Never halt any symptom with medication. It will only reappear later in greater intensity.
Above all else, cultivate a positive attitude about what you are doing. Do not feel like you are punishing yourself or that you are making any great sacrifices. You are recovering your health, and that is the greatest reward that can be expected.
Realize that your sincere efforts will give you health beyond your expectations. Do not dwell upon your temporary discomforts. Instead, indulge in positive activity, such as exercise, gardening or helping others.
All symptoms will pass in time. The pain today will be a memory tomorrow. The discomforts you endure now mean an absence of suffering, later. You are healing yourself with your courage and wisdom. You have much to be thankful for.
(Virus de la grippe H1N1, Grippe A (H1N1), Grippe porcine humaine)
La grippe H1N1 est une affection contagieuse des voies respiratoires qui provoque des symptômes de la grippe saisonnière.
Les noms de « grippe porcine » ou « influenza porcine » ont été utilisés initialement pour désigner cette affection car, selon les analyses de laboratoire, cette souche de virus grippal était composée de gènes apparentés à ceux du virus causant la grippe chez les porcs. Tout comme les êtres humains, les porcs peuvent contracter la grippe. Cependant, nous savons maintenant que le virus grippal H1N1 est composé de gènes issus de différents virus grippaux qui circulent parmi les espèces porcines, aviaires et humaine. Cette souche était la cause de grippe la plus commune en 2009, quand elle a causé la maladie dans le monde entier (pandémie).
La grippe H1N1 est causée par un virus de l'influenza A. Les lettres H et N du nom du sous-type correspondent aux protéines qui se trouvent sur la surface du virus; on les utilise pour distinguer les différents sous-types de l'influenza A.
Les gènes des virus de l'influenza se transforment constamment. On appelle ce processus une mutation. Lorsqu'un virus grippal porcin est détecté parmi les humains, on dit que le virus a franchi la barrière des espèces. Ceci signifie que le virus a muté de manière à pouvoir causer l'infection parmi les humains. Puisque les humains ne possèdent pas la protection ou l'immunité naturelle contre le virus, ils sont plus susceptibles de le contracter. Le virus grippal H1N1 est composé de gènes issus de différents virus grippaux qui circulent parmi les espèces porcines, aviaires et humaine.
Le virus grippal H1N1 est contagieux. Une fois transmis de personne à personne, le virus se propage rapidement selon les mêmes voies que la grippe saisonnière, croit-on. La période de contagion va de 24 heures avant l'apparition des symptômes jusqu'à 7 jours ou plus après que la grippe se soit déclarée.
L'influenza se propage de personne à personne lorsque le virus entre dans le corps par les yeux, le nez ou la bouche. La toux et les éternuements répandent les germes dans l'air, lesquels peuvent être respirés par les autres personnes. Le virus peut également demeurer sur des surfaces solides comme les poignées de porte, les touches des guichets automatiques de banque et les comptoirs. Une personne qui touche à l'une de ces surfaces avec ses mains et qui touche par la suite ses yeux, sa bouche ou son nez peut contracter le virus. En général, l'influenza n'est pas transmis par l'ingestion de nourriture ou d'eau.
Les diverses souches d'influenza A produisent les mêmes types de symptômes. Parmi ceux-ci, on retrouve:
- des courbatures;
- des frissons;
- une toux;
- de la fatigue;
- une fièvre;
- des maux de tête;
- une perte d'appétit;
- un mal de gorge.
Certaines personnes infectées par le virus de la grippe H1N1 ont également signalé des vomissements et de la diarrhée.
Les symptômes peuvent varier de légers à graves et peuvent parfois nécessiter une hospitalisation. Dans certains cas, des complications graves comme la pneumonie et l'insuffisance respiratoire peuvent causer le décès. Tout comme la grippe saisonnière, la grippe H1N1 peut aggraver des problèmes de santé chronique existants.
Des tests diagnostiques en laboratoire peuvent être demandés par le médecin pour aider à identifier le virus de la grippe. Si vous avez séjourné dans une région où il y a une éclosion de cas de grippe H1N1 et que vous éprouvez l'un des symptômes de la grippe, vous devriez consulter votre médecin. Mentionnez sans faute à votre médecin la région visitée. Téléphonez à l'avance avant de vous rendre chez votre médecin pour préparer votre visite.
La souche H1N1 est comprise dans le vaccin antigrippal saisonnier. Des médicaments sont également disponibles pour aider à prévenir et à soigner la grippe H1N1. Ce sont les médicaments dénommés antiviraux. Deux classes d'antiviraux sont disponibles: les inhibiteurs de la protéine M2 (par ex. l'amantadine*) et les inhibiteurs de la neuraminidase (par ex. l'oseltamivir, le zanamivir).
Swine influenza is actually a broad term used to refer to a number of types of influenza viruses that are contracted by pigs. Some types of swine flu can also be contracted by humans. Humans can get swine flu from pigs, but this is pretty rare. Humans can also pass swine flu on to other humans.
The current (2009) outbreak of swine flu (H1N1) is not actually a virus that people can get from pigs. It is very similar to a virus that pigs get, but it is not the same. The name is deceiving.
People spread this swine flu virus to other people the same way the regular flu is spread. It's a virus and when people with swine flu cough or sneeze, tiny droplets of the virus are sprayed into the air. If you breathe in these droplets, you can catch swine flu. Also, if a person with swine flu coughs or sneezes on something like a phone or doorknob and you touch that object and then touch your mouth or nose, you can catch the flu.
While most cases of swine influenza are fairly mild, it can be a very serious illness and people do die from it. People die from the regular flu, as well, but the swine flu is more likely to be deadly. It is wise to take steps to prevent getting sick.
A swine flu vaccine has recently been approved, and is expected to be available around mid-October of 2009. The swine flu vaccine will probably require two different shots, given a week or two apart. The vaccine will take a couple weeks to "kick in," so you would not actually be immune until some time in November. Contact your doctor in October if you are interested in getting a swine flu vaccine. The regular flu vaccine will not protect you against swine flu.
Treatment for swine influenza is pretty much the same as treatment for other types of flu. In most cases, the virus will clear up on its own even without any treatment. However, treatment may speed the recovery process, and there is treatment available to help with the symptoms as well.
Antiviral medications may be prescribed to speed to the recovery process. They work by preventing the virus from replicating itself. Antiviral medications are not usually necessary, but can be helpful. You will need to see your doctor and get a prescription if you want to try them.
There are a number of over-the-counter remedies that can help relieve flu symptoms. Try Tylenol for fever, an antihistamine for runny nose and sneezing, and a cough suppressant for cough. You can have problems if you take too many over-the-counter drugs at one time, though, so you might do best to talk to your doctor or pharmacist about which medications would be best to take.
Although over-the-counter flu remedies will provide some relief, we have found two products that may be significantly more effective:
- A highly recommended natural flu remedy is Sambucol. It is a homeopathic remedy that relieves flu symptoms, including fever, headache, body aches, chills, sore throat, coughing, and sneezing. It also helps speed the recovery process.
See your doctor in mid-fall if you want to get a swine flu vaccine. If you do catch the flu, you do not normally need to see a doctor, as the symptoms will generally go away on their own without treatment. However, if your symptoms are particularly severe, if you have a high fever, if your symptoms last longer than a week, or if you have trouble breathing, you should see a doctor. While most cases of the flu, including swine flu, are fairly mild, the flu can be serious, even deadly, so contact your doctor if you have concerns.
Getting the flu means missing work, school, and special events like the big game, a wedding, spring break or a special birthday party. It puts life on hold. But even worse, for people at higher risk for complications it can be very serious, even life threatening. Stay healthy and help keep the people closest to you healthy too by getting a seasonal flu vaccine. Even if the vaccine isn’t a perfect match with the circulating flu viruses, it’s still the best way to prevent getting the flu. Be sure to wash your hands frequently. If you do get sick, remember to cough into your arm or elbow, and stay home so you don’t spread the illness to others.
What is influenza?
Influenza is commonly referred to as the “flu”. It is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs. The flu can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.
What are the symptoms of flu?
Symptoms of flu may include fever (though not everyone with flu will have a fever), cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, fatigue (tiredness), chills, and sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. Symptoms usually appear 1 to 3 days after exposure. Although most people are ill for less than a week, some people have complications and may need to be hospitalized.
Who gets influenza?
Influenza can infect persons of all ages. The flu can be especially serious for babies, children, pregnant women, adults 65 years and older, people with certain long-term medical conditions (e.g., lung disease, heart disease, cancer, or diabetes), or those with weak immune systems. However, even healthy people can get the flu and should protect themselves by getting the flu vaccine every year.
How is it spread?
The flu virus spreads easily in discharges from the nose and throat of an infected person. It is often spread by coughing, sneezing or talking. A person might also get the flu by touching a surface or object that has the flu virus on it, and then touching his or her own mouth, eyes or nose.
When and for how long is a person able to spread the disease?
Influenza can spread from one person to another beginning one day before symptoms start up to five to seven days after becoming sick. This means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick. If you have the flu, make sure you stay at home and away from school, work, or other activities until you are fever-free for 24 hours (without the use of a medicine to reduce your fever).
If you are at high risk, have your vaccinations updated every year, as directed by your physician.
La grippe est une infection des voies respiratoires qui se transmet très facilement. Elle est causée par le virus de l’influenza.
Ce virus circule chaque année au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Au Québec, il circule surtout pendant la période allant de la fin de l’automne au début du printemps.
La durée de la saison de la grippe peut varier. Ainsi, elle peut commencer plus ou moins tôt et durer plus ou moins longtemps selon les années.
Les symptômes de la grippe, qui débutent soudainement, et leur gravité peuvent varier en fonction de l’âge et de l’état de santé. Les principaux symptômes sont les suivants:
- fièvre soudaine, entre 39 °C et 40 °C (102 °F et 104 °F);
- toux soudaine;
- mal de gorge;
- douleurs musculaires ou articulaires;
- fatigue extrême;
- maux de tête.
Des symptômes comme des nausées, des vomissements, de la diarrhée et des douleurs au ventre peuvent aussi être présents. Ces symptômes sont plus fréquents chez les enfants.
Les personnes âgées peuvent se sentir faibles et être parfois confuses sans présenter d’autres symptômes.
La grippe est souvent confondue avec d’autres infections respiratoires comme le rhume. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la page Différences entre la grippe et le rhume.
Généralement, la grippe se soigne à la maison. Dans certaines situations, cependant, il faut consulter un médecin.
Vous devez consulter un médecin le jour même si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe et que vous présentez aussi l’un des symptômes suivants:
- douleur qui augmente ou qui persiste lors de la respiration;
- fièvre qui augmente ou qui persiste depuis plus de 5 jours.
The healthcare workers are required to indicate on their identification badge whether they have had a flu vaccination or must wear a mask, she says. For instance, a blue dot indicates the worker has had a flu shot, while a red dot indicates they have not had it.
Luebbert admits it is like wearing a scarlet letter for those who don’t get a flu shot.
The masks themselves are “awful,” she says. “The employees hate it. It’s uncomfortable and the patients can’t see your face. And the patients hate it because they can’t see the worker’s expression.”
It must be the responsibility of the employee’s manager to monitor workers to ensure they are wearing their mask, Luebbert says. Infection preventionists cannot be everywhere in a hospital to monitor all workers.
Communicate with patients
Hospitals should be prepared for questions from patients and family members who may wonder why a worker is wearing a mask when providing care, says Chinnes.
“I think hospitals should come up with some kind of script so a healthcare worker can say, ‘This is why I’m wearing a mask,’ ” she says. Hospitals don’t want patients to think they are allowing a worker who is sick to take care of them.
Luebbert agrees that hospitals need to communicate to patients and family members why workers are wearing a mask. One hospital put up a poster in its lobby advising people that both visitors and employees who had not been vaccinated against the flu must wear a mask during flu season, she says.
Briefings on Infection Control subscribers can read more from the November issue by clicking here.
I will probably find another profession after more than 25 years of nursing. I will not get the flu shot as I have had bad reactions in the past. I feel humiliated wearing a mask having to explain why to patients and visitors. It’s also hot and uncomfortable. The backs of my ears are sore from the ear loops. I came home from work today and broke into tears. What are we coming to?? Really look at the research on vaccines and effectiveness never mind the side effects.
The hospital where I work made flu vaccine mandatory three years ago. I was/am medically exempt. The first two years a drs excuse was sufficient, however this past year (flu season) they required an allergist determine vaccine reaction. Even if there was a positive skin test reaction protocol requires for the HCW to receive the vaccine, slowly, over a 6 to 8 hour period while under the care of the allergist. Now, mind you, I am a clerical employee and have limited contact with pts.
I work mainly at a desk.
Having had a hx of anaphylaxis with the flu vaccine, I was required to visit the allergist. (However I am NOT allergic to eggs) After administering the skin test the site of testing appeared to be negative. However ten minutes into testing I began having an anaphylactic reaction. My mouth inside and out begin to itch, as did the roof of my mouth and my throat, my lips began to swell and I became covered with hives and a rash. Plus my skin was beet red and warm all over.
I was administered meds to combat the reaction and observed for awhile before being released. The Dr said I was NOT to be vaccinated against flu this year nor in the future EVER!!
This all happened at the beginning of the flu season, now, in mid January, admin is going to require me to wear a mask. Wear it or else! All day long, 9+ hours.
That's not surprising: Many of the symptoms are the same, including pain in the joints and muscles and swollen lymph glands.
Lymph nodes are part of your body's immune system and tend to get inflamed when there's an infection. Many of them are located in your armpit, groin, and neck.
Photo: Getty Images
As with other symptoms, sore throat and headache can often be recognized as ARS only in context, Dr. Horberg says.
If you've engaged recently in high-risk behavior, an HIV test is a good idea. Get tested for your own sake and for others: HIV is most infectious in the earliest stage.
Keep in mind that the body hasn't produced antibodies to HIV yet so an antibody test may not pick it up. (It can take a few weeks to a few monthsfor HIV antibodies to show in a blood test). Investigate other test options such as one that detects viral RNA, typically within nine days of infection.
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Skin rashes can occur early or late in the course of HIV/AIDS.
For Ron, this was another sign that he might not have run-of-the-mill allergies or a cold.
"They were like boils, with some itchy pink areas on my arms," Ron says. The rashes can also appear on the trunk of the body. "If [the rashes] aren't easily explained or easily treated, you should think about having an HIV test," Dr. Horberg says.
Photo: Getty Images
Anywhere from 30% to 60% of people have short-term nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea in the early stages of HIV, Dr. Malvestutto says.
These symptoms can also appear as a result of antiretroviral therapy and later in the infection, usually as the result of an opportunistic infection.
"Diarrhea that is unremitting and not responding at all to usual therapy might be an indication," Dr. Horberg says. Or symptoms may be caused by an organism not usually seen in people with healthy immune systems, he adds.
Photo: Getty Images
Once called "AIDS wasting," weight loss is a sign of more advanced illness and could be due in part to severe diarrhea.
"If you're already losing weight, that means the immune system is usually fairly depleted," Dr. Malvestutto says. "This is the patient who has lost a lot of weight even if they continue to eat as much as possible. This is late presentation. We still see a lot of these." It has become less common, however, thanks to antiretroviral therapy.