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One of the first signs of ARS can be a mild fever, up to about 102 degrees F.
The fever, if it occurs at all, is often accompanied by other usually mild symptoms, such as fatigue, swollen lymph glands, and a sore throat.
"At this point the virus is moving into the blood stream and starting to replicate in large numbers," says Carlos Malvestutto, MD, instructor of infectious diseases and immunology in the department of medicine at NYU School of Medicine in New York City. "As that happens, there is an inflammatory reaction by the immune system."
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The inflammatory response generated by your besieged immune system also can cause you to feel tired and lethargic. Fatigue can be both an early and later sign of HIV.
Ron, 54, a public relations executive in the Midwest, started to worry about his health when he suddenly got winded just walking. "Everything I did, I got out of breath," he says. "Before that I had been walking three miles a day."
Ron had tested HIV positive 25 years before feeling so tired; fatigue during acute, or newly contracted, HIV might not be so obvious.
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ARS is often mistaken for the flu, mononucleosis, or another viral infection, even syphilis or hepatitis.
Much research has been carried out to better understand the threat posed by the pigeon (feral and domesticated) and research is ongoing in many parts of the world, particularly in those countries worst affected. A thorough scientific research programme was undertaken following the outbreak of the highly pathogenic strain H5N2 in the north-eastern United States (in 1983/4) to assess the potential for wild birds to spread disease amongst local farms. The following species were included in this survey:
- Wild and free-flying domestic ducks and geese
- Wild or free-flying domestic birds (including pigeons)
- Dead or sick birds within the quarantine area
Attempts to isolate the virus were conducted on a sample of 4,132 birds, of which 473 were pigeons, and of this number 92.6% were collected from infected farms. A further 81 feet, taken from dead pigeons, were also assessed for the purposes of the research - this is because pigeons commonly feed on agricultural sites and by walking in infected faecal matter the birds could potentially pass on the disease. In order to assess the sample, tracheal (throat) and vent (anus) swabs were taken from each bird. None of the 4,132 birds collected tested positive for the H5N2 strain. Blood samples taken from 383 pigeons were also negative for antibodies (antibodies are protective substances that are produced by the defensive network of the body in response to an infection) to avian influenza, an indication that infection by this virus had not occurred in these birds. An additional 50 pigeons, collected from within the quarantine zone, were also negative for the influenza virus. Experimental attempts made to infect pigeons with the highly pathogenic H5N2 strain of avian influenza did not result in either multiplication of the virus or any evidence of antibodies in the blood. The results of all of these studies indicated that pigeons were not infected with avian influenza and did not spread it.
In another outbreak of avian influenza in the USA in 1993 (in the period February to May) blood samples were collected from 17 flocks of pigeons located within the quarantine area for evidence of antibodies to avian influenza. Flock sizes varied from 2000 - 3000 birds and represented a total of between 34,000 and 51,000 birds. Approximately 10 birds per flock were sampled (a total of 160 birds) and in every instance all pigeons tested were negative for antibodies to this avian influenza.
Another study published in 1996 on the susceptibility of pigeons to avian influenza found that groups of pigeons inoculated with two strains of highly pathogenic influenza virus, or two strains of non-pathogenic virus, remained healthy during the 21-day trial period. The sample did not shed virus and did not develop antibodies to this disease - further evidence that pigeons are not a factor in the spread of avian influenza. More recent scientific evidence, from experimental work in 2001/2002, has shown that pigeons infected with the highly pathogenic form of the virus (designated H5N1 of Hong Kong origin) did not develop signs of this disease and did not have detectable changes to the disease in their tissues. Neither was the virus found in their tissues and nor was it re-isolated from swabs of tissues. These findings indicated once again that pigeons (along with starlings, rats and rabbits used in these studies) are largely resistant to infection with this highly pathogenic strain of the virus.
It is quite clear from all the information available that avian influenza continues to be a threat to both humans and birds, but the likelihood of its transmission to humans as a result of contact with the feral pigeon or its faeces is virtually nil. The feral pigeon is reputed to be the ultimate disease-carrier, harbouring the capability to spread a huge variety of diseases to both humans and other birds and animals, but in reality this is a myth. As can be seen from the findings of several research programmes, the feral pigeon is at the bottom of the list of those species that have the potential to spread avian influenza and it is likely that this is the case with most of the other diseases that are commonly associated with the pigeon.
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Flu Season 2015: Influenza In US ‘Widespread,’ But Fear May Outpace Threat
Nurses prepare influenza vaccine injections during a flu shot clinic at Dorchester House, a health care clinic, in Boston, Massachusetts, Jan. 12, 2013. Photo: Reuters
With an unforeseen mutation in this year’s dominant influenza virus and a faulty vaccine, 43 states have seen “widespread” transmission of the flu this season, according to the latest report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Flu activity was rampant in 29 states during the final week of December, up from 22 states a week earlier. Twenty-one pediatric deaths have been reported.
The most prevalent virus of the 2014-2015 flu season has been influenza A H3N2, a particularly severe infection responsible for the three deadliest flu seasons since 2000. Health officials, however, said this year's threat was not entirely unexpected. “I don’t think it’s anything we haven’t seen before,” Richard Webby, virology expert with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, told International Business Times. “We know H3N2 dominates a season, we know it tends to be more severe.”
Three out of four of the last 12 flu seasons reached epidemic levels, according to the Associated Press. Several so-called drift viruses – versions of H3N2 that are slightly genetically different from the main virus – have spread this season, meaning Americans have become more susceptible to the flu. “The antibodies that people made last time probably don’t work as well against [the new strain,]” Webby said. “That’s a consequence of the virus changing.”
Dans le choix d’un vaccin, il est important de tenir compte du fardeau relatif de la maladie grippale imputable à chacun des différents sous-types d’influenza (c’est-à-dire, la souche A(H1N1), la souche A(H3N2) et la souche B) au sein du groupe d’âge en question, ainsi que de l’efficacité, de l’immunogénicité et du profil d’innocuité des vaccins offerts 3.
† Le vaccin Fluzone trivalent à dose standard n’est ni en vente ni offert au Canada.
** Le critère de supériorité statistique prédéfini pour le principal critère d’évaluation (limite inférieure de l’IC à 95 % bilatéral de l’efficacité du vaccin FLUZONE MD Haute dose par rapport à celle de FLUZONE MD > 9,1 %; valeur p contre H0: EV MD Haute dose ou dans un groupe recevant FLUZONE MD Trivalent. L’étude a été effectuée pendant deux saisons grippales (2011-2012 et 2012-2013). FLUZONE MD Haute dose contient 60 μg d’HA de chaque souche alors que FLUZONE MD Trivalent contient 15 μg d’HA de chaque souche. La population soumise à l’analyse conforme au protocole pour l’évaluation de l’efficacité du vaccin comprenait 15 892 sujets ayant reçu FLUZONE MD Haute dose et 15 911 sujets ayant reçu FLUZONE MD Trivalent. Le critère d’évaluation principal de l’étude était la survenue d’une grippe confirmée en laboratoire, définie comme une nouvelle manifestation (ou une exacerbation) d’au moins l’un des symptômes respiratoires suivants: maux de gorge, toux, production d’expectorations, respiration sifflante ou difficulté à respirer, en présence d’au moins l’un des signes ou symptômes généraux suivants: température > 37,2 °C, frissons, fatigue, céphalées ou myalgie.
Lors de la première année de l’étude, le composant de souche B du vaccin et la majorité des cas de grippe de type B étaient de la lignée Victoria; lors de la deuxième année, le composant de souche B du vaccin et la majorité des cas de grippe de type B étaient de la lignée Yamagata.
Communiquez avec les bureaux de santé publique de votre province afin de savoir si le coût de FLUZONE MD Haute dose est couvert pour vos patients de 65 ans et plus.
- Financé par l’État pour les patients de 65 ans et plus résidant dans des foyers de soins personnels au Manitoba 14.
FLUZONE MD Haute dose est indiqué pour l’immunisation active, contre la grippe causée par les souches spécifiques du virus de l’influenza contenues dans le vaccin, des adultes de 65 ans et plus. La vaccination annuelle contre la grippe avec le plus récent vaccin est recommandée parce que l’immunité diminue dans l’année qui suit la vaccination i.
- FLUZONEMD Haute dose ne doit pas être administré à une personne qui a des antécédents de réactions allergiques graves aux protéines d’Œuf ou à tout composant du vaccin, ou qui a déjà reçu FLUZONE MD Haute dose ou un vaccin contenant les mêmes composants ou constituants ii.
- FLUZONE MD Haute dose n’est pas indiqué chez les personnes âgées de moins de 65 ans iii.
- Comme c’est le cas pour tout vaccin, la vaccination avec FLUZONE MD Haute dose peut ne pas protéger 100 % des individus. La protection se limite aux souches de virus à partir desquelles le vaccin a été préparé ainsi qu’aux souches qui leur sont étroitement apparentées iv.
- Ne pas administrer FLUZONE MD Haute dose par injection intravasculaire. Ne pas administrer le vaccin dans une fesse v.
- La vaccination doit être reportée en cas de maladie fébrile ou aiguë modérée ou grave vi.
- Administrer FLUZONE MD Haute dose avec prudence aux personnes présentant des troubles de la coagulation ou suivant un traitement anticoagulant vii.
- Il arrive que des personnes immunodéprimées (en raison d’une maladie ou d’un traitement) n’obtiennent pas la réponse immunitaire attendue viii.
- Il faut éviter de vacciner les personnes qui ont présenté un syndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) dans les 6 semaines suivant une vaccination antigrippale ix.
Consultez la monographie de produit à l’adresse www.sanofipasteur.ca/fr/node/18002 pour obtenir des renseignements importants qui n’ont pas été discutés dans ce document en ce qui concerne les effets indésirables, les interactions médicamenteuses et la posologie. Il est aussi possible d’obtenir la monographie du produit auprès de notre service médical. Appelez-nous au 1 888 621-1146.
1. Sanofi Pasteur Limitée. FLUZONE MD Haute dose (vaccin trivalent contre le virus de l’influenza des types A et B [à virion fragmenté]). Monographie de produit. Date d’approbation: Mai 2017. 2. Agence de la santé publique du Canada (ASPC). Surveillance de l’influenza. Du 3 au 9 mai 2015. 3. Agence de la santé publique du Canada (2016). Une déclaration du comité consultatif (DCC) Comité consultatif national de l’immunisation (CCNI): Chapitre sur la grippe du Guide canadien d’immunisation et Déclaration sur la vaccination antigrippale pour la saison 2017-2018. 4. Profil d’indicateurs de la santé Statistique Canada. (2014). Profil d’indicateurs de la santé, estimations annuelles, selon le groupe d’âge et le sexe, Canada, provinces, territoires, régions sociosanitaires (limites de 2013) et groupes de régions homologues, *Archivé*. Tableau 105-0501. Obtenu auprès de Statistique Canada le 12 juin 2017: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2015001/article/14218-fra.htm 5. Statistique Canada (2013). Projections démographiques pour le Canada (2013 à 2063), les provinces et les territoires (2013 à 2038): Section 2 – Résultats à l’échelle nationale, 2013 à 2063. (Numéro de catalogue 91-520-X). Obtenu auprès de Statistique Canada le 12 juin 2017: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/2014001/section02-fra.htm 6. Grau, A. J. et al. Influenza Vaccination Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Stroke. Stroke. 2005; 36(7):1501-1506. 7. Udell, J. A., et al. Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;310(16):1711-1720. 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2016–17 Influenza Season. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, vol. 65, n°5 26 août 2016. 9. Husein, N. et al. Comité d’experts des lignes directrices de pratique clinique de l’Association canadienne du diabète sur l’immunisation contre la grippe et les infections à pneumocoques. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2013;37 Supplément 93. 10. Chen, C.-I. et al. Influenza Vaccination is Associated with Lower Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(5). 11. Gozalo, P. L. et al. The impact of influenza on functional decline. Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60(7): 1260–1267. 12. DiazGranados, C. A. et al. (2014). Efficacy of High-Dose versus Standard-Dose influenza Vaccine. The New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 635-645 13. Sanofi Pasteur Inc. Données internes. Distribution Letter Fluzone® High-Dose Influenza Vaccine - Doses Distributed. 16 novembre 2017. 14. Gouvernement du Manitoba (2017). Manitoba First in Canada to introduce New Flu Vaccine for Personal Care Home Residents http://news.gov.mb.ca/news/index.html?item=42125&posted=2017-09-05. 5 septembre 2017
FLUZONE MD est une marque de commerce de Sanofi Pasteur. Sanofi Pasteur 1755, avenue Steeles Ouest, Toronto (Ontario) M2R 3T4
© 2017 Sanofi Pasteur Limitée. Tous droits réservés. DIN: 02445646 SPCA.FLHD.17.08.0044 F
I FLUZONE MD Haute dose (vaccin trivalent contre le virus de l’influenza des types A et B [à virion fragmenté]). Monographie de produit. Date d’approbation: Mai 2017.
Symptoms of Typhoid Fever: Cure, Causes and Treatment of Typhoid
Typhoid Fever is characterized by typical course of temperature and ulceration of the bowels. The fever is of uncertain duration and is infectious.
- The patient feels weak, cold and tired.
- Headache, backache, diarrhea, constipation, loss of appetite are other symptoms.
- Temperature rises and remains high for about 10-14 days. Body temperature typically rises in the evening and drops in the morning.
- Skin eruptions appear, tongue becomes dry and gets white patches in the center, which causes oily taste in mouth and inflamed bones.
- Fever comes down gradually by the end of fourth week.
- Poor sanitation, contaminated water and infected milk are some of the main factors responsible for typhoid.
- Flies contaminate the food with germs. People carrying the germs can also spread the disease if they prepare or serve food.
- Wrong dietary habits and faulty lifestyle lead to accumulation of toxic waste in the body and promotes typhoid fever.
- Typhoid is common in people who eat more meat and meat products.
- Complete bed rest is essential.
- Patient should be kept on a liquid diet of orange, barley juice and milk. Orange juice, especially, hastens recovery as it increases energy, promotes body immunity and increases urinary output.
Implementation of anti-fly measures, proper disposal of sewage, boiling or thorough purification of drinking water and pasteurization of milk are some of the preventive measures.
Typhoid Fever Questions and Answers
I was diagnosed with viral fever by my local doctor. After 4 days when the fever did not subside, my doctor asked me to get a blood test done as he is suspecting typhoid.
[A] What symptoms are you facing for typhoid fever?
[Q] I have Headache and fever, but commonly occurs at night, temperature not more than 101 degree and irritation in eyes plus tiredness and fatigue.
[A] And how many days do you have the fever for?
[Q] About 4 days with sputum in chest.
[A] How is your appetite? Do you have any appetite?
[Q] My appetite seems to be ok; I don’t have a problem there.
Signs of motor system dysfunction include the following:
- Difficulty starting movement
- Increased muscle tone, stiffness
- Muscle spasm
Other symptoms of RSD/CPRS include the following:
- Dermatitis, eczema (inflammation of the skin)
- Excessive sweating
- Migraine headache
Patients with any chronic illness, including CRPS, often suffer from depression and anxiety. Skin, muscle, and bone atrophy (wasting) are possible complications of this syndrome. Atrophy may occur because of reduced function of the affected limb.
Publication Review By: Eric M. Schreier, D.O., F.A.A.P.M.R.
Published: 30 Dec 1999
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2015
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The signs or symptoms of leukemia may vary depending on whether you have an acute or chronic type of leukemia.
Acute leukemia may cause signs and symptoms that are similar to the flu. They come on suddenly within days or weeks.
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Detecting early symptoms of the flu can prevent the spread of the virus and possibly help you treat the illness before it gets worse. Early symptoms can include:
There are also early flu symptoms that are unique to children.
Read on to learn more about all of these symptoms and how you can find relief.
Shorter days and reduced sunlight can make you feel tired, but there’s a difference between being tired and experiencing extreme fatigue. Sudden, excessive fatigue is one of the earliest signs of the flu, and it may appear before other symptoms. Fatigue is also a symptom of the common cold, but it’s usually more severe with the flu. Extreme weakness and tiredness may interfere with your normal activities, so it’s important that you limit activity and allow your body to rest. Take a few days off from work or school and stay in bed. Rest can strengthen your immune system and help you fight the virus.
Body aches and chills are also common flu symptoms. If you’re coming down with the flu virus, you may mistakenly blame body aches on something else, such as a recent workout. Body aches can manifest anywhere in the body, especially in the head, back, and legs. Chills may also accompany body aches and the flu may cause chills even before a fever develops. Wrapping yourself in a warm blanket can increase your body temperature and reduce chills. If you have body aches, you can take over-the-counter pain medication, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin).
A persistent cough can indicate an early illness and it may be a warning sign of the flu. The flu virus can also cause a cough with wheezing and chest tightness. You might cough up phlegm or mucus, but this is rare in the early stages of the flu.
If you have respiratory problems, such as asthma or emphysema, you may need to consult a doctor to prevent further complications. Also, call a doctor if you notice colored phlegm. Flu complications can include bronchitis and pneumonia. Take cough drops or cough medicine to calm a cough. It can also help to keep yourself and your throat hydrated with lots of water and caffeine-free teas. Always cover your cough to prevent spreading the infection.
Flu-related coughing can quickly lead to a sore throat. Some viruses can actually cause a swollen throat without a cough. In the earliest stages of the flu, your throat may feel scratchy and irritated. You may also feel a strange sensation when you swallow food or drinks. If you have a sore throat, it will likely get worse as the virus progresses. Stock up on caffeine-free tea, chicken soup, and water. You can also gargle with 8 oz. of warm water, 1 tsp. of salt, and 1/2 tsp. of baking soda.