The World Health Organisation and other health authorities worldwide are seriously concerned over the co-circulation of human and highly pathogenic animal influenza viruses since an exchange of genes between the two viruses might occur if individuals were co-infected with both viruses which could give rise to a new virus to which humans would have little or no immunity and which could be transmitted from person to person.

It is recommended that travellers to countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry should avoid areas with live poultry, such as live animal markets and poultry farms. Large amounts of the virus are known to be excreted in the droppings from infected birds. Be sure to include a thermometer and alcohol-based hand sanitiser for hand hygiene in your travel health kit.

Because you have more control over the food you prepare at home, if you practice safe food handling while preparing meals, you are probably less likely to contract a foodborne illness at home. For information on safe food preparation, see the USDA’s guidelines on safe food handling.

The USDA recommends that you wash your hands thoroughly with soap in warm water for at least 20 seconds. Make sure to scrub under your fingernails, between your fingers, and on the backs of your hands.

Yes, this is possible. If you have food poisoning symptoms, they are not necessarily from the meal you just ate. In fact, symptoms for the most common pathogens do not appear for up to 12 hours after eating the contaminated food, and can appear up to a week later.

The majority of foodborne illness cases go unreported. If you think you have contracted a foodborne illness, you should see a doctor so that he or she can confirm your diagnosis. At this point, the doctor will report his or her findings to the health department. If you did not see a doctor for your illness, but have reason to believe that you have food poisoning, you can also call your local health department to report it.

Environmental health practitioners from local health departments routinely conduct restaurant inspections. The results of these inspections can be found on your local health department’s website, or by contacting the department directly.

There is always a slight risk of contamination when eating raw foods. However, you can reduce the risk of illness from these foods by washing them thoroughly before you eat them.

Yes, this is a safe method of cooking, as long as everything in the pan is fully cooked before eating.

Depending on the type of foodborne illness you have, and your personal biology, symptoms can last anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks. You can look up duration of illnesses for specific pathogens by clicking on the “Subject” links on the right.

Pasteurization is a heat treatment applied to dairy products and juice in order to kill potentially dangerous pathogens. A product’s label will tell you whether or not the product has been pasteurized. Pasteurization greatly reduces the risk of contamination, however, there is always a chance that a product will be contaminated after the pasteurization process.

Beef that is not well-done can still be safe. It is important to make sure that the internal temperature of the mean reaches 145°F for whole pieces of meat. For ground beef products, the internal temperature must reach 165°F. Pork and poultry, on the other hand, must be cooked all the way through.

While bacterial and viral infections often share the same symptoms, they are two very different types of pathogens. A bacterium is a single-celled organism that which causes illness when ingested. Unlike viruses, bacteria can grow on the food they contaminate. Most foodborne illnesses come from bacteria. A virus is non-living, and is usually spread from person to person. While some antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, they are ineffective with viral ones.

You should see a health care provider if your diarrhea lasts more than a day or two, if you have severe abdominal pain, or if you have a fever of 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, if you have blood in your stool or if your stool appears black and tarry, or if you have signs of dehydration. Signs of dehydration include thirst, infrequent or no urination, dry skin, high fever, listlessness, or irritability.

If your child has diarrhea, do not hesitate to call your health care provider for advice. If the child shows no improvement within 24 hours, has stools containing blood or pus, or has a temperature above 101.4 degrees Fahrenheit, contact your health care provider immediately. Because a child can die from dehydration within a few days, contact your health care provider at once if you suspect your child is dehydrated.

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I hope it inspires others as well. They do offer coaches for a fee, but I’m doing it on my own. There are a number of vegetables that contain protein. I have never been good at eating vegetable, but juicing is completely different. It’s like getting Chinese food, or a bowl of vegetable soup, when they’re mixed together it’s a different animal.

And for the lady that has colitis, I have that too. I add cabbage into my juice because it is suppose to be able to heal ulcers.

I guess when you’re in great pain, you hold onto anything that gives you (temporary) pleasure, like Tab, because it’s easier than giving it up. As a person in the movie said, he wasn’t in denial that he had diabetes; he was just in denial that he had to do something about it. I guess that’s been me. I congratulate all of you who have succeeded in quitting your addictions and I hope I will join your ranks quickly.

For Diane Flemming I send my prayers. I wish that any evidence they found later could help her, but I guess as long as people are being paid off to allow these poisons into people it doesn’t seem like it’s possible… but I like to believe anything is possible. I hope she gets her miracle and is released.

As for all these people who are causing harm to people around the globe I wish somehow we could find a way to stop them. Either way I believe in Karma, and I’m so thankful I don’t have theirs. We need government leaders that refuse payoffs/job opportunities, and will follow the laws they make to protect the public.

Thank you all for sharing, it is so appreciated and helpful.

Regardless of age, a woman's hormones all work together like a symphony; if one part of the orchestra is not functioning properly, then the melody you produce is out of tune. Signs of hormonal imbalance in women are a very real quality of life issue. All women need to be aware these signs of hormone imbalance.

Over the last 100 years as we have doubled our life expectancy, the soft tissue glands which create our hormones are being forced to produce them longer than ever. Our increasingly stressful lives, worsening nutrition and lack of proper fitness combine to result in declining levels of hormones in our bodies.

Even when only one unbalanced hormone is present, it may result in the following hormonal imbalance symptoms in women.

Symptoms of Hormonal Imbalance in Women:

That beautiful, tuned melody that we look for is your optimal health, free from premenopause symptoms and menopausal symptoms. Women with balanced hormones integrated with proper nutrition and fitness can have a better quality of life as they age.

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Nausea can be experienced with or without vomiting. It is important to know that nausea, frequently called morning sickness, can actually be experienced at any time of the day. Similarly, it usually occurs during the first trimester and subsides after that for most women, but some will experience nausea all throughout their pregnancies.

Swollen or tender breasts: The third most frequently cited symptom of pregnancy is changes in the breasts. These changes are usually indicated by swelling or tenderness. Changes to the breasts can start as early as 1 to 2 weeks after conception.

Fatigue or Tiredness: Following conception, as early as the first week after, many women cite feeling tired as a sign of pregnancy. This fatigue is commonly experienced by those who are expecting and is recognized as a typical symptom of pregnancy.

The previous symptoms are usually the first signs you experience when pregnant. There are other signs also commonly experienced by those who are expecting as well:

Backaches: Lower backaches are commonly reported by women who discover that they are pregnant. This symptom can occur with the onset of pregnancy, but it is often experienced later as the pregnancy progresses. This makes it an easy pregnancy symptom at week 27 to week 34.

Headaches: Experiencing headaches at the onset of pregnancy is another common early sign of pregnancy. Experts believe that the sudden rise of hormones in your body leads you to experience the headaches.

Headaches during pregnancy may also be caused by the increase of blood flow. There is an approximately 50% increase in the volume of blood flowing while you are expecting.

Frequent urination: Don’t be surprised if you feel like you have to pee more often. Increase urination starts for most people between 6 to 8 weeks.

You will find that increased urination will pick back up or continue throughout your pregnancy as the expanding baby and uterus place pressure on your bladder.

Food cravings or food aversions: The reason for certain food cravings or food aversions is not known. Don’t be surprised if you find yourself drawn to something you normally do not care for, or avoiding things that you normally like.

The food that expecting women crave or seek to avoid varies and are quite sporadic. It is alright to allow yourself the freedom to pursue those cravings and avoid the things you don’t want as long as you are getting the nutrition you need for a healthy pregnancy.

These cravings or aversions can occur early in pregnancy or anytime throughout your pregnancy.

Darkening of the Areolas: Some people lump darkening of the areolas into the symptom of pregnancy referred to as breast changes. That’s alright, it is important to note that if the areolas, area around your nipples, darkens, that is normal. It is a common occurrence within those who are expecting.

Mood Swings: Expecting mothers frequently experience mood swings. This believed to be primarily caused by the hormonal changes that affect the neurotransmitters of the brain. The types of mood swings can vary from woman to woman. Some may experience elevated highs and lows, whereas others alternate between states of happiness to states of depression or anxiety.

It is important to note that mood swings are normal; however, if you find yourself struggling with depression or extended periods of sadness, you should contact your healthcare provider. Some women prefer to go directly to a counselor or mental health professional.

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Where can I get more information on biosecurity, bird flu, and the current HPAI situation in the US?

Avian Influenza - USGS National Willdife Health Center site
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and North American Wild Birds: FAQs - Interagency Steering Committee for Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Birds (pdf, 540kb)

Flu season killing record number of older Americans, CDC says

Jump to text This year’s especially grim flu season has been sickening and killing a very high.
Next story in Cold and flu Zinc may shorten the common cold

>>> some good news tonight about the nasty flu season we've been enduring in this country. cdc says flu activity is down. we have probably, probably seen the worst of the season. flu activity was listed as widespread this week. 38 states at least down from 42 states last week. news remains bad for the elderly, however, with more than 50% of hospitalizations in patients over

This year’s especially grim flu season has been sickening and killing a very high number of people over 65, federal officials report -- even people who consider themselves relatively healthy and not frail.

Rates of women who are opting for preventive mastectomies, such as Angeline Jolie, have increased by an estimated 50 percent in recent years, experts say. But many doctors are puzzled because the operation doesn't carry a 100 percent guarantee, it's major surgery -- and women have other options, from a once-a-day pill to careful monitoring.

The latest flu statistics show that while the season is leveling off, it’s still a bad one for seniors.

“The numbers for hospitalizations are extremely high in the elderly. In fact, they are the highest we have had since surveillance began in 2005,” says Dr. Lyn Finelli, a flu expert at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “The deaths are way over the epidemic threshold. We are very concerned about the elderly this year", she added in a telephone interview.

“The elderly rates are many, many times the rates in other age groups.”

Flu statistics show the virus is still widespread in 38 states. Nine percent of reported deaths were due to flu and pneumonia, still above what’s considered an epidemic. And 14 more children died of flu last week, bringing the total this year to 59.

It’s still especially bad in the midwest and west, although infections are beginning to wane in the east. Dr. Jeff Duchin, an epidemiologist and flu expert at the University of Washington in Seattle, says he’s seen the impact.

“We have had a record in long term-care facility outbreaks this year,” Duchin, who is also a spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America, said in a telephone interview.

“County emergency department reports are showing us higher prevalence of disease among older folks compared to what we had seen in recent years.”

CDC said people over 65 need to make sure they see a doctor right away if they get flu-like symptoms. That’s because quick treatment with antivirals can help prevent serious illness.

“We see unnecessary delays in treatment, particularly in the elderly,” Duchin said. “We need to recognize these cases promptly so the medications can be started promptly.”

Antiviral drugs such as Tamiflu only work well when given within a day or two of symptoms starting.

People 65 and older may not consider themselves at higher risk, Finelli says. But they need to: Their immune systems are less robust from those of younger people and they are still more vulnerable.

“Even if they are super-fit maybe they have other underlying conditions that put them at higher risk for the flu, like pulmonary (lung) disease and cardiovascular disease and diabetes,” Finelli said.

A study published earlier this week showed that people over 65 have different types of antibodies from younger people. These immune system proteins recognize and attack invaders like germs and they are stimulated by vaccines.

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  • Coma
  • Coughing and shortness of breath
  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Fever
  • Mental symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness
  • Nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting
  • Seizures and lack of coordination
  • Severe, persistent diarrhea
  • Severe headaches
  • Vision loss
  • Weight loss

Many opportunistic infections associated with AIDS cause serious illness. Some may be prevented. Below is a list of infections and how they affect the body.

Cryptoccoccal Menigitis — This is a yeast-like fungus infection that usually involves the brain and lungs, although it can affect almost any organ. The fungus that causes this condition is found in soil throughout the world. It is most common in soil contaminated by bird droppings. This disease most often occurs when a person's CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

HIV-related Encephalopathy — Encephalopathy is a term for diseases that alter brain function or structure, leading to problems with cognitive function, or mental processes, and memory. In people with HIV and AIDS, encephalopathy is usually caused by an infectious agent, such as a bacteria, virus or prion.

Encephalopathy most often occurs when a person's CD4+T cell count falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Toxoplasma-seropositive patients who have a CD4+T cell count of less than 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood should be treated with prophylaxis to prevent developing encephalopathy.

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) — Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare disorder of the nervous system caused by a common human polyomavirus, JC virus. It leads to the destruction of the myelin sheath that covers nerve cells. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering that acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain. Symptoms include mental deterioration, vision loss, speech disturbances, inability to coordinate movements, paralysis and ultimately coma. In rare cases, seizures may occur.

This disease can occur when the CD4+T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Toxoplasmosis — This condition occurs when a parasite infects the brain. Symptoms include confusion or delusional behavior, severe headaches, fever, seizures and coma. It can affect the eye, causing eye pain and reduced vision.

Toxoplasmosis most likely occurs when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventative treatment — usually with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, also called Septra and Bactrim — may be administered when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) — Although this virus can affect the entire body, it commonly affects the eye's retina, causing blurry vision and in severe cases, blindness. Other common symptoms include chronic diarrhea and nerve problems. It is most likely to occur when a person’s CD4+ T cell count falls below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Cryptosporidiosis — This is a parasite that can cause chronic diarrhea. Other symptoms include stomach cramps, nausea, fatigue, weight loss, appetite loss, vomiting and dehydration.

This infection is difficult to treat and there is no definitive effective treatment. Symptom control and treatment of HIV are necessary.

Cytomegalovirus — Although this virus can affect the entire body, it commonly occurs in the stomach, causing fever, diarrhea and stomach pain. It most likely occurs when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Mycobacterium Avium Complex — This is a bacterial infection that can cause persistent fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, anemia, abdominal pain, dizziness, diarrhea and weakness. The bacteria that cause this infection is found in water, dust, soil and bird droppings.

This disease most likely occurs when the CD4+T cell count falls below 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventive treatment, usually with azithromycin, is administered when CD4+ T cells are less than 50 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Candidiasis — Candidiasis is an infection caused by the candida fungi. Also known as a yeast infection, it's the most common HIV-related fungus infection. It can affect the entire body, but most commonly occurs in the mouth, called thrush, or vagina. An overgrowth of yeast in the vagina can cause irritation, itching, burning and thick white discharge.

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Swollen legs, ankles, or feet

Difficulty thinking and focusing

Feeling down or depressed

Trouble remembering things

Slower speech or movement

Swollen thyroid gland

*This is not a comprehensive list of symptoms.

Keep in mind that just because you may have some of the above symptoms, it doesn’t mean you have hypothyroidism. Listen to your body. If something doesn’t feel right, be sure to make a note of it. Keep a record of any symptoms you might be experiencing and let the doctor know about them at your next scheduled visit.

The Symptom Profiler can help you record your symptoms. Remember, everyone is different. Some people with hypothyroidism experience only a few mild symptoms, or sometimes, no symptoms at all. If you think you might have hypothyroidism, talk with your doctor. He or she will be able to give you a proper diagnosis. But realize that even after proper diagnosis and care plan, it’s important to maintain a partnership with your doctor.

WARNING: IMAGE BELOW IS NOT SAFE FOR WORK!

Have some male herpes symptoms?

Most men don't deal well with the reality of male genital herpes!

So they will either deny that they have any herpes symptoms or they will procrastinate going to get TESTED for herpes.

Men can be pretty bad about asking for help and going to the doctor. It's in our nature to try to figure it out ourselves. Not a good idea with herpes.

You'll go crazy trying to figure out if you have herpes by yourself!

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Public Health England reports(9th January) that flu like illness is at a high compared to the last three years. They are recommending that people at risk can still have the flu jab- up take by even at risk people under 65 is very low at 50 %). Viruses do not respond to antibiotics but I guess GPs get desperate when people keep going back to their doctor with symptoms and so will try anything.

Cannot put a link in here otherwise the system will block this entry. but just type public health England flu in and the report is on their front page.

Thank you everyone for your thoughts and pointers if anyone finds a miracle cure please post it we're desperate.

we have just started getting over it my partner came down with it in earlie december he was rushed to hospital and told his white blood cells was not acting the way they was so i dont know if this has something to do with it but he is still been sick during the nights now and sleepy all the time the effects he had while e had the flu bug then i caught it 22nd december im still having problems now too!

im not as bad as i was the first week i had it but i have not gone back to normal my daughter 5 had it firsst in november early and then only managed to get rid of it this month everybody i know has had it now and keep re catching it or the symtoms dont go im from yorkshire

Thank you Steph thats really helpful as some of my relatives are in Yorkshire (Leeds and Hebden Bridge). Im not one for conspiracy theories but I cant believe that theres been nothing on the national news about how widespread this outbreak is and how long it knocks patients out for. My sister in law is a GP and she gets loads of cases and the same faces week after week. My 12 year old daughter is off school today because she feels barely able to move her neck her skin and her joints are really hurting Im taking her to the doctors (again. ) shortly. My symptoms are a terrible sharp cough and the same aching skin joints neck plus being full up with phlegm which is vile in itself. If the pain could be dealt with it would be something but nothing touches it!

when my partner took my son to doctors he said they was hundreds of patients that week with the same thing im left with weak legs sharp pains in head and vile phelm i hope you feel well soon god knows what it is even my cbt worker had it when i went my friend had the flu jab and still caught it i did find something online saying that its like a flu virus thats related but its making the flu jab not work or something never had anything like it though suppose new illness's start all the time though

Sounds rough! Hope everyone feels better soon. Here in the States, my city is number three in the nation for having the most cases of the flu. So far I have been fortunate, as well as my children.

Could there be something in your environment that is causing these drawn out symptoms? My first thought was possible allergies.

The fact that its spread across friends and family around the UK doesnt really make that stand up and that my daughter and I have been prescribed antihistermines too which had no effect doesnt really point to that but yes Ive thought about it. Ive wondered about methane which can cause flu like symptoms or something in our diet. Thank you though Ill try to see if theres any commonality between friends and family and their environment.

I'm not from the UK but from California. However, my wife and I have experienced the exact same symptoms since approximately October 10, 2014. Started with dry persistent non productive cough. 1st Dr. Said a cold. 3 weeks later visited second Dr given prednisone and antibiotics 4 weeks later 3rd Dr. Again gave prednisone and cough med's. Cough ceased for 3 days then returned with more like cold symptoms and productive cough with clear sputum. Still persistent cough, going to Dr. Again this evening. Wish me luck.

My husband and I have had the same symptoms since early December, constant coughing, finding it hard to breathe, head cold, muzzy head, neck aching etc. etc. and it lasted until about 2 weeks ago and we both felt ok - as we are singers it was a great relief not having to try and sing through the coughing, we had a weeks respite and we both woke up on Thursday morning with the symptoms back with a vengence, in fact during a coughing fit today I managed to cough up what looked like a piece of lung. almost solid cream coloured thing that had fine red lines in it, a bit frightening. We haven't been to the doctors as having spoken to a lot of other people that have similar symptoms they can't get anything done, so it isn't worth bothering, a couple were taken into hospital with breathing difficulties, I think they suffered with asthma as well, I find it really hard to breath and try to do so shallowly to stave off the coughing fit, we are getting through a mountain of paracetamol. By the way, we are on the south coast of England.

i have read your post and can not believe you have not seen a g p after coughing up what you describe and suggest you go and see a doctor a s a p,as you dont know exactly what you are suffering from,i know how you feel with doctors but you do need to be seen to sooner rather than later,i am not trying to frighten you in any way,but need a mdics advice on what could be wrong,good luck.

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    Les tests de diagnostic rapide de la grippe sont utilisés en milieu clinique mais présentent une sensibilité moindre par rapport aux méthodes de RT PCR et leur fiabilité est fortement tributaire des conditions d’emploi.

    Les patients atteints de grippe saisonnière sans complications

    Les patients qui ne font pas partie d’un groupe à haut risque devraient recevoir un traitement symptomatique et rester chez eux afin de minimiser le risque d’infecter la collectivité. Le traitement consiste à soulager les symptômes de la grippe comme la fièvre. Les patients devraient suivre par eux mêmes l’évolution de la situation afin de déceler si leur état se détériore et de consulter. Les patients dont on sait qu’ils risquent fortement de développer une maladie grave ou des complications (voir ci dessus) devraient être traités dans les meilleurs délais par des antiviraux en plus du traitement symptomatique.

    Les patients souffrant de maladie grave ou de maladie clinique évolutive liée à une infection grippale suspectée ou confirmée (syndromes cliniques de pneumonie, d’état septique ou d’aggravation d’une maladie chronique latente) devraient être traités par des antiviraux dans les meilleurs délais.

    • Les inhibiteurs de la neuraminidase (oseltamivir) devraient être prescrits le plus tôt possible (idéalement, dans les 48 heures qui suivent l’apparition des symptômes) afin d’optimiser les bienfaits thérapeutiques. L’administration du médicament devrait aussi être envisagée chez les patients consultant plus tardivement c’est à dire pendant la maladie.
    • Le traitement est recommandé pour un minimum de cinq jours, mais peut-être prolongé jusqu’à ce qu’il y ait une amélioration clinique satisfaisante.
    • Les corticostéroïdes ne devraient pas être utilisés de manière systématique à moins qu’ils ne soient indiqués pour d’autres raisons (par exemple pour le traitement de l’asthme et d’autres affections spécifiques), car leur utilisation a été associée à une élimination virale prolongée et à une immunosuppression entraînant une surinfection bactérienne ou fongique.
    • Tous les virus grippaux actuellement en circulation sont résistants aux antiviraux appartenant à la classe des adamantanes (par exemple, l’amantadine et le rimantadine), dont l’administration par monothérapie n’est donc pas recommandée.

    Le système mondial OMS de surveillance de la grippe et de riposte (GISRS) surveille la résistance aux antiviraux parmi les virus grippaux en circulation afin de fournir des orientations en temps opportun concernant l’utilisation des antiviraux dans la prise en charge clinique et éventuellement dans la chimioprophylaxie.

    Le moyen le plus efficace de se prémunir contre la maladie est la vaccination. Des vaccins sûrs et efficaces existent et sont utilisés depuis plus de 60 ans. L’immunité que procure la vaccination s’estompe à travers le temps; c’est pourquoi la vaccination annuelle est préconisée pour se protéger contre la grippe. L’injection de vaccins antigrippaux inactivés est très répandue dans le monde entier.

    Chez les adultes en bonne santé, le vaccin antigrippal assure une protection même lorsque les virus en circulation ne correspondent pas exactement à ceux du vaccin. Chez les personnes âgées, en revanche, le vaccin antigrippal peut être moins efficace pour prévenir la maladie mais amoindrit sa gravité et l’incidence des complications et des décès. La vaccination est particulièrement importante pour les personnes présentant un risque élevé de complications grippales et pour celles qui vivent avec des sujets à haut risque ou qui s’en occupent.

    L’OMS recommande la vaccination annuelle pour:

    • les femmes enceintes à n'importe quel stade de leur grossesse;
    • les enfants de 6 mois à 5 ans;
    • les personnes âgées (à partir de 65 ans);
    • les personnes souffrant d’affections chroniques;
    • les agents de santé.

    La vaccination contre la grippe est surtout efficace lorsque les virus vaccinaux correspondent bien aux virus en circulation. Comme les virus grippaux évoluent constamment, le système mondial OMS de surveillance de la grippe et de riposte (GISRS) ‒ réseau réunissant les centres nationaux de la grippe et les centres collaborateurs de l’OMS dans le monde entier ‒ surveille continuellement les virus grippaux qui circulent chez l’être humain et actualise deux fois par an la composition des vaccins grippaux.

    Depuis de nombreuses années, l’OMS met à jour ses recommandations sur la composition du vaccin (trivalent) qui cible les 3 types de virus en circulation les plus représentatifs (2 sous-types du virus A et 1 virus du type B). Depuis la saison grippale 2013 2014 survenue dans l’hémisphère Nord, les recommandations portent aussi sur l’adjonction d’un quatrième élément entrant dans la composition de vaccins quadrivalents.

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    Ischemia of the eye may result in temporary loss of vision.

    Familial hypercholesterolemia known as type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia may be associated with the following signs and symptoms:

    • xanthomata (deposits of yellowish material containing cholesterol)
    • xanthelasma palpebrarum (yellowish patches under the skin around the eyelids)
    • arcus senilis (gray or white discoloring of the eye’s cornea.

    A form of hypercholesterolemia known as type III hyperlipidemia may be associated with the following signs and symptoms:

    • xanthomata (deposits of yellowish material containing cholesterol) in the palms
    • xanthomata in the elbows
    • xanthomata in the knees

    If you experience any of the above symptoms, consult your health care provider. The risk of hypercholesterolemia is increased in those who are obese, maintain unhealthy diets, and have genetic predispositions to hypercholesterolemia. There are medications available for those with high cholesterol. Ways we can all treat and prevent high cholesterol:

    • engaging in physical exercise
    • maintaining a healthy body weight
    • eating nutritious and low fat foods

    100-129 mg/dL = Near Optimal/Above Optimal
    130-159 mg/dL = Borderline High
    160-189 mg/dL = High
    ≥190 mg/dL = Very High

    Bei der Grippe (Influenza) handelt es sich um eine Infektion, die durch Viren ausgelöst wird. Typische Symptome sind Fieber und ein starkes Krankheitsgefühl. Nimmt die Erkrankung keinen schweren Verlauf, ist das Schlimmste in der Regel nach einer Woche überstanden. Während dieser Zeit können Sie die auftretenden Symptome mit Hausmitteln wie Bettruhe, Hühnersuppe und Wadenwickeln lindern. In einigen Fällen ist auch eine medikamentöse Behandlung sinnvoll. Erfahren Sie hier, woran Sie eine Grippe erkennen, wie Sie diese behandeln und wie Sie sich wirkungsvoll vor dem Infekt schützen können.

    Die Grippe wird durch das Influenza-Virus verursacht, welches in Form verschiedener Typen vorliegt. Am gefährlichsten sind Typ A-Viren, die beispielsweise für den Ausbruch der Vogelgrippe oder der Schweinegrippe verantwortlich waren. Die Viren verbreiten sich meist durch Tröpfcheninfektion (beispielsweise beim Husten oder Niesen). Eine Ansteckung ist aber auch durch direkten Kontakt wie zum Beispiel beim Küssen möglich.

    Da das Influenza-Virus sehr wandlungsfähig ist, ist ein dauerhafter Schutz gegen den Erreger nicht möglich. Eine Grippe-Impfung muss beispielsweise jedes Jahr wiederholt werden. Sie ist besonders für bestimmte Risikogruppen wie ältere oder chronisch kranke Menschen empfehlenswert.

    Im Verlauf einer Grippe treten typischerweise folgende Symptome auf:

    • Die ersten Anzeichen einer Grippe sind häufig Schüttelfrostund ein stark ausgeprägtes Krankheitsgefühl.
    • Kurze Zeit später treten dann Symptome wie Fieber sowie Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen auf.
    • Außerdem können sich Beschwerden wie Husten, Schnupfen und Halsschmerzenbemerkbar machen.
    • Die Betroffenen fühlen sich in der Regel müde, abgeschlagen und erschöpft.
    • Bei einer Grippe kann das Fieber auf bis zu 41 Grad ansteigen. Solange die Temperatur steigt, tritt häufig Schüttelfrost auf. Sobald das Fieber sinkt, kommt es zu den ebenfalls für eine Influenza typischen Schweißausbrüchen.

    Typisch ist, dass die Symptome relativ plötzlich und sehr heftig auftreten. Dies unterscheidet die Grippe von einer normalen Erkältung. Denn bei einer Erkältung machen sich die Symptome normalerweise langsamer und auch nicht so stark bemerkbar. Der Unterschied zwischen einer Grippe und einer Erkältung liegt also vor allem im Verlauf und der Schwere der Erkrankung.

    Meist nimmt eine Grippe einen harmlosen Verlauf und es kommt zu keinen Komplikationen. Treten Komplikationen auf, liegt das meist daran, dass zusätzlich zu der Virus-Infektion noch eine bakterielle Infektion hinzukommt. Durch eine solche Zweitinfektion kann es zu Erkrankungen wie einer Lungenentzündung, einer Mittelohrentzündung oder einer Herzmuskelentzündung kommen.

    Ein erhöhtes Risiko für das Auftreten von Komplikationen haben ältere Menschen, Kleinkinder, chronisch Kranke sowie Schwangere.

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    If treatment and medications are given on time without much delay then for a healthy individual it might take around 48 to 75 hours to get relief from the symptoms and five to seven days to recover completely from the flu. ‘General fatigue and weakness might be persistent for a week or two which would settle with proper rest, care and healthy diet,’ says Dr Jiandani. (Read: Prevent swine flu with these 10 dos and don’ts)

    These are known as the classic "flu-like" symptoms and are not unlike the symptoms of other illnesses such as malaria. Indeed many people have mistaken the onset of malaria for a bout of flu and have not taken appropriate action with sometimes serious consequences.

    • Rest
    • Drink plenty of fluids
    • Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco
    • Take medication to relieve the symptoms

    It is passed from person to person by droplet transmission, usually by breathing in diphtheria bacteria after an infected person has coughed, sneezed or even laughed. It can also be spread by handling used tissues or by drinking from a glass used by an infected person.

    In tropical countries the infection may occur as skin ulcers and is known as cutaneous diphtheria which presents as infected skin lesions which lack a characteristic appearance.

    After two to six weeks, the effects of toxins produced by the bacteria become apparent with severe muscle weakness, mainly affecting the muscles of the head and neck. Inflammation of the heart muscle may cause heart failure. Myocarditis, polyneuritis, and airway obstruction are common complications of respiratory diphtheria; death occurs in 5%-10% of respiratory cases.

    Transmission is usually by direct person to person contact. Avoid very close contact with infected people particularly kissing and sharing bottles or glasses. It spreads quickly amongst infected people in crowded places. Cutaneous lesions are also important in transmission.

    Diphtheria remains endemic in developing countries and the countries of the former Soviet Union have reported an epidemic which began in 1990.

    Treatment: is specialised and requires medical supervision in hospital where Diphtheria antitoxin is given as an intramuscular or intravenous injection as soon as possible. The infection is then treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin.

    Prevention: There is a vaccine for diphtheria. Most people in the UK receive their first dose as a child in the form of a combined vaccine called DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis).
    Immunisation: is very effective but protective immunity is not present longer than 10 years after the last vaccination, so it is important for adults at risk to get a booster of tetanus-diptheria (Td) vaccine every 10 years.

    Legionnaires Disease

    TB is much more common in some parts of the world than in the UK. The risk to travellers is limited since transmission of the disease usually requires prolonged close contact. Sometimes the disease can be overwhelming; producing meningitis and coma; this particularly dangerous form is usually found in children and those who have not previously been vaccinated or exposed to the disease. Recently, antibiotic-resistant strains of tuberculosis have appeared.

    Tuberculosis can develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze from an infected person and it can also spread through infected sputum and there is a form spread through milk from infected cows. The risk of contracting TB increases with the frequency of contact with people who have the disease, and with crowded or unsanitary living conditions and poor nutrition.

    Pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection. The disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection, or it may lie dormant for years before causing disease. The extent of the disease can vary from minimal to massive involvement, but without effective therapy, the disease becomes progressive.

    Infants, the elderly, and individuals who are immunocompromised, those undergoing transplant surgery who are taking anti rejection medications are at higher risk for progression of the disease or reactivation of dormant disease. Those who have not received BCG immunisation are advised to do so and if for travel purposes, at least six weeks before departure to ensure a protective level of immunity.

    Treatment with anti microbial drugs is effective but is prolonged and requires medical supervision. It is also expensive and not always available abroad. Incomplete treatment of TB infections (such as failure to take medications for the prescribed length of time) can contribute to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria.

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    The re-appearance of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism in developed countries is caused by a trend towards low salt consumption. In a bid to reduce the risk factor for hypertension and edema, most people in affluent nations are taking the widely publicized health advice to drop salt from their diet.

    Unfortunately, iodized salt has been the most used and the most effective public health initiative to reduce iodine deficiency and prevent goiter, cretinism, and hypothyroidism.

    Adding iodine to salt is a very cheap means of eradicating iodine deficiency. Experts estimate that it costs only a few cents for every ton of salt produced.

    However, care should be taking with treating iodine deficiency with iodized salt.

    Where the deficiency is severe and met with high intake of iodized salt, hyperthyroidism may result. In addition, people who are older than 40 years have a greater risk of developing hyperthyroidism from taking iron-fortified food products.

    Where salt consumption is heavily restricted, iodine can still be obtained from the diet by eating more saltwater fish and sea vegetables such as kelp.

    With swine flu claiming so many lives across the nation it is little tricky to give a straight answer to such a simple question. However, there is a fair amount of chance to recover from the flu if tr

    With swine flu claiming so many lives across the nation it is little tricky to give a straight answer to such a simple question. However, there is a fair amount of chance to recover from the flu if treatment and care can be provided on time and during the initial phase soon after contracting the viral infection.

    ‘One must realise that unlike other viral diseases like leptospirosis, malaria, dengue where the entire immune system and all major organs have to face the wrath of the virus, in case of swine flu, the immunity of a person is suppressed and only the lung function is affected, although to a great extent. So, recovery of a patient from swine flu largely depends on the extent of lung damage one has faced due to the virus,’ says Dr Prakash Jiandani, director of critical care unit, Wockhardt Hospital, South Mumbai. In some rare cases of swine flu, it can also lead to cardiac arrest and brain damage. But most of the time, a life is lost battling a respiratory infection because of swine flu and it doesn’t reach to that extreme. Here is all that you need to know about the treatment and medication of swine flu.

    Lines of treatment

    In case of swine flu, the first line of treatment is antiviral therapy given either by oral suspension or in capsule form. If a patient fails to recover with oral medications the second line of treatment would be to start on ventilation. ‘The idea of starting a patient suffering with moderate to severe symptoms of swine flu on ventilation, is done to restore oxygen supply in the blood and revive lung function. However, one must realise that even best ventilation mechanisms can help patients only to a certain extent. If the damage done to the lungs is beyond any repair, then even the best of supportive care provided would fail to help one survive any longer,’ informs Dr Jiandani. Here are the symptoms of swine flu you should know about.

    Prevention is better than cure

    This is the reason why preventing a bout of swine flu is more important than treating it. ‘It is necessary to take steps early and visit the doctor if you develop any symptoms of the seasonal flu. However, not all the healthy individual with cold and cough needs to be treated for swine flu. One should be diagnosed carefully for the symptoms, especially those who fall under the risk group, like people suffering from High BP, diabetes or the elderly,’ says Dr Jiandani. Here are 15 tips for everyone to prevent a bout of swine flu.

    Oral antiviral medication, when given within 48 hours after experiencing the symptoms can help one recover fast. However, if it delays recovery then oxygen therapy with proper ventilation goes in long way to resurrect lung function. ‘High frequency ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can help patients recover from the symptoms of flu,’ says Dr Jiandani. (Read: IMA guidelines to tackle swine flu (H1N1 influenza) in India)