That's not surprising: Many of the symptoms are the same, including pain in the joints and muscles and swollen lymph glands.

Lymph nodes are part of your body's immune system and tend to get inflamed when there's an infection. Many of them are located in your armpit, groin, and neck.

Photo: Getty Images

As with other symptoms, sore throat and headache can often be recognized as ARS only in context, Dr. Horberg says.

If you've engaged recently in high-risk behavior, an HIV test is a good idea. Get tested for your own sake and for others: HIV is most infectious in the earliest stage.

Keep in mind that the body hasn't produced antibodies to HIV yet so an antibody test may not pick it up. (It can take a few weeks to a few monthsfor HIV antibodies to show in a blood test). Investigate other test options such as one that detects viral RNA, typically within nine days of infection.

Photo: Getty Images

Skin rashes can occur early or late in the course of HIV/AIDS.

For Ron, this was another sign that he might not have run-of-the-mill allergies or a cold.

"They were like boils, with some itchy pink areas on my arms," Ron says. The rashes can also appear on the trunk of the body. "If [the rashes] aren't easily explained or easily treated, you should think about having an HIV test," Dr. Horberg says.

Photo: Getty Images

Anywhere from 30% to 60% of people have short-term nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea in the early stages of HIV, Dr. Malvestutto says.

These symptoms can also appear as a result of antiretroviral therapy and later in the infection, usually as the result of an opportunistic infection.

"Diarrhea that is unremitting and not responding at all to usual therapy might be an indication," Dr. Horberg says. Or symptoms may be caused by an organism not usually seen in people with healthy immune systems, he adds.

Photo: Getty Images

Once called "AIDS wasting," weight loss is a sign of more advanced illness and could be due in part to severe diarrhea.

"If you're already losing weight, that means the immune system is usually fairly depleted," Dr. Malvestutto says. "This is the patient who has lost a lot of weight even if they continue to eat as much as possible. This is late presentation. We still see a lot of these." It has become less common, however, thanks to antiretroviral therapy.

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Sometimes, replacing fluid through maternal oral or IV hydration may be used to help correct the condition. Other times, amnioinfusion is used. If low amniotic fluid is seen in a post-term pregnancy, most practitioners will induce labor.

Die „echte“ Grippe (Influenza) ist im Vergleich zum grippalen Infekt eine weitaus schwerere Erkrankung, die unter Umständen sogar zum Tod führen kann. Sie darf nicht mit einer banalen Erkältungskrankheit verwechselt werden. Bei der Grippe handelt es sich um eine akute Infektion der Atemwege, die durch verschiedene Influenzaviren ausgelöst werden kann. Die Viren sind insbesondere in geschlossenen Räumen sehr leicht auf andere Menschen übertragbar. Unter einer „saisonalen Influenza“ versteht man die jährlich in der kalten Jahreszeit („Grippesaison“) wiederkehrende Grippewelle...

Die von Influenzaviren verursachte saisonale Grippe ist eine hochinfektiöse Erkrankung des gesamten Atemtraktes, die aufgrund ihrer teilweise lebensbedrohlichen Komplikationen besonders ernst genommen werden muss. Für die klassische saisonale Grippe sind bestimmte Typen von Influenzaviren, nämlich Typ A und B, verantwortlich. Insgesamt gibt es drei Typen von Influenzaviren: A, B und C. Dabei werden die schwersten und weitreichendsten Krankheitsausbrüche von Influenza-A-Viren verursacht. Ebenso kommt die weltweite Ausbreitung (Pandemie) eines Grippevirus praktisch nur bei Influenza A vor. Dies beruht unter anderem auf der einzigartigen Fähigkeit der Influenza-A-Viren, zwei bestimmte Eiweißstrukturen auf ihrer Oberfläche (Antigene) laufend zu verändern: das Hämagglutinin (H) und die Neuraminidase (N). Aufgrund dieser ständigen Mutationen unterscheiden sich die Stämme jedes Jahr mehr oder weniger ausgeprägt voneinander und können so vom Immunsystem des Menschen bei einer erneuten Infektion nicht wiedererkannt werden. Eine durchgemachte Grippe schützt daher nicht vor einer neuerlichen Erkrankung.

Mit der saisonalen Grippe ist in unseren Breiten jedes Jahr vor allem in den Monaten Dezember bis April zu rechnen, wobei eine saisonale Grippewelle ungefähr acht bis zwölf Wochen dauert. Die für den Menschen relevanten Influenzaviren vom Typ A und B unterscheiden sich dabei lediglich durch den milderen Verlauf der Influenza-B-Virusinfektionen. Influenza-C-Viren haben für den Menschen praktisch keine Bedeutung. Die Influenzaviren werden vor allem durch Tröpfcheninfektion (beispielsweise beim Sprechen, insbesondere jedoch durch Niesen oder Husten) übertragen, können aber auch durch direkten Kontakt (zum Beispiel Händeschütteln mit anschließendem Hand-zu-Mund-Kontakt), über Trinkwasser oder über verunreinigte Flächen oder Gegenstände (beispielsweise Türklinken mit anschließendem Hand-zu-Mund-Kontakt) in den Körper gelangen.

Die saisonale Influenza verursacht weltweit Krankheitsausbrüche, die von Jahr zu Jahr hinsichtlich ihrer Ausbreitung und Schwere schwanken. Dabei werden schätzungsweise fünf bis 20 Prozent der Bevölkerung infiziert, wobei jedoch nicht jede/jeder Infizierte erkrankt. Außerdem geht nicht jede/jeder Erkrankte zu einer Ärztin/einem Arzt, obwohl dadurch zahlreichen Komplikationen vorgebeugt werden könnte.

Die saisonale Grippe ist jedoch nicht gleichzusetzen mit anderen Grippeformen, die sich innerhalb kurzer Zeit weltweit ausbreiten (Pandemien). So sind beispielsweise nicht nur verschiedene Influenzaviren für die unterschiedlichen Grippeformen verantwortlich, auch ihr zeitliches Auftreten und ihre krankmachende Wirkung für den Menschen ist nicht die gleiche. Informationen zur Vorbeugung der Grippe finden Sie unter Grippe: Risikogruppen & Vorbeugung.

Die Zeit zwischen einer Infektion mit dem Influenzavirus und dem Ausbruch der Erkrankung beträgt normalerweise ein bis drei Tage. Danach kommt es schlagartig zu charakteristischen Grippesymptomen wie hohem Fieber (bis 41°C) mit trockenem Husten, Schnupfen, Kopf-, Muskel- und Gliederschmerzen sowie einem allgemeinen Krankheitsgefühl. Gelegentlich können auch Atembeschwerden auftreten. Demnach kann eine Grippe als Erkrankung des gesamten Atemtraktes beschrieben werden, die jedoch Symptome im ganzen Körper verursacht. Charakteristisch ist der abrupte Beginn der Symptome, so dass die Patientinnen und Patienten oftmals noch Jahre später den Zeitpunkt präzise beschreiben können.

Aufgrund der raschen Virusvermehrung ist die Infektionsgefahr für andere Personen mit dem Einsetzen von Husten und Niesen der Erkrankten/des Erkrankten am größten. Dabei ist die Virenkonzentration bei erkrankten Kindern meist höher als bei anderen Altersgruppen. Die leichte Übertragbarkeit der Influenzaviren kann in solchen Situationen bei Kontakt zu anderen Menschen zu einer explosionsartigen Verbreitung der Grippe führen.

Verläuft die Influenza unkompliziert, bessern sich die Beschwerden normalerweise innerhalb von zwei bis fünf Tagen. Ein Großteil der Patientinnen und Patienten hat die Erkrankung normalerweise nach einer Woche überstanden. Allerdings nimmt zirka jede fünfte Influenza einen komplizierten Verlauf. Die häufigste Komplikation bei einer Grippeerkrankung ist eine Pneumonie (Lungenentzündung), wobei von der durch das Grippevirus selbst verursachten „primären Pneumonie“ die größten Gefahren ausgehen. Diese äußert sich meistens in einer Verschlechterung des Allgemeinzustands ein bis zwei Tage nach Krankheitsbeginn mit Atemnot und eventuell einer Blaufärbung von Haut und Schleimhäuten (Zyanose). Da sich bestimmte Bakterien, wie beispielsweise Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae oder Haemophilus influenzae, direkt an die Influenzaviren binden können, kann es aber auch infolge der akuten Influenza zu einer sogenannten „bakteriellen Superinfektion“ kommen. Bei dieser Form der Lungenentzündung steigt nach einer zwei- bis dreitägigen Phase der Besserung das Fieber erneut an und geht häufig mit Symptomen wie Husten und einem eitrigen Auswurf einher.

Die häufigste Form der Influenza-Pneumonie ist jedoch eine gemischt viral-bakterielle Lungenentzündung, die sich entweder in einem allmählichen Fortschreiten der Erkrankung oder einer vorübergehenden Besserung und anschließenden Verschlechterung der Symptome äußert. Neben einer Pneumonie treten bei einer Influenza gelegentlich noch weitere Komplikationen auf. Dazu gehören beispielsweise eine Entzündung des Herzmuskels oder Herzbeutels, der Nasennebenhöhlen, des Mittelohrs, der Muskeln, der Hirn- beziehungsweise Rückenmarkshäute oder eine Schädigung des Gehirns.

Die Diagnose einer Grippe ergibt sich während einer Grippeepidemie aus der Krankengeschichte und der körperlichen Untersuchung der Patientin/des Patienten. In manchen Fällen werden auch spezifische Laboruntersuchungen zum Virusnachweis durchgeführt. Dadurch können beispielsweise Informationen über die vorhandenen Virustypen oder die Verbreitung der Grippe erhalten werden. Derartige Laboruntersuchungen spielen zudem eine bedeutende Rolle zur Identifikation der Erreger bei neu aufgetretenen Formen der Grippe. Damit können beispielsweise Mutationen der Gene von Influenzaviren analysiert und eine Abgrenzung gegenüber der saisonalen Grippe vorgenommen werden.

Für die weitere Diagnostik der Grippe stehen je nach Krankheitsphase verschiedene Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfügung. Dabei kommen unter anderem Untersuchungen von Nasensekret und Auswurf, Rachenabstriche sowie Blutuntersuchungen zum Einsatz.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter Influenza-A/B-Schnelltest.

Ist eine Person bereits an Grippe erkrankt, können bei rechtzeitiger Therapie die Influenzaviren direkt bekämpft werden. Hierfür gibt es bestimmte Medikamente – sogenannte Neuraminidasehemmer (Oseltamivir und Zanamivir). Sie blockieren die Freisetzung von neu gebildeten Viruspartikeln aus bereits infizierten Zellen und hemmen so die Vermehrung der Influenzaviren im Körper. Da nach einer anfänglichen Phase der raschen Erregerausbreitung die Zahl der Viren 24 bis 48 Stunden nach Ausbruch der Krankheit wieder abnimmt, müssen Neuraminidasehemmer am besten innerhalb der ersten zwölf Stunden (allerspätestens innerhalb von 48 Stunden) nach Auftreten der ersten Symptome zur Anwendung kommen.

Die rechtzeitige Verabreichung von Oseltamivir oder Zanamivir lindert die grippebedingten Beschwerden (wie zum Beispiel Kopfschmerzen, Husten, Fieber) und verkürzt die Dauer der Grippeerkrankung. Außerdem senkt die Therapie das Risiko für Komplikationen (zum Beispiel Pneumonie). Oseltamivir gibt es als Saft oder Tabletten. Zanamivir kann dagegen nur inhaliert werden. Daher wird häufig bevorzugt Oseltamivir eingesetzt. Ergeben sich Hinweise auf eine bakterielle (Zusatz-)Infektion, muss eine entsprechende antibiotische Therapie eingeleitet werden. Bei Komplikationen ist mitunter auch die Gabe von Sauerstoff notwendig, bei Erschöpfung der Atmung muss maschinell beatmet werden.

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Call your health care provider at once if you experience the following conditions:

  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones.
  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones and your blood glucose level is high.
  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones and you have vomited more than twice in four hours.

Do NOT exercise when your urine tests show ketones and your blood glucose is high. High levels of ketones and high blood glucose levels can mean your diabetes is out of control. Check with your health care provider about how to handle this situation.

Here are three basic reasons for moderate or large amounts of ketones:

  • Not enough insulin
    Maybe you did not inject enough insulin. Or your body could need more insulin than usual because of illness.
  • Not enough food
    When you're sick, you often don't feel like eating, sometimes resulting in high ketone levels. High levels may also occur when you miss a meal.
  • Insulin reaction (low blood glucose)
    If testing shows high ketone levels in the morning, you may have had an insulin reaction while asleep.

Welche Folgen eine Grippe hat, hängt von der körperlichen Verfassung der Erkrankten, aber auch von der Aggressivität der Viren ab. In manchen Jahren hat eine Grippewelle kaum Einfluss auf die allgemeine Sterblichkeit, in anderen fordert sie zahlreiche Todesopfer. So starben im Grippewinter 2012/2013 in Deutschland etwa 20.000 Menschen an den Folgen einer Grippeinfektion.

Die ersten Symptome einer Influenza treten meist ein bis zwei Tage nach der Ansteckung mit Grippeviren auf. Typische Krankheitszeichen sind hohes Fieber, Kopf-, Gelenk- und Muskelschmerzen, Schüttelfrost und Schweißausbrüche, unproduktiver Husten, Appetitlosigkeit, ein starkes Krankheitsgefühl sowie Erschöpfung. Damit sind die Symptome einer Influenza vor allem bei milden Krankheitsverläufen von anderen Erkältungskrankheiten nur schwer zu unterscheiden. Die in der Regel harmlosen grippalen Infekte beruhen zwar ebenfalls auf einer Virusinfektion, haben aber ebenso wie die sogenannte "Magen-Darm-Grippe" mit der "echten" Grippe jedoch nichts zu tun.

Merkmale einer Influenza, die sie von grippalen Infekten unterscheidet und die korrekte Behandlung bestimmen:

  • Plötzlicher Beginn der Krankheit Eine "echte" Grippe beginnt fast immer plötzlich und scheinbar ohne Übergang von völliger Gesundheit. Eine Erkältungskrankheit entwickelt sich dagegen langsam und teilweise über mehrere Tage hinweg.
  • Hohes Fieber Zu den typischen Symptomen einer Influenza gehört Fieber über 38,5 Grad Celsius, bei schweren Krankheitsverläufen kann es bis 41 Grad Celsius steigen. Grippale Infekte werden meist nur von mäßig erhöhter Temperatur begleitet.
  • Unterschiedliche Gewichtung der Krankheitszeichen Zwar treten bei einer Virusgrippe auch Erkältungssymptome auf, jedoch steht das allgemeine Krankheitsgefühl im Vordergrund. Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen sind in der Regel stärker ausgeprägt als bei einer einfachen Erkältung.
  • Krankheitsdauer Ein grippaler Infekt ist nach wenigen Tagen ausgestanden. Bei einer "echten" Grippe sind die Erkrankten meist erst nach fünf bis sieben Tagen fieberfrei, an die sich noch eine längere Erholungs- und Genesungsperiode anschließt.

In 80 Prozent der Fälle verläuft die Krankheit leicht bis mittelschwer. Zu Komplikationen führt oft weniger die Influenza selbst, sondern bakterielle Zweit- und Superinfektionen, die durch die Schleimhautschädigungen begünstigt werden. Mögliche Komplikationen sind Entzündungen der Lunge, des Gehirns, des Herzens und der Skelettmuskulatur. Patienten mit schwerwiegenden Vorerkrankungen und ohne - zum Teil aus medizinischen Gründen gar nicht möglichem Impfschutz - tragen hierfür ein besonders hohes Risiko. Für Menschen mit einem gesunden Körper und einem intakten Immunsystem stellt eine Influenza normalerweise jedoch kein gefährliches oder gar lebensbedrohliches Ereignis dar.

Durch eine Laboruntersuchung von Blut oder Speichel kann der Arzt eine Influenza sicher diagnostizieren. Allerdings sind solche Tests nicht der Regelfall, sondern werden vor allem dann vorgenommen, wenn ein Risiko für einen besonders schweren Krankheitsverlauf besteht.

Außerdem gibt es die Möglichkeit des Schnell-Tests mittels eines Nasenabstrichs, der bei Erwachsenen jedoch nicht besonders sicher ist. Da Ärzte wissen, ob eine Grippewelle im Anzug ist oder sich regional bereits ausgebreitet hat, ist eine weitgehend sichere Diagnose meist auch ohne Labortests möglich, woraufhin bestimmte Mittel gegen Influenza verschrieben werden können.

Bei schweren Krankheitsbildern, dem Verdacht auf eine Lungenentzündung oder bekannten Lungenerkrankungen wird durch den Arzt häufig eine Röntgenaufnahme des Brustkorbs angeordnet.

Synonyme: "echte" Grippe, Virusgrippe
Englisch: influenza, flu

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Having a family pet destroyed is not an option for many of us yet it can take some time before the full implication of your commitment to treatment becomes apparent.

Simple things like trips away, vacations, business meetings and even parties suddenly make our lives more complex, often putting an added strain on all relationships, but they needn't.

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With over 50 information packed pages in this e-book, it is difficult to highlight the best.

Symptoms Diagnosis provides free health symptom diagnosis information. If you are searching for basic medical symptom, illness symptom, or disease symptom information then you’ve found what you’re looking for!

The symptom diagnosis site offers a summary compilation of symptoms on more than 210 medical conditions and diseases, organized into convenient and easy to find categories. To avoid wasting critical and valuable time, explore the category links on the right that relates to your health or medical question.

You can also perform a Symptoms Search within the database. The results will provide you with the health symptom diagnosis information you need to better educate yourself, your family and loved ones. A wide range of media and resources should be used in any online diagnosis and medical search. Throughout the site are links to external sources of medical information which you should also investigate.

This website is not intended as a self-diagnosis or diagnostic site. Users are urged to consult a physician or medical professional immediately if they are concerned regarding the personal safety and health of themselves and others. Do not attempt to diagnose yourself. The information provided on this site is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician.

The thyroid, a small gland located in the front of the neck, produces hormones that regulate the rate at which every cell in your body functions. Accordingly, thyroid disease can significantly impact a person’s overall health. If the thyroid produces too little thyroid hormone, the body’s metabolism slows, causing listlessness and other symptoms; an overproduction of thyroid hormone results in feelings of nervousness and a faster heart rate. Other thyroid diseases result in different symptoms

Visit our thyroid resources page for a detailed description of the thyroid, its function, and thyroid disease symptoms. Depending upon the type of thyroid disease, symptoms can vary radically:

Hyperthyrodism: A condition in which the thyroid produces too much hormone, hyperthyroidism most commonly affects women between the ages of 20 and 40; however, women of any age and men can be affected as well. Graves’ disease, a condition in which the immune system stimulates the thyroid gland, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism but there can be other causes including thyroid nodules (small bumps on the thyroid) and taking too much thyroid hormone medication to treat a separate condition. This thyroid disease’s symptoms may include the following:

  • Nervousness, irritability
  • Increased sweating
  • Increased, sometimes irregular, heart rate
  • More frequent bowel movements, diarrhea
  • Shaky hands
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Lighter period(women)
  • Erectile dysfunction (men)

Thyroid Cancer – Thyroid cancer arises when small tumors called thyroid nodules grow on the thyroid gland. Having a nodule on your thyroid is quite common, and 90% to 95% of thyroid nodules are noncancerous. However, those that are cancerous can spread through the body, or metastasize, and become life-threatening. Thyroid cancer often exhibits no thyroid disease symptoms, and is typically found during a routine examination. Malignant nodules tend to be firmer than benign nodules, so they can often be identified by touch.

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Light sensitivity
  • Confusion
  • Sleepiness
  • Seizures - as condition progresses
  • Altered mental state - in advanced stages
  • Shock - in advanced stages
  • Flu-like symptoms - viral infections

Proper breast health and early prevention of both benign and malignant disease are of the utmost importance in womens' health. Knowing all of the signs and symptoms of common conditions of the breast and surrounding tissues, gives you the knowledge needed to help live a long and healthy life. Whenever any of these symptoms emerge, make an appointment with your doctor to find the true cause of them.

Changes in Shape: Obvious changes in the shape of the breast sometimes indicates breast disease such as cancer or inflammatory breast cancer. The change of size, or shape of the breast often cause the breasts to appear asymmetrical, with one breast being noticeably larger than the other, or misshapen. The texture of the breast also changes, in addition to the shape and size. Small dimples appear, or bumps, on the surface of the skin of the breast.

Discharge: A bloody or pustular discharge coming from the nipples often indicates breast disease such as breast cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic. The evidence of this discharge usually denotes a malignant condition that requires immediate diagnosis in order to take proper steps in treating it.

Inverted Nipples: In conjunction with other symptoms, when the nipples appear inverted or flattened, breast diseases such as inflammatory breast cancer and breast cancer may be possible. The symptom often coincides with other symptoms such as pain and swelling.

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How Can I Get Over My Cold?

Most colds last about a week, but they can persist longer, especially in children, older adults, and people with heath problems. A cough without phlegm can linger for weeks, or even months, after your cold clears up.

There is no cure for the common cold, but the following treatments can relieve your symptoms and help you feel better:

  • Rest to allow your body to fight off the virus.
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Gargle with warm saltwater, use throat sprays, and try sore throat lozenges to relieve a scratchy throat.
  • Don't smoke, and avoid secondhand smoke.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol.
  • Use over-the-counter cold medication as needed to relieve symptoms. Over-the-counter medication can thin mucus, reduce congestion, and relieve aches and pains. Check with your doctor if you're unsure how these medications will interact with other treatments you're already taking.

Having a cold is no fun, but if you know what to expect and how to treat cold symptoms, relief should be quickly on its way.

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Results from a retrospective nursing home study in the United States show influenza has been found to negatively affect functional status in seniors significantly, and has been associated with activities of daily living (ADL) decline. 11*

* FLUZONE ® High-Dose is not indicated for the prevention of mortality or hospitalization or complications associated with influenza, such as activities of daily living decline (ADL), independence, quality of life or influenza-attributed morbidity and mortality associated with stroke, heart attack, kidney disease and diabetes.

of flu-related hospitalizations 2

of flu-related deaths 2

Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) considers adults over the age of 65 to be at high risk of influenza-related complications or hospitalization and recommends that all seniors get an influenza vaccine annually. 3

FLUZONE ® High-Dose influenza vaccine has been shown to be more effective for seniors than FLUZONE ®† , our standard dose influenza vaccine. 12

FLUZONE ® High-Dose has been shown to have superior efficacy in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza compared to the FLUZONE ® standard dose vaccine †. In a large multi-centred clinical trial (conducted in US and Canada) FLUZONE ® High-Dose demonstrated a superior relative efficacy of 24.2% (95% CI: 9.7 - 36.5) in preventing influenza illness attributed to any viral type or subtype. The attack rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (primary endpoints) were 1.43% in the FLUZONE ® High-Dose arm and 1.89% for the FLUZONE ®† arm. 1 **

Though it has only been available in Canada since 2015, FLUZONE ® High-Dose is not new. It has been available in the US since 2009, with over 90 million doses distributed to date. 13

In choosing a vaccine product, it is important to consider the relative burden of influenza disease caused by the various influenza subtypes (i.e., influenza A(H1N1), influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B) in this age group, as well as the efficacy, immunogenicity and safety profile of the available vaccines. 3

† Fluzone trivalent standard-dose vaccine is not marketed/available in Canada.
** The pre-specified statistical superiority criterion for the primary endpoint (lower limit of the 2-sided 95% CI of the vaccine efficacy of FLUZONE ® High-Dose relative to FLUZONE ® >9.1%; p-value against H0: VE ® High-Dose or FLUZONE ® Trivalent. The study was conducted over two influenza seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). FLUZONE ® High-Dose contained 60 μg of HA per strain while FLUZONE ® Trivalent contained 15 μg of HA per strain. The per-protocol analysis set for efficacy assessments included 15,892 FLUZONE ® High-Dose recipients and 15,911 FLUZONE ® Trivalent recipients. The primary endpoint of the study was the occurrence of laboratory-confirmed influenza, defined as a new onset (or exacerbation) of at least one of the following respiratory symptoms: sore throat, cough, sputum production, wheezing, or difficulty breathing; concurrent with at least one of the following systemic signs or symptoms: temperature > 37.2°C, chills, tiredness, headaches or myalgia.

In the first year of the study, the influenza B component of the vaccine and the majority of influenza B cases were of the Victoria lineage; in the second year, the influenza B component of the vaccine and the majority of influenza B cases were of the Yamagata lineage.

Contact your Provincial Public Health Unit today to see if FLUZONE ® High-Dose is covered for your 65+ patients.

  • Publicly funded for personal care homes in Manitoba for 65+ 14

FLUZONE ® High-Dose is indicated for active immunization against influenza caused by the specific strains of influenza virus contained in the vaccine in adults 65 years of age and older. Annual vaccination against influenza using the current vaccine is recommended as immunity declines in the year following vaccination. i

  • Should not be administered to anyone with a history of severe allergic reaction to egg protein or any component of the vaccine or after previous administration of FLUZONE ® High-Dose or a vaccine containing the same components or constituents. ii
  • FLUZONE ® High-Dose is not indicated for persons less than 65 years of age. iii
  • As with any vaccine, immunization with FLUZONE ® High-Dose may not protect 100% of individuals. Protection is limited to those strains of virus from which the vaccine is prepared or against closely related strains. iv
  • Do not administer FLUZONE ® High-Dose by intravascular injection. Do not administer into the buttocks. v
  • Postpone vaccination in case of moderate/severe febrile illness or acute disease. vi
  • Administer FLUZONE ® High-Dose with caution in persons suffering from coagulation disorders or on anticoagulation therapy. vii
  • Immunocompromised persons (whether from disease or treatment) may not elicit the expected immune response. viii
  • Avoid vaccinating persons who are known to have experienced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks after a previous influenza vaccination. ix

Consult the product monograph at www.sanofipasteur.ca/node/17902 for important information relating to adverse reactions, drug interactions, and dosing information which have not been discussed in this piece. The product monograph is also available through our medical department. Call us at 1-888-621-1146.

REFERENCES:
1. Sanofi Pasteur Limited. FLUZONE ® High-Dose Influenza Virus Vaccine Trivalent Types A and B (Split Virion). Product Monograph. Date of Approval: May 2017. 2. Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). FluWatch. May 3 to May 9, 2015. 3. Public Health Agency of Canada (2016). An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2017-2018. 4. Health Indicator Profile Statistics Canada. (2014). Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2013 boundaries) and peer groups, *Archived*. Table 105-0501. Retrieved June 12, 2017 from Statistics Canada: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2015001/article/14218-eng.htm. 5. Statistics Canada. (2013) Population Projections for Canada (2013 to 2063), Provinces and Territories (2013 to 2038): Section 2 – Results at the Canada level, 2013 to 2063. (Catalogue number 91-520-X). Retrieved June 12, 2017 from Statistics Canada: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/2014001/section02-eng.htm. 6. Grau AJ, et al. Influenza Vaccination Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Stroke. Stroke. 2005; 36(7):1501-1506. 7. Udell JA. et al. Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;310(16):1711-1720. 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2016–17 Influenza Season. MMWR Recommendations and Reports Vol. 65 No. 5. August 26, 2016. 9. Husein N, et al. Influenza and Pneumococcal Immunization Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2013;37 Supplement 93. 10. Chen C-I, et al. Influenza Vaccination is Associated with Lower Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(5). 11. Gozalo PL, et al. The impact of influenza on functional decline. Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(7): 1260–1267. 12. DiazGranados, C.A., et al. (2014). Efficacy of High-Dose versus Standard-Dose influenza Vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 635-645 13. Sanofi Pasteur Inc. Data on file. Distribution Letter Fluzone® High-Dose Influenza Vaccine - Doses Distributed. November 16, 2017. 14. Government of Manitoba (2017). Manitoba First in Canada to introduce New Flu Vaccine for Personal Care Home Residents http://news.gov.mb.ca/news/index.html?item=42125&posted=2017-09-05. September 5, 2017.

FLUZONE ® is a trademark of Sanofi Pasteur. Sanofi Pasteur 1755 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3T4
© 2017 Sanofi Pasteur Limited. All rights reserved. DIN: 02445646 SPCA.FLHD.17.08.0044 E

I FLUZONE ® High-Dose Influenza Virus Vaccine Trivalent Types A and B (Split Virion).
Product Monograph. Date of Approval: May 2017.

ii Ibid.
iii Ibid.
iv Ibid.
v Ibid.
vi Ibid.
vii Ibid.
viii Ibid.
ix Ibid.
ix Ibid.

Un vaccin à haute dose contre l’influenza conçu spécifiquement pour les personnes de 65 ans et plus 1

Les adultes de 65 ans et plus souffrent de manière disproportionnée de morbidité et de mortalité associées à l’influenza 2,3. L’immunité diminue avec l’âge 1 . Bien que les personnes âgées affichent le plus haut taux d’immunisation contre l’influenza de tous les groupes d’âge (plus de 60 %) 4, les vaccins sont environ à moitié moins efficaces chez les personnes âgées que chez les adultes en santé, et leur efficacité varie selon les critères d’évaluation et la population à l’étude 3.

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Welcome to the Allergic Diseases Resource Center. Whether you are a health professional, a person with allergies, or a caregiver to someone with allergies, WAO's Allergic Diseases Resource Center has something for you.

By following the links below, you will find clear information about allergic diseases and up-to-the-minute news of developments in allergy management and treatment, written by the World's leading allergy experts.

The disease summaries for Health Professionals have been written to provide an up-to-date overview of the main allergic diseases. The materials can be referenced in publications using the following citation:

Title of Disease Summary. Name of Author. World Allergy Organization website. Accessed (date).

Disclaimer: The patient-oriented information on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a physician. The information is intended to help patients understand their symptoms and allergic diseases(s) better and make the time spent with a doctor more productive.

The flu is a respiratory infection that spreads easily. It is caused by the influenza virus.

This virus circulates each year in Québec and elsewhere in the world. In Québec, it mostly spreads during the end of the fall to the beginning of the spring.

The duration of the flu season may vary. As such, it may start earlier or later and last shorter or longer depending on the year.

Flu symptoms, which appear suddenly, and their severity, can vary depending on age and health condition. The main symptoms are the following:

  • Sudden fever between 39 °C and 40 °C (102 °F and 104 °F)
  • Sudden cough
  • Sore throat
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Headache

Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain may also be experienced. These symptoms are most common in children.

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    Never halt any symptom with medication. It will only reappear later in greater intensity.

    Above all else, cultivate a positive attitude about what you are doing. Do not feel like you are punishing yourself or that you are making any great sacrifices. You are recovering your health, and that is the greatest reward that can be expected.

    Realize that your sincere efforts will give you health beyond your expectations. Do not dwell upon your temporary discomforts. Instead, indulge in positive activity, such as exercise, gardening or helping others.

    All symptoms will pass in time. The pain today will be a memory tomorrow. The discomforts you endure now mean an absence of suffering, later. You are healing yourself with your courage and wisdom. You have much to be thankful for.

    (Virus de la grippe H1N1, Grippe A (H1N1), Grippe porcine humaine)

    La grippe H1N1 est une affection contagieuse des voies respiratoires qui provoque des symptômes de la grippe saisonnière.

    Les noms de « grippe porcine » ou « influenza porcine » ont été utilisés initialement pour désigner cette affection car, selon les analyses de laboratoire, cette souche de virus grippal était composée de gènes apparentés à ceux du virus causant la grippe chez les porcs. Tout comme les êtres humains, les porcs peuvent contracter la grippe. Cependant, nous savons maintenant que le virus grippal H1N1 est composé de gènes issus de différents virus grippaux qui circulent parmi les espèces porcines, aviaires et humaine. Cette souche était la cause de grippe la plus commune en 2009, quand elle a causé la maladie dans le monde entier (pandémie).

    La grippe H1N1 est causée par un virus de l'influenza A. Les lettres H et N du nom du sous-type correspondent aux protéines qui se trouvent sur la surface du virus; on les utilise pour distinguer les différents sous-types de l'influenza A.

    Les gènes des virus de l'influenza se transforment constamment. On appelle ce processus une mutation. Lorsqu'un virus grippal porcin est détecté parmi les humains, on dit que le virus a franchi la barrière des espèces. Ceci signifie que le virus a muté de manière à pouvoir causer l'infection parmi les humains. Puisque les humains ne possèdent pas la protection ou l'immunité naturelle contre le virus, ils sont plus susceptibles de le contracter. Le virus grippal H1N1 est composé de gènes issus de différents virus grippaux qui circulent parmi les espèces porcines, aviaires et humaine.

    Le virus grippal H1N1 est contagieux. Une fois transmis de personne à personne, le virus se propage rapidement selon les mêmes voies que la grippe saisonnière, croit-on. La période de contagion va de 24 heures avant l'apparition des symptômes jusqu'à 7 jours ou plus après que la grippe se soit déclarée.

    L'influenza se propage de personne à personne lorsque le virus entre dans le corps par les yeux, le nez ou la bouche. La toux et les éternuements répandent les germes dans l'air, lesquels peuvent être respirés par les autres personnes. Le virus peut également demeurer sur des surfaces solides comme les poignées de porte, les touches des guichets automatiques de banque et les comptoirs. Une personne qui touche à l'une de ces surfaces avec ses mains et qui touche par la suite ses yeux, sa bouche ou son nez peut contracter le virus. En général, l'influenza n'est pas transmis par l'ingestion de nourriture ou d'eau.

    Les diverses souches d'influenza A produisent les mêmes types de symptômes. Parmi ceux-ci, on retrouve:

    • des courbatures;
    • des frissons;
    • une toux;
    • de la fatigue;
    • une fièvre;
    • des maux de tête;
    • une perte d'appétit;
    • un mal de gorge.

    Certaines personnes infectées par le virus de la grippe H1N1 ont également signalé des vomissements et de la diarrhée.

    Les symptômes peuvent varier de légers à graves et peuvent parfois nécessiter une hospitalisation. Dans certains cas, des complications graves comme la pneumonie et l'insuffisance respiratoire peuvent causer le décès. Tout comme la grippe saisonnière, la grippe H1N1 peut aggraver des problèmes de santé chronique existants.

    Des tests diagnostiques en laboratoire peuvent être demandés par le médecin pour aider à identifier le virus de la grippe. Si vous avez séjourné dans une région où il y a une éclosion de cas de grippe H1N1 et que vous éprouvez l'un des symptômes de la grippe, vous devriez consulter votre médecin. Mentionnez sans faute à votre médecin la région visitée. Téléphonez à l'avance avant de vous rendre chez votre médecin pour préparer votre visite.

    La souche H1N1 est comprise dans le vaccin antigrippal saisonnier. Des médicaments sont également disponibles pour aider à prévenir et à soigner la grippe H1N1. Ce sont les médicaments dénommés antiviraux. Deux classes d'antiviraux sont disponibles: les inhibiteurs de la protéine M2 (par ex. l'amantadine*) et les inhibiteurs de la neuraminidase (par ex. l'oseltamivir, le zanamivir).

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    Swine influenza is actually a broad term used to refer to a number of types of influenza viruses that are contracted by pigs. Some types of swine flu can also be contracted by humans. Humans can get swine flu from pigs, but this is pretty rare. Humans can also pass swine flu on to other humans.

    The current (2009) outbreak of swine flu (H1N1) is not actually a virus that people can get from pigs. It is very similar to a virus that pigs get, but it is not the same. The name is deceiving.

    People spread this swine flu virus to other people the same way the regular flu is spread. It's a virus and when people with swine flu cough or sneeze, tiny droplets of the virus are sprayed into the air. If you breathe in these droplets, you can catch swine flu. Also, if a person with swine flu coughs or sneezes on something like a phone or doorknob and you touch that object and then touch your mouth or nose, you can catch the flu.

    While most cases of swine influenza are fairly mild, it can be a very serious illness and people do die from it. People die from the regular flu, as well, but the swine flu is more likely to be deadly. It is wise to take steps to prevent getting sick.

    A swine flu vaccine has recently been approved, and is expected to be available around mid-October of 2009. The swine flu vaccine will probably require two different shots, given a week or two apart. The vaccine will take a couple weeks to "kick in," so you would not actually be immune until some time in November. Contact your doctor in October if you are interested in getting a swine flu vaccine. The regular flu vaccine will not protect you against swine flu.

    Treatment for swine influenza is pretty much the same as treatment for other types of flu. In most cases, the virus will clear up on its own even without any treatment. However, treatment may speed the recovery process, and there is treatment available to help with the symptoms as well.

    Antiviral medications may be prescribed to speed to the recovery process. They work by preventing the virus from replicating itself. Antiviral medications are not usually necessary, but can be helpful. You will need to see your doctor and get a prescription if you want to try them.

    There are a number of over-the-counter remedies that can help relieve flu symptoms. Try Tylenol for fever, an antihistamine for runny nose and sneezing, and a cough suppressant for cough. You can have problems if you take too many over-the-counter drugs at one time, though, so you might do best to talk to your doctor or pharmacist about which medications would be best to take.

    Although over-the-counter flu remedies will provide some relief, we have found two products that may be significantly more effective:

    • A highly recommended natural flu remedy is Sambucol. It is a homeopathic remedy that relieves flu symptoms, including fever, headache, body aches, chills, sore throat, coughing, and sneezing. It also helps speed the recovery process.

    See your doctor in mid-fall if you want to get a swine flu vaccine. If you do catch the flu, you do not normally need to see a doctor, as the symptoms will generally go away on their own without treatment. However, if your symptoms are particularly severe, if you have a high fever, if your symptoms last longer than a week, or if you have trouble breathing, you should see a doctor. While most cases of the flu, including swine flu, are fairly mild, the flu can be serious, even deadly, so contact your doctor if you have concerns.

    Getting the flu means missing work, school, and special events like the big game, a wedding, spring break or a special birthday party. It puts life on hold. But even worse, for people at higher risk for complications it can be very serious, even life threatening. Stay healthy and help keep the people closest to you healthy too by getting a seasonal flu vaccine. Even if the vaccine isn’t a perfect match with the circulating flu viruses, it’s still the best way to prevent getting the flu. Be sure to wash your hands frequently. If you do get sick, remember to cough into your arm or elbow, and stay home so you don’t spread the illness to others.

    What is influenza?
    Influenza is commonly referred to as the “flu”. It is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs. The flu can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.

    What are the symptoms of flu?
    Symptoms of flu may include fever (though not everyone with flu will have a fever), cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, fatigue (tiredness), chills, and sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. Symptoms usually appear 1 to 3 days after exposure. Although most people are ill for less than a week, some people have complications and may need to be hospitalized.

    Who gets influenza?
    Influenza can infect persons of all ages. The flu can be especially serious for babies, children, pregnant women, adults 65 years and older, people with certain long-term medical conditions (e.g., lung disease, heart disease, cancer, or diabetes), or those with weak immune systems. However, even healthy people can get the flu and should protect themselves by getting the flu vaccine every year.

    How is it spread?
    The flu virus spreads easily in discharges from the nose and throat of an infected person. It is often spread by coughing, sneezing or talking. A person might also get the flu by touching a surface or object that has the flu virus on it, and then touching his or her own mouth, eyes or nose.

    When and for how long is a person able to spread the disease?
    Influenza can spread from one person to another beginning one day before symptoms start up to five to seven days after becoming sick. This means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick. If you have the flu, make sure you stay at home and away from school, work, or other activities until you are fever-free for 24 hours (without the use of a medicine to reduce your fever).

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    If you are at high risk, have your vaccinations updated every year, as directed by your physician.

    La grippe est une infection des voies respiratoires qui se transmet très facilement. Elle est causée par le virus de l’influenza.

    Ce virus circule chaque année au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Au Québec, il circule surtout pendant la période allant de la fin de l’automne au début du printemps.

    La durée de la saison de la grippe peut varier. Ainsi, elle peut commencer plus ou moins tôt et durer plus ou moins longtemps selon les années.

    Les symptômes de la grippe, qui débutent soudainement, et leur gravité peuvent varier en fonction de l’âge et de l’état de santé. Les principaux symptômes sont les suivants:

    • fièvre soudaine, entre 39 °C et 40 °C (102 °F et 104 °F);
    • toux soudaine;
    • mal de gorge;
    • douleurs musculaires ou articulaires;
    • fatigue extrême;
    • maux de tête.

    Des symptômes comme des nausées, des vomissements, de la diarrhée et des douleurs au ventre peuvent aussi être présents. Ces symptômes sont plus fréquents chez les enfants.

    Les personnes âgées peuvent se sentir faibles et être parfois confuses sans présenter d’autres symptômes.

    La grippe est souvent confondue avec d’autres infections respiratoires comme le rhume. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la page Différences entre la grippe et le rhume.

    Généralement, la grippe se soigne à la maison. Dans certaines situations, cependant, il faut consulter un médecin.

    Vous devez consulter un médecin le jour même si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe et que vous présentez aussi l’un des symptômes suivants:

    • douleur qui augmente ou qui persiste lors de la respiration;
    • fièvre qui augmente ou qui persiste depuis plus de 5 jours.

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    The healthcare workers are required to indicate on their identification badge whether they have had a flu vaccination or must wear a mask, she says. For instance, a blue dot indicates the worker has had a flu shot, while a red dot indicates they have not had it.

    Luebbert admits it is like wearing a scarlet letter for those who don’t get a flu shot.

    The masks themselves are “awful,” she says. “The employees hate it. It’s uncomfortable and the patients can’t see your face. And the patients hate it because they can’t see the worker’s expression.”

    It must be the responsibility of the employee’s manager to monitor workers to ensure they are wearing their mask, Luebbert says. Infection preventionists cannot be everywhere in a hospital to monitor all workers.

    Communicate with patients
    Hospitals should be prepared for questions from patients and family members who may wonder why a worker is wearing a mask when providing care, says Chinnes.

    “I think hospitals should come up with some kind of script so a healthcare worker can say, ‘This is why I’m wearing a mask,’ ” she says. Hospitals don’t want patients to think they are allowing a worker who is sick to take care of them.

    Luebbert agrees that hospitals need to communicate to patients and family members why workers are wearing a mask. One hospital put up a poster in its lobby advising people that both visitors and employees who had not been vaccinated against the flu must wear a mask during flu season, she says.

    Briefings on Infection Control subscribers can read more from the November issue by clicking here.

    I will probably find another profession after more than 25 years of nursing. I will not get the flu shot as I have had bad reactions in the past. I feel humiliated wearing a mask having to explain why to patients and visitors. It’s also hot and uncomfortable. The backs of my ears are sore from the ear loops. I came home from work today and broke into tears. What are we coming to?? Really look at the research on vaccines and effectiveness never mind the side effects.

    The hospital where I work made flu vaccine mandatory three years ago. I was/am medically exempt. The first two years a drs excuse was sufficient, however this past year (flu season) they required an allergist determine vaccine reaction. Even if there was a positive skin test reaction protocol requires for the HCW to receive the vaccine, slowly, over a 6 to 8 hour period while under the care of the allergist. Now, mind you, I am a clerical employee and have limited contact with pts.
    I work mainly at a desk.

    Having had a hx of anaphylaxis with the flu vaccine, I was required to visit the allergist. (However I am NOT allergic to eggs) After administering the skin test the site of testing appeared to be negative. However ten minutes into testing I began having an anaphylactic reaction. My mouth inside and out begin to itch, as did the roof of my mouth and my throat, my lips began to swell and I became covered with hives and a rash. Plus my skin was beet red and warm all over.

    I was administered meds to combat the reaction and observed for awhile before being released. The Dr said I was NOT to be vaccinated against flu this year nor in the future EVER!!

    This all happened at the beginning of the flu season, now, in mid January, admin is going to require me to wear a mask. Wear it or else! All day long, 9+ hours.