This serious disease is caused by one of the smallest viruses known to man called Canine Parvovirus (CPV).(Parvo is the Latin for small). As many as 300 000 virus particles will fit into a millimeter!
Albeit so small the virus is extremely tough and will survive most disinfectants. It may stay alive in the environment for as long as two years if conditions are favourable. In 1978 when the first cases of Parvovirus in dogs were seen, the virus spread all over the world in a matter of months, often without the involvement of dogs in the transmission.
Massive numbers of virus occur in the stool of a sick dog. One gram of faeces may contain enough virus to infect 10 million susceptible dogs!
The virus need certain enzymes to grow. These enzymes are found in rapid growing cells like the ones lining the intestinal tract. These cells grow quickly enough so that the intestinal lining is renewed every two to three days. If the virus grow inside these cells they break up leaving large areas of damaged lining that lead to severe loss of body fluids. The normal intestinal flora which under ordinary circumstances are pretty harmless, can now invade the body through the damaged areas.
- Often a high fever
- No appetite
- Continuous vomiting or foaming at the mouth
- Very smelly diarrhoea that frequently becomes blood-tinged
- White or bluish gums
- Abdominal pain
- Dehydration � animals appear to have lost weight overnight
The symptoms usually appear very suddenly and susceptible pups may die within a few hours. Pups with large numbers of antibodies wil show much lighter symptoms. In rare instances animals may develop infection of the heart muscles with fatal results.
A bitch with good immunity against parvo will transfer these antibodies to her pups in the uterus. They will then be protected to a large degree for a period of six to twelve weeks. Exposure to the virus, whether naturally or through vaccination wil enhance this immunity. Healthy puppies, like the one on the left should thus be vaccinated at six weeks of age, again four weeks later and preferably a third time another four weeks later. It is very unlikely that a pup that has had three properly administered vaccinations will contract the disease. It is however important to stress that puppies must be healthy and free from worms before they can be vaccinated.
Because Parvovirus is one of the most frustrating diseases a vet has to put up with, vaccination remains the only efficient way of saving the puppy owner a lot of tears and regret.
At present there are no affordable injectable drugs that kill viruses in the body, thus no specific treatment exists once the virus is inside the body. Treatment is aimed at curbing secondary bacteria, stopping vomiting and replenishing body fluids.
- Intravenous fluid administration
- Inteflora or similar probiotics to replenish gut flora (beneficial bacteria in the intestines)
- Activated charcoal to bind toxins in the gut
- Oral electrolytes if animals are still drinking and not vomiting
- Small quantities of bland food eg. rice and cooked chicken
- Blood transfusion in very severe cases
Semen allergy suspected in rare post-orgasm illness
LONDON (Reuters) - A mysterious syndrome in which men come down with a flu-like illness after an orgasm may be caused by an allergy to semen, Dutch scientists said on Monday.
Men with the condition, known as post orgasmic illness syndrome or POIS and documented in medical journals since 2002, get flu-like symptoms such as feverishness, runny nose, extreme fatigue and burning eyes immediately after they ejaculate. Symptoms can last for up to week.
Marcel Waldinger, a professor of sexual psychopharmacology at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, published two studies in the Journal of Sexual Medicine which suggest that men with POIS have an allergy to their own semen, and that a treatment known as hyposensitization therapy can help reduce its impact.
“These results are a very important breakthrough in the research of this syndrome,” Waldinger said in a telephone interview. He said the findings “contradict the idea that the complaints have a psychological cause” and show that an auto-allergic reaction to semen is the most likely cause.
Although it has been documented in scientific papers since 2002, post orgasmic illness syndrome is largely unknown among family doctors and experts say many men who suffer the condition feel ashamed about it and confused about what is wrong.
Waldinger said while the syndrome is probably rare, it is likely that many men who suffer with it do not know it is a recognized condition and so do not come forward to doctors.
For these studies, Waldinger and colleagues analyzed 45 Dutch men who were diagnosed with the illness.
“They didn’t feel ill when they masturbated without ejaculating, but as soon as the semen came from the testes. after that they became ill, sometimes within just a few minutes,” Waldinger said.
Forgetfulness is often believed to be just another part of aging, but for many menopausal women, it is directly linked to their changing hormones. According to a study that was published in the journal “Menopause,” foggy memory is often most problematic during the early post-menopause years, and women may struggle with even routine mental tasks.
Menopause brings with it many physical changes. In some cases, symptoms can be mild while in others, they can be dramatic and can cause significant disruption to your life. As many as a third of women experience mood swings during perimenopause and menopause. Emotional meltdowns, sudden tears and increased emotional instability may also have an underlying clinical origin, which is why it is important to discuss your symptoms with your health care provider.
Tossing and turning is not the best way to get a good night’s sleep, but it becomes increasingly common as a woman approaches and goes through menopause. Decreased hormone production and the cessation of periods is a normal part of aging, but the sudden and often-tumultuous changes associated with hormonal fluctuations can cause a wide range of symptoms varying in degree from mild to severe. Many women experience trouble sleeping due to night sweats and other issues.
Menopause brings with it numerous physical and emotional changes. Many women experience an increase in stress, anxiety levels and may even suffer from panic attacks. These may be due not to a sudden onset of psychiatric problems or emotional issues, but are instead related to the dramatic hormonal fluctuations associated with menopause. Women in perimenopause, or the period before menopause, are also likely to experience an increase in anxious feelings and stress.
Women who tend to be sensitive to the hormonal changes that occur throughout life may also be more sensitive to the hormonal fluctuations of menopause. If you suffered from premenstrual syndrome, experienced mood swings during pregnancy or suffered from post-partum depression, you may also be more likely to suffer from depression during menopause. Women who have a personal or family history of being clinically depressed may also be at an increased risk.
Hormonal fluctuations are a fact of life for women throughout most of their lives. Women who suffer from menstrual migraines may be more likely to also suffer from headaches during perimenopause and menopause. That is because the uneven hormone changes associated with perimenopause and menopause can trigger migraines and other types of head pain. Unfortunately, this kind of pain can interfere with your daily life and relationships and increase feelings of anxiety or irritability.
Aches and pains are commonly accepted as normal parts of aging. However, pain all over the body can also be associated with menopause. In fact, more than half of women experiencing menopause or perimenopause, the period of time preceding menopause, will experience joint pain, discomfort and widespread pain.
Most women begin to experience menopause symptoms in their mid- to late-40s, and while their symptoms may vary widely and range from mild to severe in intensity, most have few serious or long-term consequences. Losing bone mass, however, is one symptom that should never be taken lightly or ignored. Osteopenia and osteoporosis refer to the porous bones that become more common in older women.
Joint pain can severely interfere with your life. The stiffness, inflammation and slow movement of painful joints can slow you down and make you feel old before your time. Although many people associated painful, swollen joints with aging or arthritis, it can often be associated with hormonal imbalances, and once these imbalances are treated, the symptoms and discomfort can be alleviated. If you are suffering from joint inflammation, addressing hormonal issues can allow you to once again enjoy a healthy, active, fully engaged life.
Osteopenia is the precursor to osteoporosis, a condition that increases the risk of bone fractures due to a severe decrease in bone density. Women’s bone mass reaches peak density when they are in their 20s and early 30s, and as they age, their bone mass begins to decrease. After menopause, the bone loss accelerates primarily due to the loss of estrogen, which reduces collagen levels.
Many women consider hair loss to be a man’s problem, so when they notice their brush has more hair in it and their hair feels thinner than it once did, they can experience quite a shock. Is their hair thinning? It’s quite possible. The hormonal changes, including decreased estrogen and progesterone, associated with menopause can cause noticeable thinning of the hair, and it occurs in half of women by the time they reach 50. Unlike baldness in men, however, women’s hair loss tends to be more diffuse and spread evenly throughout the scalp, which leads to overall thinning rather than a single area of baldness.
Menopause brings with it many changes, including changes to your appearance. Thinning or sagging skin can lead to premature aging while diffuse hair loss can cause thinner hair. The same hormonal fluctuations that cause these changes can also cause thin or brittle nails. While many other symptoms of perimenopause and menopause can have a serious effect on your life, thinning hair and nails may not. However, they can have an impact on your self-esteem and leave you feeling self-conscious about the way you look.
Recent research reveals that more than 25 percent of post-menopausal women are at risk of losing teeth. A study published in Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology examined more than 1,000 women who had undergone menopause, and nearly 300 of them lost a tooth during the five-year study. The tooth loss is believed to be related to hormone deficiencies and osteoporosis, but women who are overweight, smoke, have poor oral health or diabetes may be at an ever greater risk of losing teeth.
Red, swollen and bleeding gums are generally symptoms of gingivitis or gum disease, but they can also be linked to menopause. The hormone swings of menopause and perimenopause can cause gums to become irritated and inflamed and increase the risk of gum irritation, redness, swelling, bleeding and other oral health problems.
Hot flashes are a well-known symptom of menopause, and while burning tongue may not be as well known, it can be just as bothersome. Burning sensations in the mouth are usually linked to the hormonal fluctuations associated with menopause, and they can be easily ignored or attributed to other factors. However, burning tongue can be associated with dental health complications, including reduced saliva flow, a change in saliva composition, changes in nerve function and severe pain.
Women who are entering menopause will often go through many different physical and emotional changes. Their bodies can change shape, and they can begin to gain weight often around their midsections. These changes are generally directly or indirectly related to the hormonal fluctuations and declines in estrogen production. Losing muscle mass is a common menopause symptom that can cause weight gain, back pain, aches and pains.
Menopause refers to the cessation of monthly periods and the end of a woman’s fertility. Most women begin to experience menopause symptoms in their middle to late 40s and their last period in their 50s.
What can you do if you have PD?
- Work with your doctor to create a plan to stay healthy. This might include the following:
- A referral to a neurologist, a doctor who specializes in the brain
- Care from an occupational therapist, physical therapist or speech therapist
- Meeting with a medical social worker to talk about how Parkinson's will affect your life
- Start a regular exercise program to delay further symptoms.
- Talk with family and friends who can provide you with the support you need.
For more information, visit our Treatment page.
Watch and share this public service announcement featuring U.S. Senator Cory Booker that discusses the early warning signs of Parkinson's disease.
Page reviewed by Dr. Chauncey Spears, Movement Disorders Fellow at the University of Florida, a Parkinson’s Foundation Center of Excellence.
Part of the Anapsid.org Chronic Neuroimmune Diseases Information Resources for CFS, FM, MCS, Lyme Disease, Thyroid, and more.
Last updated January 1, 2014
Short Symptom List: Lyme Disease & Common Co-Infections
Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia
The following symptoms were excerpted from Diagnostic Hints And Treatment Guidelines For Lyme And Other Tick Borne Illnesses, by Joseph J. Burrascano Jr., M.D. (Fifteenth Edition 2008).
(Borreliosis, neuroborreliosis; also known as Lyme Disease)
Spread primarily though the bite of infected ticks that live on a wide range of mammalian species; secondary human-to-human transmission through semen, breast milk, and possibly in utero
Burning or stabbing sensations
Change in bowel function
Difficulty with concentration and reading
Difficulty with speech, writing
Difficulty finding words; name blocking
Disorientation: getting lost, going to wrong places
Disturbed sleep: too much, too little, fractionated, early awakening
Ears/Hearing: buzzing, ringing, ear pain, sound sensitivity
Exaggerated symptoms or worse hangover from alcohol
Eyes/Vision: double, blurry, increased floaters, light sensitivity
Facial paralysis (Bell's palsy)
Fatigue, tiredness, poor stamina
Heart valve prolapse
Increased motion sickness
Joint pain or swelling
Muscle pain or cramps
Neck creaks & cracks
Neck stiffness, pain
Poor short-term memory
Problem absorbing new information
Sexual dysfunction or loss of libido
Shortness of breath; cough
Stiffness of the joints or back
Twitching of the face or other muscles
Unavoidable need to sit or lay down
Unexplained breast pain
Unexplained fevers, sweats, chills or flushing
Unexplained hair loss
Unexplained menstrual irregularity'
Unexplained milk production
Unexplained weight loss or gain
Upset Stomach or abdominal pain
Babesia is a protozoan spread by ticks, blood transfusion, and in utero. Despite there being 20+known forms to date, current testing only looks for two of them.
Imbalance without true vertigo
(Bartonellosis, also known as cat scratch fever)
Spread by bites from infected ticks and in utero
abnormal liver enzymes
hemolysis with anemia
papular or angiomatous rash
weakened immune response
Bites from infected ticks
- Work with your doctor to create a plan to stay healthy. This might include the following:
Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The flu is different from a cold. The flu usually comes on suddenly. People who have the flu often feel some or all of these symptoms:
- Fever* or feeling feverish/chills
- Sore throat
- Runny or stuffy nose
- Muscle or body aches
- Fatigue (tiredness)
- Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.
Most people who get influenza will recover in several days to less than two weeks, but some people will develop complications as a result of the flu. A wide range of complications can be caused by influenza virus infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal passages, throat) and lower respiratory tract (lungs). While anyone can get sick with flu and become severely ill, some people are more likely to experience severe flu illness. Young children, adults aged 65 years and older, pregnant women, and people with certain chronic medical conditions are among those groups of people who are at high risk of serious flu complications, possibly requiring hospitalization and sometimes resulting in death. For example, people with chronic lung disease are at higher risk of developing severe pneumonia.
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Influenza, or the the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by an airborne virus. Influenza viruses are divided into three types: A, B and C. Type A and B viruses are the most serious and are responsible for the flu epidemics experienced nearly every winter. Type C viruses typically cause a very minor respiratory illness and may result in no symptoms at all. The annual flu vaccine targets types A and B. While type A and B viruses differ in origin, the symptoms are the same.
Unlike a cold, the flu usually comes on suddenly. Symptoms can be moderate to severe and typically include fever, chills, nonproductive cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle and body aches, headache and fatigue. Some who get the flu may also experience vomiting and diarrhea, although this is more common in children than adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, fever is common but does not always accompany the flu. Any fever and body aches usually last 3 to 5 days, but the cough and fatigue may last up to 2 weeks or longer. Complications can be serious and include pneumonia, bronchitis and sinus and ear infections. Young children, the elderly, pregnant women and those with compromised immune systems are at greater risk for complications.
The flu is passed from person to person through the air. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, airborne droplets can land in the mouth or nose -- or even be inhaled into the lungs -- of others nearby. A person might also become infected by touching a surface that has the virus on it, such as a door knob, and then touching his mouth or nose. Adults are thought to be contagious 1 day before showing symptoms and 5 to 7 days after becoming sick. Children may be contagious for longer than 7 days. Symptoms usually appear within 1 to 4 days of the virus entering the body. Some people may have the flu virus and remain asymptomatic but still pass the virus to others.
Contact your doctor if you have flu symptoms. Treatment is aimed at reducing the severity of symptoms and may include medications to relieve aches and fever, bed rest and plenty of fluids. Your doctor may also prescribe antiviral medications. When started within the first 2 days, they can reduce the duration of symptoms.
The CDC recommends that everyone 6 months old and older get the annual flu vaccine. The vaccine is especially important for high-risk groups, including young children, pregnant women and the elderly. While the vaccine doesn’t protect against all flu viruses, it does protect against those that research indicates will be most prevalent, including type A viruses. In addition to getting the vaccine, avoid close contact with sick people. If you are sick with the flu, stay home and minimize contact with others until you are fever free for at least 24 hours. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, and dispose of tissues properly. Wash your hands often with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
Learn about the symptoms of flu, what to look for and what to do if you become ill.
Some people get mildly ill, while others get very sick.
Flu symptoms usually include the sudden appearance of:
Malignant mesothelioma generally develops in people over the age of sixty five and usually occurs in the chest cavity, arising in the pleura in sixty five to seventy percent of all cases. The other predominant location for mesothelioma cancer cases is the peritoneal lining of the organs in the abdominal cavity. It may also affect the pericardial lining of the heart, in rare cases.
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Tightness in the chest
- Persistent cough
- Weight Loss
Pleural effusion is also a common development with mesothelioma. This condition is caused by accumulation of excess fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall or diaphragm. It can be the cause of chest pain and reduced breathing capacity.
Peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by abdominal swelling and pain. This symptom can also be the result of fluid accumulation – in this case, within the abdominal cavity. Thickening of the peritoneal tissue can lead to additional symptoms:
- Weight loss
- Obstructed bowels
- Fever and/or night sweats
If you or someone you love is experiencing any symptoms of asbestos exposure, you should visit your doctor right away.
According to many experts, the symptoms of CRPS (sometimes called RSD) often progress in three stagesacute, dystrophic, and atrophic. The primary symptoms of CRPS is continuous, severe pain that gets worse over time, rather than better, and is not in proportion to the injuryif trauma has occurred. Usually CRPS affects one extremity (e.g., arm, leg, hand, foot).
The acute stage occurs during the first 13 months and may include
- burning pain
- increased sensitivity to touch
- increased hair and nail growth in the affected region
- joint pain
- color and temperature changes
The dystrophic stage may involve constant pain and swelling. The affected limb may feel cool to the touch and appear bluish in color. Muscle stiffness, wasting of the muscles (atrophy) and early bone loss (osteoporosis) also may occur. This stage usually develops 36 months after onset of the disorder.
During the atrophic stage, the skin becomes cool and shiny, increased muscle stiffness and weakness occur, and symptoms may spread to another limb. At this stage, changes to the skin and bone usually are permanent.
Characteristic signs and symptoms of sympathetic nervous system involvement include the following:
- Burning pain
- Extreme sensitivity to touch
- Skin color changes (red or bluish)
- Skin temperature changes (hot or cold)
Pain caused by RSD/CRPS usually in not proportionate to the degree of injury. It can be triggered by disuse of the affected limb or by stress and can be spontaneous or constant.
Symptoms associated with an immune reaction include:
- Joint pain
- Swelling (edema)
- Frequent infections