The research is important information to give health care workers when they are confronted with a person who won’t get a flu vaccine because of concern about GBS, said Hawken.
“It gives the health-care professionals giving the vaccine another tool to put these vaccines in context for those wondering about risk,” he said, adding that in most cases the vaccine is going to lower a person’s risk from GBS. Flu also kills thousands each year.
It is possible, the researchers found, that in years when the vaccine is not a good match and is less effective at protecting from the flu, the risk of GBS from the vaccine could be less than the one in the million typically associated with it. The vaccine could also reduce, if not prevent, subsequent influenza illnesses, which could reduce the risk of GBS due to those illnesses. In some cases, researchers said, the risk of GBS from the flu could be overestimated, depending on the severity of the flu.
Still, the researchers said the finding should provide reassurance that seasonal flu vaccines reduce an individual’s risk of GBS in most cases as well as significantly reducing the risk of flu.
GBS associated with flu vaccines has been a concern since the 1970s, when a vaccine against swine flu was associated with an increased number of Guillain-Barré cases. There was approximately one case of GBS per 100,000 people who got the swine flu vaccine.
The risk associated with subsequent vaccines is much lower, but it still remains a significant concern for many, especially health care workers who are encouraged or required to receive a flu vaccine for work.
About half the population in Canada gets a flu shot annually, “not a great rate for public health,” says Wilson. The research should help clarify some of the concerns, he said.
Both Wilson and Hawken said a vaccine registry, to more accurately track vaccine coverage across Canada, would help public health officials have a more accurate idea about vaccination rates.
Otherwise known as the flu, influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses which can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Some people, including older people, young children, and individuals with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious complications from the flu. You can learn more about these groups here.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year. In Guidelines for Immunizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, it is recommended that the immunization schedule for patients with IBD should not, in most cases, deviate from the recommended schedule for the general population of children and adults. Current guidelines recommend inactivated (organisms have been killed or inactivated with heat or chemicals) flu and pneumococal vaccines in patients who are immunosuppressed.(1) Therefore, it is important to ask your gastroenterologist, primary care physician, or other health care provider whether you or your child with IBD should be vaccinated against the flu, as well as discuss its risks versus its benefits.
Flu viruses primarily spread from through close contact (i.e. coughing or sneezing) with individuals who already have the flu. People also may become infected by touching something—such as a surface or object—with the flu virus on it and then touching their mouth or nose (http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/qa.htm).
In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that a pandemic of novel H1N1 flu was underway. H1N1 (referred to as “swine flu” early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This virus was first detected in the United States in April 2009. H1N1 is spreading from person to person worldwide, most likely in a similar fashion to regular seasonal influenza viruses.
For the this year's flu season, the seasonal flu vaccine will protect patients against the common strains of influenza virus as well as the H1N1 flu virus, so only a single vaccination is necessary this year. Patients on steroids, immunosuppressant therapies, and biologic therapies should discuss the risks and benefits of the vaccine with their doctor.
The CDC is encouraging the public to take the following 3 steps to fight the flu:
- Get vaccinated against the flu virus. The CDC recommends a yearly seasonal flu vaccine as the most important step in protecting against the flu. This year, a seasonal flu vaccine will protect against H1N1 strain of flu virus.
- Take everyday preventive actions: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze; wash hands frequently with soap and water; avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth; and try to avoid close contact with sick people.
- Take flu antiviral drugs if your doctor recommends them. If you get seasonal or novel H1N1 flu, antiviral drugs can treat the flu. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaled powder) that fight against the flu by keeping the viruses from reproducing in your body.
For more information on the “Take 3” steps, visit: www.cdc.gov
The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) provides general information about Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, such as this fact sheet. CCFA does not endorse specific treatments or vaccinations, and always encourages patients to discuss their treatment options and associated risks versus the benefits with their physicians.
(1) Sands BE; Cuffari C, Katz J, Kugathasan S, Onken J, Vitek C, Orenstein W. Guidelines for Immunizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. Vol 10, num 5, Sept 2004
Fever seizures can be frightening but they are not usually harmful to the child and do not cause long-term problems, such as brain damage, mental retardation, or learning problems.
M., I am going through the EXACT same thing with my 17 month old right now. He has had the flu for 10 days now with a fever for the majority of that time. I've been alternating Motrin and Tylenol and it brings the fever back down to normal but it's been anywhere between 102 and 103. Each day is getting better and we have to give less and less medication. I think we've kicked the fever today but like I said it's been 10 days. We took him in when it had been a week because the fever came back and was around 103 again and I was a nutcase because I thought it was something worse. They checked him for pnemonia and ear infections and everything else and he was okay. This strain of the flu is just horrible. I had it as well and I got a fever and it broke three different times. Its been two weeks for me and I'm still coughing. Our pediatrician told me that children this age get it way worse and for a lot longer than we do. Keep her hydrated. Pedialyte has worked well for us. I am sleeping with him and we have the mattress elevated and a humidifier in the room. Hang in there you're doing everything right. Use your mommy instinct, you know when something is not right. Take her in if you're too worried. Stear clear of the ER, if you can. Its full of germs that she doesn't need to catch on top of what she's already go though. It's so difficult to watch your baby suffer like this, I know. IT's been the longest week and a half of my life and I feel so helpless. Fortunately it won't last forever (although it feels like it). Good luck and hopefully our children will get well soon!
have you had your doctor check to see if she has a urinary tract infection?
I really wouldn't worry yet. A temperature of 103 is really not that high and means her body is trying to fight an infection (usually viral). The increase in body temperature makes the environment unfriendly for the infection, which is what you want. The vast majority of fevers are caused by viral infection and last no longer than 3 days. If the temperature gets to 105 then it could be bacterial. Fevers cause no harm, such as brain damage, when it is less than 107. Fortunately, the brain's thermostat keeps untreated fevers resulting from infection below 106. If she has convulsions, these are generally harmless (although very scary), but there is a need to rule out a more serious condition (especially meningitis).
You do need to see a doctor if:
a. the fever gets above 105
b. if it gets hard to wake him up
c. if her neck gets stiff (associated with meningitis)
d. she starts getting convulsions
See a doctor within 24 hrs:
a. the fever gets above 104
b. burning or pain with urination
c. if the fever "breaks" and then returns within 24 hrs
d. the fever lasts for longer than 3 days
The best thing you can do for her is to try and make her comfortable. Make sure he is getting liquids. Boil a chicken with lots of vegetables and feed him the strained broth. Don't use broth you buy at the store. It's really not a problem that he doesn't have an appetite, but he does need fluids.
DON'T GIVE HER ASPIRIN. Several studies have linked aspirin and viral illnesses with Reye syndrome.
If you have to give her anything give her acetaminophen. This should reduce the fever by 1-2 degrees in a couple of hours. Keep in mind though that the fever is helping her fight the infection, so why try to help the enemy?
Good luck and I hope he feels better soon.
Most of the info above comes from "Current Pediatric Diagnosis & Treatment" by Hay, Hayward, Levin, and Sondheimer 15th Edition.
I am sorry to hear your daughter is ill. When I worked at Spears Chiropractor Hospital many years ago we would take Rubbing Alcohol & rub under their armpits & between their thighs with it. It did bring down their fever. I was working in the Pediatric Floor at the time.
I'm NOT a Dr. I'd suggest you go to a second pediatrician if you don't like what yours has to say.
However, what our Dr. told us was that as long as it's not a constant temp for days and it does go down(night or day) that it's ok and just helping her get rid of the infection. As far as it being high at night, we had a Dr. who also told us to make sure not to overdress them. that they aren't covered in tons of covers.
I think you're totally sane to be nervous. what parent wouldn't be - and feel free to go to the Dr. more (rather than less). I had a pediatrician tell me a LONG time ago that mother's instinct is often much better than Dr's. So if you're really really worried go in and insist on even seeing another Dr.
Four to five years
7.5 mL twice daily
Nasal irrigation with saline17
Six to 10 years
3 to 9 mL per nostril three times daily
Three to five years
1 g (1 × 10 10 colony-forming units) mixed with 120 mL of 1% milk twice daily
*—Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, alone or combined with Bifidobacterium animalis.
Information from references 14, 17, and 20 through 22.
Therapies That May Be Effective for Common Cold Prophylaxis in Children
One to three years
5 mL twice daily
Four to five years
7.5 mL twice daily
Nasal irrigation with saline17
Six to 10 years
3 to 9 mL per nostril three times daily
Three to five years
Das früher oft bei Grippe zur Behandlung eingesetzte Virostatikum namens Amantadin gehört nicht zu den Neuraminidasehemmern, sondern zu den zyklischen Aminen und ist nur gegen Influenza-A-Virusinfektionen wirksam. Amantadin kann die Dauer von Fieber um einen Tag verkürzen. Als Grippemittel wenden Ärzte Amantadin allerdings heute praktisch nicht mehr an, denn:
- Zum einen verursacht Amantadin nicht unerhebliche Nebenwirkungen (z.B. Durchfall, Depression, epileptische Anfälle ),
- zum anderen entwickeln die Grippeviren schnell eine Widerstandsfähigkeit (Resistenz) dagegen.
Antibiotika wirken nur gegen Bakterien. Bei der virusbedingten Grippe ist eine Behandlung mit Antibiotika also wirkungslos. Wenn jedoch neben der Influenza zusätzlich eine Infektion mit Bakterien (sog. Zweitinfektion oder Superinfektion) entsteht, ist es notwendig, diese mit Antibiotika zu behandeln.
Die bei Erwachsenen gegen Grippe eingesetzte Behandlung unterscheidet sich in einem wichtigen Punkt von der Behandlung bei Kindern: Kinder mit Virus-Infekten wie einer Influenza dürfen keinesfalls Salicylate (wie ASS o.Ä.) erhalten, da sie hierdurch ein Reye-Syndrom entwickeln können.
Das Reye-Syndrom ist eine lebensbedrohliche Erkrankung, in deren Verlauf es zu Hirn- und Leberschäden kommt. Während man die Erkrankung im Frühstadium noch heilen kann, führt sie voll entwickelt in etwa 70 Prozent der Fälle zum Tod. Wenn Ihr Kind dauerhaft Salicylate einnimmt, ist es deshalb wichtig, dass Sie es regelmäßig gegen Grippe impfen lassen.
Bei einer Grippe (Influenza) kann der Verlauf sehr unterschiedlich sein: Es sind milde und unkomplizierte, aber auch schwerwiegende Fälle von Virusgrippe mit tödlichen Ausgang möglich.
Bei einer Grippe mit typischem Verlauf treten die ersten Beschwerden ein bis fünf Tage nach der Infektion mit dem Grippevirus auf. Erstes Anzeichen für die Virusgrippe ist oft ein plötzliches und hohes Fieber. Überwiegend sind die Betroffenen nach etwa sechs Tagen wieder fieberfrei. Jedoch können andere Symptome der Influenza – und zwar Husten, Schnupfen (Rhinitis) sowie ein allgemeines Schwächegefühl – noch ein bis zwei Wochen länger dauern.
Die bei Influenza entstehende Schleimhautschädigung kann Infektionen mit Bakterien nach sich ziehen, die unter Umständen zu Komplikationen führen. Um diese zu vermeiden, ist es wichtig, die Bakterieninfektion rechtzeitig zu behandeln. Wenn das gelingt, ist die Grippe nach einer Dauer von etwa ein bis zwei Wochen ausgestanden.
Größtenteils entwickeln sich bei einer Grippe im weiteren Verlauf dann Komplikationen, wenn zusätzlich bakterielle Infektionen hinzukommen. Verantwortlich für diese bei Influenza relativ häufigen Zweitinfektionen sind vor allem folgende Bakterien:
Nachfolgend kann es durch die Bakterien-Infektion zu einer Lungenentzündung, einer Mittelohrentzündung (Otitis media) oder einer Entzündung des Herzmuskels kommen. Dies kann weitere Komplikationen mit sich bringen. So kann beispielsweise eine gleichzeitig mit der Grippe auftretende Lungenentzündung dazu führen, dass Lungenabszesse entstehen, die wiederum schwere Erkrankungen des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems auslösen können. Möglich sind zum Beispiel:
Wie sich bakterielle Zweitinfektionen bei einer Grippe auswirken, hängt in starkem Maße vom Gesundheitszustand der Betroffenen ab. Ein besonders hohes Risiko für eine schwer verlaufende Influenza mit Komplikationen haben:
- ältere Menschen
- Frauen während der Schwangerschaft
- Menschen mit geschwächter Immunabwehr
- Menschen mit chronischen Atemwegserkrankungen
Treatment should be started as soon as possible, ideally within a few hours of being bitten or scratched.
But it's often safe to delay treatment until the next day if the vaccine and/or immunoglobulin need to be specially ordered in by your doctor.
Without treatment, the symptoms of rabies will usually develop after 3 to 12 weeks, although they can start sooner or much later than this.
The first symptoms can include:
- a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
- a headache
- feeling anxious or generally unwell
- in some cases, discomfort at the site of the bite.
Other symptoms appear a few days later, such as:
Once symptoms appear, rabies is almost always fatal. In these cases, treatment will focus on making the person as comfortable as possible.
The UK has been rabies-free since the beginning of the 20th century, with the exception of a rabies-like virus in a species of wild bat called Daubenton's bats.
This has only been found in a few bats, and the risk of human infection is thought to be low. People who regularly handle bats are most at risk.
There has only been 1 recorded case of someone catching rabies from a bat in the UK. It's also rare for infected bats to spread rabies to other animals.
But if you find an injured or dead bat, don't touch it. Wear thick gloves if you need to move it.
To report the incident and get advice, call:
- England – Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) Rural Services Helpline on 03000 200 301
- Wales – APHA Rural Services Helpline on 0300 303 8268
- Scotland – your local APHA Field Service Office – find contact details for your nearest Field Service Office
Page last reviewed: 23/02/2017
Next review due: 23/02/2020
The following symptoms of diabetes are typical. However, some people with type 2 diabetes have symptoms so mild that they go unnoticed.
Common symptoms of diabetes: