the tar deposits which had been caused by smoking. Smokers lungs are often crusted black with tar and chemical deposits. When smoking is stopped, the lungs try to cleanse themselves and the old deposits are expelled by coughing. This is why a cough should never be suppressed. Coughing is one method that the body has of expelling toxic wastes from the system.
After about two weeks, Larry started to feel better than ever. He had plenty of energy without his coffee. His nose, throat, and lungs felt so much cleaner that he had no desire to smoke or eat dairy products. He had suffered for awhile, but now he was reaping the rewards of improved health.
Everybody is a walking time bomb. Each person carries within him the seeds for disease and illness. These seeds are the environmental and dietary toxins that may be stored within the body and which may spring full force into a debilitating disease.
What are some of these toxins, and where do they come from? How can we get rid of them? What symptoms can we expect when they start to leave the body?
Surprisingly enough, one of the largest sources of body toxins is the drugs people take to fight disease (or so they think). Medicinal drugs are very strong—they have to be to overcome the body’s natural defense system.
When such drugs are taken, they must either be eliminated from the body or stored within it for later elimination.
As a person’s health improves and all such medicines and drugs are discontinued, the old toxins may enter the bloodstream for elimination. The circulation of these old drug toxins in the system may produce bewildering symptoms that could alarm the health seeker.
For example, an elderly man had been taking a form of digitalis (a heart stimulant) for several years. He discontinued the drug as he improved his health through exercise.
After a few days off the drug, he experienced erratic heart beats, a racing pulse and chest pains. He was frightened and wondered if he should take his old drug again.
One of the best ways to prevent seasonal influenza is through yearly immunization because the influenza virus changes each year.
As part of Alberta's influenza immunization program, Albertans 6 months of age and older are able to receive influenza vaccine, free of charge, at public health clinics, pharmacies and doctor’s offices.
- About immunization
- Where to get immunized
- Contact your local pharmacist or physician for details on vaccine availability
Alberta Health is offering Albertans one type of influenza vaccine free of charge. This vaccine, called Fluzone, is offered as an injection, contains 4 strains of influenza virus and is a safe and effective vaccine for all ages.
Having multiple types of vaccines increases the complexity of our immunization program. Offering one type of vaccine to Albertans at mass public clinics, pharmacies and doctor’s offices means we can offer a more efficient program where vaccine is available for everyone across the province when clinics open.
Alberta Health will not offer FluMist (the nasal spray) this season. In previous years, FluMist had been available for children between the ages of 2 and 17.
- In 2016, Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization removed its preferential recommendation for FluMist for children 2–17 years of age. The committee concluded that FluMist and injectable vaccines are equally safe and effective for children.
FLUAD is an influenza vaccine designed to boost the immune response in seniors. This year, FLUAD will not be available at public health clinics. Seniors living in long term care or supportive living will continue to be offered FLUAD free of charge.
- This aligns with recommendations from the National Advisory Committee on Immunization. The committee recommends either FLUAD or a regular four-strain vaccine for seniors.
- Some pharmacists may choose to offer FLUAD to Albertans age 65 and older at a cost. Seniors who wish to be immunized with FLUAD can contact their pharmacies for more information.
- In 2016/17, Canadian estimates on vaccine effectiveness show vaccine was 42% effective against the dominant strain, H3N2.
- This is slightly lower than in 2015/16 when the vaccine was 50% effective and the dominant strain of influenza was H1N1. Vaccine effectiveness is often lower against H3N2 strains of influenza, so this could explain why the vaccine was less effective.
- Even with an effectiveness rating of 42%, immunization is the best way for Albertans to protect themselves and others against influenza.
Vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year but immunization is still the best protection. We do not know how effective this year’s vaccine will be, but we do know that not being immunized offers no protection.
- Alberta has purchased 1.6 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2017/18 season. This is enough to immunize 35% of the population.
- Total cost: $12.1 million.
- In 2016/17, Alberta Health purchased 1.6 million doses of influenza vaccine.
- Total cost: $12.7 million
- 27% of Albertans (roughly 1.1 million people) received the influenza vaccine
- 64 people died and had lab-confirmed influenza
- 1,653 Albertans were admitted to hospital with lab-confirmed influenza.
- Alberta has offered universal influenza immunization free of charge to residents since 2009.
- The program before 2009 targeted those most at risk of disease and complications.
- 2016/17 – 27.0% (more influenza data is available on the Alberta Health Services influenza website )
- 2015/16 – 27.0%
- 2014/15 – 30.0%
- 2013/14 – 27.6%
- 2012/13 – 23.0%
- 2011/12 – 22.5%
- 2010/11 – 22.0%
Every year we hope to see more Albertans get immunized, and we encourage all Albertans age 6 months and older to be immunized when vaccine is available.
In general, if you want to help keep "stomach flu" at bay, soap and water is one of the best defenses. Use them often. Your stomach will thank you.
Parashar, Umesh, D., Alexander, James P., et al Prevention of rotavirus, gastroenteritis among infants: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (proposed), Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55(RR12);1-13 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5512a1.htm?s_cid=rr5512a1_e
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral gastroenteritis.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers' Diarrhea. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/travelersdiarrhea_g.htm
Cleveland Clinic. Gastroenteritis. my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/Gastroenteritis/hic_Gastroenteritis.aspx
Merck Manual of Diagnosis: Gastroenteritis.
Bonheur, Jennifer L., MD, et al. Gastroenteritis, Bacterial. eMedicine.
Diskin, Arthur, MD. Gastroenteritis. eMedicine, Vol. 3, no. 4, http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic213.htm
Merck Manual. Gastroenteritis. September 2007. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec09/ch122/ch122a.html
The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. Are vaccines safe?
Tamiflu is a prescription medicine used to treat the flu (influenza) in people 2 weeks of age and older who have had flu symptoms for no more than 2 days. Tamiflu can also reduce the chance of getting the flu in people 1 year and older.
Tamiflu does not prevent bacterial infections that may happen with the flu.