Treatment should be started as soon as possible, ideally within a few hours of being bitten or scratched.

But it's often safe to delay treatment until the next day if the vaccine and/or immunoglobulin need to be specially ordered in by your doctor.

Without treatment, the symptoms of rabies will usually develop after 3 to 12 weeks, although they can start sooner or much later than this.

The first symptoms can include:

  • a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
  • a headache
  • feeling anxious or generally unwell
  • in some cases, discomfort at the site of the bite.

Other symptoms appear a few days later, such as:

Once symptoms appear, rabies is almost always fatal. In these cases, treatment will focus on making the person as comfortable as possible.

The UK has been rabies-free since the beginning of the 20th century, with the exception of a rabies-like virus in a species of wild bat called Daubenton's bats.

This has only been found in a few bats, and the risk of human infection is thought to be low. People who regularly handle bats are most at risk.

There has only been 1 recorded case of someone catching rabies from a bat in the UK. It's also rare for infected bats to spread rabies to other animals.

But if you find an injured or dead bat, don't touch it. Wear thick gloves if you need to move it.

To report the incident and get advice, call:

  • England – Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) Rural Services Helpline on 03000 200 301
  • Wales – APHA Rural Services Helpline on 0300 303 8268
  • Scotland – your local APHA Field Service Office – find contact details for your nearest Field Service Office

Page last reviewed: 23/02/2017
Next review due: 23/02/2020

The following symptoms of diabetes are typical. However, some people with type 2 diabetes have symptoms so mild that they go unnoticed.

Common symptoms of diabetes:

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What can you do if you have PD?

  • Work with your doctor to create a plan to stay healthy. This might include the following:
    • A referral to a neurologist, a doctor who specializes in the brain
    • Care from an occupational therapist, physical therapist or speech therapist
    • Meeting with a medical social worker to talk about how Parkinson's will affect your life
  • Start a regular exercise program to delay further symptoms.
  • Talk with family and friends who can provide you with the support you need.

For more information, visit our Treatment page.

Watch and share this public service announcement featuring U.S. Senator Cory Booker that discusses the early warning signs of Parkinson's disease.

Page reviewed by Dr. Chauncey Spears, Movement Disorders Fellow at the University of Florida, a Parkinson’s Foundation Center of Excellence.

Melissa Kaplan's
Lyme Disease
Part of the Chronic Neuroimmune Diseases Information Resources for CFS, FM, MCS, Lyme Disease, Thyroid, and more.
Last updated January 1, 2014

Short Symptom List: Lyme Disease & Common Co-Infections

Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia

The following symptoms were excerpted from Diagnostic Hints And Treatment Guidelines For Lyme And Other Tick Borne Illnesses, by Joseph J. Burrascano Jr., M.D. (Fifteenth Edition 2008).

(Borreliosis, neuroborreliosis; also known as Lyme Disease)
Spread primarily though the bite of infected ticks that live on a wide range of mammalian species; secondary human-to-human transmission through semen, breast milk, and possibly in utero

Bladder dysfunction
Burning or stabbing sensations
Cardiac impairment
Change in bowel function
Chest pain
Difficulty thinking
Difficulty with concentration and reading
Difficulty with speech, writing
Difficulty finding words; name blocking
Disorientation: getting lost, going to wrong places
Disturbed sleep: too much, too little, fractionated, early awakening
Ears/Hearing: buzzing, ringing, ear pain, sound sensitivity
Exaggerated symptoms or worse hangover from alcohol
Eyes/Vision: double, blurry, increased floaters, light sensitivity
Facial paralysis (Bell's palsy)
Fatigue, tiredness, poor stamina
Heart block
Heart murmur
Heart palpitations
Heart valve prolapse
Increased motion sickness
Irritable bladder
Joint pain or swelling
Mood swings
Muscle pain or cramps
Neck creaks & cracks
Neck stiffness, pain
Pelvic pain
Poor attention
Poor balance
Poor short-term memory
Problem absorbing new information
Pulse skips
Rib soreness
Sexual dysfunction or loss of libido
Shooting pains
Shortness of breath; cough
Skin hypersensitivity
Sore throat
Stiffness of the joints or back
Swollen glands
Testicular pain
Twitching of the face or other muscles
Unavoidable need to sit or lay down
Unexplained breast pain
Unexplained fevers, sweats, chills or flushing
Unexplained hair loss
Unexplained menstrual irregularity'
Unexplained milk production
Unexplained weight loss or gain
Upset Stomach or abdominal pain

Babesia is a protozoan spread by ticks, blood transfusion, and in utero. Despite there being 20+known forms to date, current testing only looks for two of them.

Air hunger
Imbalance without true vertigo
Mild encephalopathy
Shaking chills

(Bartonellosis, also known as cat scratch fever)
Spread by bites from infected ticks and in utero

abnormal liver enzymes
flu-like malaise
hemolysis with anemia
high fever
immune deficiency
papular or angiomatous rash
sore throat
weakened immune response

Bites from infected ticks

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"There are many different opportunistic infections and each one can present differently," Dr. Malvestutto says. In Ron's case, it was Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), aka "AIDS pneumonia," which eventually landed him in the hospital.

Other opportunistic infections include toxoplasmosis, a parasitic infection that affects the brain; a type of herpes virus called cytomegalovirus; and yeast infections such as thrush.

Photo: Getty Images

About half of people get night sweats during the early stages of HIV infection, Dr. Malvestutto says.

These can be even more common later in infection and aren't related to exercise or the temperature of the room.

Similar to the hot flashes that menopausal women suffer, they're also hard to dismiss, given that they soak your bedclothes and sheets.

Photo: Getty Images

Another sign of late HIV infection are nail changes, such as clubbing (thickening and curving of the nails), splitting of the nails, or discoloration (black or brown lines going either vertically or horizontally).

Often this is due to a fungal infection, such as candida. "Patients with depleted immune systems will be more susceptible to fungal infections," Dr. Malvestutto says.

Photo: Getty Images

Another fungal infection that's common in later stages is thrush, a mouth infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast.

"It's a very common fungus and the one that causes yeast infections in women," Dr. Malvestutto says. "They tend to appear in the mouth or esophagus, making it difficult to swallow."

Ron woke up one day to find white patches on his tongue. He had thrush. For him, "It was not bothersome other than I didn't like having it." The infection was hard to get rid of, but finally cleared up after Ron started taking drugs to combat HIV.

Photo: Getty Images

Cognitive problems could be a sign of HIV-related dementia, which usually occurs late in the course of the disease.

In addition to confusion and difficulty concentrating, AIDS-related dementia might also involve memory problems and behavioral issues such as anger or irritability.

It may even include motor changes: becoming clumsy, lack of coordination, and problems with tasks requiring fine motor skills such as writing by hand.

Photo: Getty Images

Cold sores (oral herpes) and genital herpes can be a sign of both ARS and late-stage HIV infection.

And having herpes can also be a risk factor for contracting HIV. This is because genital herpes can cause ulcers that make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sex. And people who have HIV tend to have more severe herpes outbreaks more often because HIV weakens the immune system.

Photo: Getty Images

Late HIV can also cause numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. This is called peripheral neuropathy, which also occurs in people with uncontrolled diabetes.

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If you're travelling with a child, make sure they're aware of the dangers, and that they should tell you if they've been bitten, scratched or licked by an animal. Check them for any wounds if they come into contact with an animal.

For information about areas where rabies is a risk, see:

If you've been bitten or scratched by an animal in an area with a risk of rabies:

  • immediately clean the wound with running water and soap for several minutes
  • disinfect the wound with an alcohol- or iodine-based disinfectant and apply a simple dressing, if possible
  • go to the nearest medical centre, hospital or GP surgery as soon as possible and explain that you've been bitten or scratched

If this happens while you're abroad, get local medical help immediately. Don't wait until you've returned to the UK.

If you've already returned to the UK without getting medical advice, it's still a good idea to get help – even if it's been several weeks since you were bitten or scratched.

It's unlikely you've been infected, but it's best to be safe. Post-exposure treatment is nearly 100% effective if it's started before any symptoms of rabies appear.

If you've been bitten, scratched or licked by an animal that might have rabies, you may need specialist medical treatment to stop you getting rabies. This is called post-exposure treatment.

Post-exposure treatment involves:

  • cleaning and disinfecting the wound
  • a course of the rabies vaccine – you'll need to have 5 doses over a month if you haven't been vaccinated before, or 2 doses a few days apart if you have
  • in some cases, a medicine called immunoglobulin given into and around the wound – this provides immediate but short-term protection if there's a significant chance you've been infected

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On a diet of fruits and vegetables, constipation disappears, never to return.

Weight loss is entirely normal when the diet is improved. Some individuals become alarmed when their weight falls rapidly. In most cases, this is not a cause for alarm.

From five to fifteen pounds of water weight alone may be lost when salt is completely eliminated from the diet. In some individuals, five to twenty pounds of old fecal matter may be eliminated from the colon. All of this is useless weight, and you should say, “Good riddance!”

The body will also try to eliminate all diseased tissue in an effort to rebuild a healthy body. It will try to strip itself down to the bare foundations and then begin to add on only healthy tissue.

Weight loss may occur for six months to a year. Exercises for muscle growth, such as weight lifting and swimming, will help rebuild the body with lean, muscular tissue. Be sure that your diet includes sufficient amounts of sweet fruits that are high in calories to balance out the low-calorie salads.

Usually, you can expect to weigh about twenty pounds less after you renormalize your body from the typical high-meat and fat diet of most Americans.

Almost all the symptoms experienced during a dietary change are due to the body’s efforts to detoxify itself as rapidly as possible!

You can help in this process by fasting and getting plenty of rest. Be sure you get all the sleep you want and try to avoid stressful situations. During detoxification, you need as much peace and privacy as possible.

Never halt any symptom with medication. It will only reappear later in greater intensity.

Above all else, cultivate a positive attitude about what you are doing. Do not feel like you are punishing yourself or that you are making any great sacrifices. You are recovering your health, and that is the greatest reward that can be expected.

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Another type of influenza vaccine (nasal spray) is made with live attenuated (altered) influenza viruses (LAIV) but is not currently recommended by the CDC. This vaccine is made with live viruses that can stimulate the immune response enough to confer immunity but do not cause classic influenza symptoms (in most instances). The nasal spray vaccine (FluMist) was only approved for healthy individuals ages 2-49 years of age and was recommended preferentially for healthy children aged 2 through 8 who did not have contraindications to receiving the vaccine, if it is readily available. This nasal spray vaccine contains live attenuated virus (less able to cause flu symptoms due to a designed inability to replicate at normal body temperatures). This live vaccine could possibly cause the disease in infants and immunocompromised people and does not produce a strong immune response in many older people. Side effects of the nasal spray vaccine include nasal congestion, sore throat, and fever. Headaches, muscle aches, irritability, and malaise have also been noted. In most instances, if side effects occur, they only last a day or two. This nasal spray has been produced for conventional flu viruses and should not be given to pregnant women or anyone who has a medical condition that may compromise the immune system because in some instances the flu may be a side effect. Please note that the CDC recommended that the nasal spray (LAIV) vaccine should not be used during the 2017-2018 flu season because of relatively lower effectiveness seen from 2013-2016 (see the entire recommendation at

Some people do not receive influenza vaccine because they believe it is not very effective. There are several different reasons for this belief. People who have received influenza vaccine may subsequently have an illness that is mistaken for influenza, and they believe that the vaccine failed to protect them. In other cases, people who have received the vaccine may indeed have an influenza infection. Overall vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year, depending upon the degree of similarity between the influenza virus strains included in the vaccine and the strain or strains that circulate during the influenza season. Because the vaccine strains must be chosen nine to 10 months before the influenza season, and because influenza viruses mutate over time, sometimes mutations occur in the circulating virus strains between the time the vaccine strains are chosen and the next influenza season ends. These mutations sometimes reduce the ability of the vaccine-induced antibody to inhibit the newly mutated virus, thereby reducing vaccine effectiveness. This commonly occurs with the conventional flu vaccines as the specific virus types chosen for vaccine inclusion are based on reasoned projections for the upcoming flu season. Occasionally, the vaccine does not match the actual predominating virus strain and is not very effective in generating a specific immune response to the predominant infecting flu strain.

Vaccine efficacy also varies from one person to another. Past studies of healthy young adults have shown influenza vaccine to be 70%-90% effective in preventing illness. In the elderly and those with certain chronic medical conditions such as HIV, the vaccine is often less effective in preventing illness. Studies show the vaccine reduces hospitalization by about 70% and death by about 85% among the elderly who are not in nursing homes. Among nursing-home residents, vaccine can reduce the risk of hospitalization by about 50%, the risk of pneumonia by about 60%, and the risk of death by 75%-80%. However, these figures did not apply to the 2014-2015 flu vaccine because the quadrivalent (four antigenic types) vaccine did not match well with 2014-2015 circulating strains of the flu (vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 23%). This occurs because the vaccine needs to be produced months before the flu season begins, so the vaccine is designed by projecting and choosing the most likely viral strains to include in the vaccine. If drift results in changing the circulating virus from the strains used in the vaccine, efficacy may be reduced. However, the vaccine is still likely to lessen the severity of the illness and to prevent complications and death, according to the CDC.

Why should the flu (influenza) vaccine be taken every year?

Although only a few different influenza virus strains circulate at any given time, people may continue to become ill with the flu throughout their lives. The reason for this continuing susceptibility is that influenza viruses are continually mutating, through the mechanisms of antigenic shift and drift described above. Each year, the vaccine is updated to include the most current influenza virus strains that are infecting people worldwide. The fact that influenza viral genes continually change is one of the reasons vaccine must be taken every year. Another reason is that antibody produced by the host in response to the vaccine declines over time, and antibody levels are often low one year after vaccination so even if the same vaccine is used, it can act as a booster shot to raise immunity.

Many people still refuse to get flu shots because of misunderstandings, fear, "because I never get any shots," or simply a belief that if they get the flu, they will do well. These are only some of the reasons -- there are many more. The U.S. and other countries' populations need to be better educated about vaccines; at least they should realize that safe vaccines have been around for many years (measles, mumps, chickenpox, and even a vaccine for cholera), and as adults they often have to get a vaccine-like shot to test for tuberculosis exposure or to protect themselves from tetanus. The flu vaccines are as safe as these vaccines and shots that are widely accepted by the public. Consequently, better efforts need to be made to make yearly flu vaccines as widely acceptable as other vaccines. Susceptible people need to understand that the vaccines afford them a significant chance to reduce or prevent this potentially debilitating disease, hospitalization and, in a few, a lethal flu-caused disease.

What are some flu treatments an individual can do at home (home remedies)?

First, individuals should be sure they are not members of a high-risk group that is more susceptible to getting severe flu symptoms. Check with a physician if you are unsure if you are a higher-risk person. Home care is recommended by the CDC if a person is healthy with no underlying diseases or conditions (for example, asthma, lung disease, pregnant, or immunosuppressed).

Increasing liquid intake, warm showers, and warm compresses, especially in the nasal area, can reduce the body aches and reduce nasal congestion or head congestion. Nasal strips and humidifiers may help reduce congestion, especially while trying to sleep. Some physicians recommend nasal irrigation with saline to further reduce congestion; some recommend nonprescription decongestants like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed). Fever can be treated with over-the-counter acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin and others); read labels for safe dosage. Cough can be suppressed by cough drops, over-the-counter cough syrup, or cough medicine that may contain dextromethorphan (Delsym) and/or guaifenesin (Mucinex). Notify a doctor if an individual's symptoms at home get worse.

Individuals with mild flu symptoms may not require the care of a physician unless they are a member of a high-risk group as described above. For many individuals, treatment is provided by their primary care physician or provider (including internists or family medicine specialists and physician assistants and other primary caregivers) or pediatrician. Complicated or severe flu infections may require consultation with an emergency-medicine physician, critical care specialist, infectious-disease specialist, and/or a lung specialist (pulmonologist).

The CDC published the following guidance concerning antiviral drugs:

Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are an important adjunct to influenza vaccine in the control of influenza.

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    The research is important information to give health care workers when they are confronted with a person who won’t get a flu vaccine because of concern about GBS, said Hawken.

    “It gives the health-care professionals giving the vaccine another tool to put these vaccines in context for those wondering about risk,” he said, adding that in most cases the vaccine is going to lower a person’s risk from GBS. Flu also kills thousands each year.

    It is possible, the researchers found, that in years when the vaccine is not a good match and is less effective at protecting from the flu, the risk of GBS from the vaccine could be less than the one in the million typically associated with it. The vaccine could also reduce, if not prevent, subsequent influenza illnesses, which could reduce the risk of GBS due to those illnesses. In some cases, researchers said, the risk of GBS from the flu could be overestimated, depending on the severity of the flu.

    Still, the researchers said the finding should provide reassurance that seasonal flu vaccines reduce an individual’s risk of GBS in most cases as well as significantly reducing the risk of flu.

    GBS associated with flu vaccines has been a concern since the 1970s, when a vaccine against swine flu was associated with an increased number of Guillain-Barré cases. There was approximately one case of GBS per 100,000 people who got the swine flu vaccine.

    The risk associated with subsequent vaccines is much lower, but it still remains a significant concern for many, especially health care workers who are encouraged or required to receive a flu vaccine for work.

    About half the population in Canada gets a flu shot annually, “not a great rate for public health,” says Wilson. The research should help clarify some of the concerns, he said.

    Both Wilson and Hawken said a vaccine registry, to more accurately track vaccine coverage across Canada, would help public health officials have a more accurate idea about vaccination rates.

    Otherwise known as the flu, influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses which can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Some people, including older people, young children, and individuals with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious complications from the flu. You can learn more about these groups here.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year. In Guidelines for Immunizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, it is recommended that the immunization schedule for patients with IBD should not, in most cases, deviate from the recommended schedule for the general population of children and adults. Current guidelines recommend inactivated (organisms have been killed or inactivated with heat or chemicals) flu and pneumococal vaccines in patients who are immunosuppressed.(1) Therefore, it is important to ask your gastroenterologist, primary care physician, or other health care provider whether you or your child with IBD should be vaccinated against the flu, as well as discuss its risks versus its benefits.

    Flu viruses primarily spread from through close contact (i.e. coughing or sneezing) with individuals who already have the flu. People also may become infected by touching something—such as a surface or object—with the flu virus on it and then touching their mouth or nose (

    In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that a pandemic of novel H1N1 flu was underway. H1N1 (referred to as “swine flu” early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This virus was first detected in the United States in April 2009. H1N1 is spreading from person to person worldwide, most likely in a similar fashion to regular seasonal influenza viruses.

    For the this year's flu season, the seasonal flu vaccine will protect patients against the common strains of influenza virus as well as the H1N1 flu virus, so only a single vaccination is necessary this year. Patients on steroids, immunosuppressant therapies, and biologic therapies should discuss the risks and benefits of the vaccine with their doctor.

    The CDC is encouraging the public to take the following 3 steps to fight the flu:

    1. Get vaccinated against the flu virus. The CDC recommends a yearly seasonal flu vaccine as the most important step in protecting against the flu. This year, a seasonal flu vaccine will protect against H1N1 strain of flu virus.
    2. Take everyday preventive actions: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze; wash hands frequently with soap and water; avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth; and try to avoid close contact with sick people.
    3. Take flu antiviral drugs if your doctor recommends them. If you get seasonal or novel H1N1 flu, antiviral drugs can treat the flu. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaled powder) that fight against the flu by keeping the viruses from reproducing in your body.

    For more information on the “Take 3” steps, visit:

    The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) provides general information about Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, such as this fact sheet. CCFA does not endorse specific treatments or vaccinations, and always encourages patients to discuss their treatment options and associated risks versus the benefits with their physicians.

    (1) Sands BE; Cuffari C, Katz J, Kugathasan S, Onken J, Vitek C, Orenstein W. Guidelines for Immunizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. Vol 10, num 5, Sept 2004

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    Fever seizures can be frightening but they are not usually harmful to the child and do not cause long-term problems, such as brain damage, mental retardation, or learning problems.

    M., I am going through the EXACT same thing with my 17 month old right now. He has had the flu for 10 days now with a fever for the majority of that time. I've been alternating Motrin and Tylenol and it brings the fever back down to normal but it's been anywhere between 102 and 103. Each day is getting better and we have to give less and less medication. I think we've kicked the fever today but like I said it's been 10 days. We took him in when it had been a week because the fever came back and was around 103 again and I was a nutcase because I thought it was something worse. They checked him for pnemonia and ear infections and everything else and he was okay. This strain of the flu is just horrible. I had it as well and I got a fever and it broke three different times. Its been two weeks for me and I'm still coughing. Our pediatrician told me that children this age get it way worse and for a lot longer than we do. Keep her hydrated. Pedialyte has worked well for us. I am sleeping with him and we have the mattress elevated and a humidifier in the room. Hang in there you're doing everything right. Use your mommy instinct, you know when something is not right. Take her in if you're too worried. Stear clear of the ER, if you can. Its full of germs that she doesn't need to catch on top of what she's already go though. It's so difficult to watch your baby suffer like this, I know. IT's been the longest week and a half of my life and I feel so helpless. Fortunately it won't last forever (although it feels like it). Good luck and hopefully our children will get well soon!

    have you had your doctor check to see if she has a urinary tract infection?

    I really wouldn't worry yet. A temperature of 103 is really not that high and means her body is trying to fight an infection (usually viral). The increase in body temperature makes the environment unfriendly for the infection, which is what you want. The vast majority of fevers are caused by viral infection and last no longer than 3 days. If the temperature gets to 105 then it could be bacterial. Fevers cause no harm, such as brain damage, when it is less than 107. Fortunately, the brain's thermostat keeps untreated fevers resulting from infection below 106. If she has convulsions, these are generally harmless (although very scary), but there is a need to rule out a more serious condition (especially meningitis).
    You do need to see a doctor if:
    a. the fever gets above 105
    b. if it gets hard to wake him up
    c. if her neck gets stiff (associated with meningitis)
    d. she starts getting convulsions
    See a doctor within 24 hrs:
    a. the fever gets above 104
    b. burning or pain with urination
    c. if the fever "breaks" and then returns within 24 hrs
    d. the fever lasts for longer than 3 days
    The best thing you can do for her is to try and make her comfortable. Make sure he is getting liquids. Boil a chicken with lots of vegetables and feed him the strained broth. Don't use broth you buy at the store. It's really not a problem that he doesn't have an appetite, but he does need fluids.

    DON'T GIVE HER ASPIRIN. Several studies have linked aspirin and viral illnesses with Reye syndrome.

    If you have to give her anything give her acetaminophen. This should reduce the fever by 1-2 degrees in a couple of hours. Keep in mind though that the fever is helping her fight the infection, so why try to help the enemy?

    Good luck and I hope he feels better soon.

    Most of the info above comes from "Current Pediatric Diagnosis & Treatment" by Hay, Hayward, Levin, and Sondheimer 15th Edition.

    I am sorry to hear your daughter is ill. When I worked at Spears Chiropractor Hospital many years ago we would take Rubbing Alcohol & rub under their armpits & between their thighs with it. It did bring down their fever. I was working in the Pediatric Floor at the time.

    I'm NOT a Dr. I'd suggest you go to a second pediatrician if you don't like what yours has to say.

    However, what our Dr. told us was that as long as it's not a constant temp for days and it does go down(night or day) that it's ok and just helping her get rid of the infection. As far as it being high at night, we had a Dr. who also told us to make sure not to overdress them. that they aren't covered in tons of covers.

    I think you're totally sane to be nervous. what parent wouldn't be - and feel free to go to the Dr. more (rather than less). I had a pediatrician tell me a LONG time ago that mother's instinct is often much better than Dr's. So if you're really really worried go in and insist on even seeing another Dr.

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    Four to five years

    7.5 mL twice daily

    Nasal irrigation with saline17

    Six to 10 years

    3 to 9 mL per nostril three times daily

    Three to five years

    1 g (1 × 10 10 colony-forming units) mixed with 120 mL of 1% milk twice daily

    *—Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, alone or combined with Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Information from references 14, 17, and 20 through 22.

    Therapies That May Be Effective for Common Cold Prophylaxis in Children

    One to three years

    5 mL twice daily

    Four to five years

    7.5 mL twice daily

    Nasal irrigation with saline17

    Six to 10 years

    3 to 9 mL per nostril three times daily

    Three to five years

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    Das früher oft bei Grippe zur Behandlung eingesetzte Virostatikum namens Amantadin gehört nicht zu den Neuraminidasehemmern, sondern zu den zyklischen Aminen und ist nur gegen Influenza-A-Virusinfektionen wirksam. Amantadin kann die Dauer von Fieber um einen Tag verkürzen. Als Grippemittel wenden Ärzte Amantadin allerdings heute praktisch nicht mehr an, denn:

    • Zum einen verursacht Amantadin nicht unerhebliche Nebenwirkungen (z.B. Durchfall, Depression, epileptische Anfälle ),
    • zum anderen entwickeln die Grippeviren schnell eine Widerstandsfähigkeit (Resistenz) dagegen.

    Antibiotika wirken nur gegen Bakterien. Bei der virusbedingten Grippe ist eine Behandlung mit Antibiotika also wirkungslos. Wenn jedoch neben der Influenza zusätzlich eine Infektion mit Bakterien (sog. Zweitinfektion oder Superinfektion) entsteht, ist es notwendig, diese mit Antibiotika zu behandeln.

    Die bei Erwachsenen gegen Grippe eingesetzte Behandlung unterscheidet sich in einem wichtigen Punkt von der Behandlung bei Kindern: Kinder mit Virus-Infekten wie einer Influenza dürfen keinesfalls Salicylate (wie ASS o.Ä.) erhalten, da sie hierdurch ein Reye-Syndrom entwickeln können.

    Das Reye-Syndrom ist eine lebensbedrohliche Erkrankung, in deren Verlauf es zu Hirn- und Leberschäden kommt. Während man die Erkrankung im Frühstadium noch heilen kann, führt sie voll entwickelt in etwa 70 Prozent der Fälle zum Tod. Wenn Ihr Kind dauerhaft Salicylate einnimmt, ist es deshalb wichtig, dass Sie es regelmäßig gegen Grippe impfen lassen.

    Bei einer Grippe (Influenza) kann der Verlauf sehr unterschiedlich sein: Es sind milde und unkomplizierte, aber auch schwerwiegende Fälle von Virusgrippe mit tödlichen Ausgang möglich.

    Bei einer Grippe mit typischem Verlauf treten die ersten Beschwerden ein bis fünf Tage nach der Infektion mit dem Grippevirus auf. Erstes Anzeichen für die Virusgrippe ist oft ein plötzliches und hohes Fieber. Überwiegend sind die Betroffenen nach etwa sechs Tagen wieder fieberfrei. Jedoch können andere Symptome der Influenza – und zwar Husten, Schnupfen (Rhinitis) sowie ein allgemeines Schwächegefühl – noch ein bis zwei Wochen länger dauern.

    Die bei Influenza entstehende Schleimhautschädigung kann Infektionen mit Bakterien nach sich ziehen, die unter Umständen zu Komplikationen führen. Um diese zu vermeiden, ist es wichtig, die Bakterieninfektion rechtzeitig zu behandeln. Wenn das gelingt, ist die Grippe nach einer Dauer von etwa ein bis zwei Wochen ausgestanden.

    Größtenteils entwickeln sich bei einer Grippe im weiteren Verlauf dann Komplikationen, wenn zusätzlich bakterielle Infektionen hinzukommen. Verantwortlich für diese bei Influenza relativ häufigen Zweitinfektionen sind vor allem folgende Bakterien:

    Nachfolgend kann es durch die Bakterien-Infektion zu einer Lungenentzündung, einer Mittelohrentzündung (Otitis media) oder einer Entzündung des Herzmuskels kommen. Dies kann weitere Komplikationen mit sich bringen. So kann beispielsweise eine gleichzeitig mit der Grippe auftretende Lungenentzündung dazu führen, dass Lungenabszesse entstehen, die wiederum schwere Erkrankungen des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems auslösen können. Möglich sind zum Beispiel:

    Wie sich bakterielle Zweitinfektionen bei einer Grippe auswirken, hängt in starkem Maße vom Gesundheitszustand der Betroffenen ab. Ein besonders hohes Risiko für eine schwer verlaufende Influenza mit Komplikationen haben:

    • Kleinkinder
    • ältere Menschen
    • Frauen während der Schwangerschaft
    • Menschen mit geschwächter Immunabwehr
    • Menschen mit chronischen Atemwegserkrankungen