• Internal Exposure: Irritates lungs
  • External Exposure: Irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Pyridazinone - maleic hydrazide(C), Retard(T)


Type of Pesticide: Growth retardant

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Slightly irritating
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Phosphonomethyl Glycine - glyphosate(C), Roundup(T)


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure: Irritates lungs
  • External Exposure: Irritates eyes
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, fungicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure: Vomiting, diarrhea, shaking, and weakness caused by bentazon herbicides
  • External Exposure: Moderately irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Mildly irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure: Irritating to lungs
  • External Exposure: Irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
  • Chronic Exposure:


Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, insecticides

Action on Human System: Irritant

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Zur Verhinderung oder Therapie von Sekundärinfektionen kann der Einsatz von Antibiotika sinnvoll sein. Bei sehr hohem Fieber ist zudem die Gabe von Antipyretika (z.B. Paracetamol) zu erwägen.

Die Wirkung einer vorbeugenden oder therapeutischen Gabe von Vitamin C ist umstritten.

Der Krankheitsverlauf ist sehr unterschiedlich, meist relativ harmlos ohne Folgen, z.T. aber auch lebensgefährlich (v.a. bei Kindern und älteren immungeschwächten Personen).

Die akute Erkrankung klingt in der Regel etwa nach 5 bis 7 Tagen ab. Einzelne Symptome (z.B. Husten, Abgeschlagenheit) können jedoch noch über einen längeren Zeitraum weiter bestehen. Je nach Schwere der durchgemachten Erkrankung ist eine Rekonvaleszenz über Tage, aber auch über Wochen möglich.

Eine mögliche Komplikation der Influenza, der bei bestimmten Virusstämmen auftritt, ist der so genannte Zytokinsturm. Dabei versagt die adaptive Immunantwort und es kommt zu einer Überreaktion des Immunsystems im Sinne einer sich selbst verstärkenden Kaskadenreaktion. Die dazu fähigen Zellen des Immunsystems (T-Zellen, Makrophagen) schütten große Mengen an Zytokinen aus, die eine massive Entzündungsreaktion hervorrufen. Sie tritt klinisch als schwere, perakute Influenzapneumonie mit Dyspnoe, Lungenblutungen und möglichem Organversagen in Erscheinung.

Bestimmte Erregervarianten des Influenzavirus begünstigen die Entstehung eines Zytokinsturms. Sie bilden Proteine, auf die das Immunsystem offensichtlich besonders empfindlich reagiert. Häufig unterscheiden sie sich nur in einigen wenigen Genabschnitten von weniger pathogenen Stämmen.

Egg allergy is common in babies and toddlers - occurring in 1 -2 % of pre-school children.

This page answers the following questions:

What are the symptoms of egg allergy in infants and toddlers?

The symptoms include:

  • skin reactions with urticaria (also known as hives) - this is the most common reaction. Read more
  • tummy upset and vomiting - even if the egg makes contact with the skin and is not ingested
  • anaphylaxis which is a serious allergic reaction with breathing difficulty and shock - this is much less common than with other foods such as peanut, other nuts and milk. Read more

The allergic reactions may be:

  • immediate - which occur within a few minutes to an hour of ingesting the egg. These are IgE mediated reactions, so caused by a particular antibody (called IgE) in the body. Read more
  • delayed - which may occur up to 24 hours after ingesting the egg. These are usually non-IgE mediated reactions, so they are caused by an immune response but it doesn't involve IgE

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Wenn wir krank sind mit einer Virusinfektion, ist es, weil das Virus in Zellen in unserem Körper eingegeben und übernommen ihre Maschinen, um Kopien von sich selbst zu machen. Die Suche nach Möglichkeiten, diesen Prozess zu stören, ist wichtig für die antivirale Arzneimittelentwicklung. Jetzt zeigt eine neue Studie, wie das Grippevirus auf ein Protein in der Wirtszelle angewiesen ist, um ihm zu helfen, seine Mission zu vollenden.

You can also catch flu by touching an infected person, for instance, shaking hands. Adults are contagious 1-2 days before getting symptoms and up to 7 days after becoming ill. This means that you can spread the influenza virus before you even know you are infected.

In this article, we explain the symptoms of flu, how it is treated, how it differs from a cold, and the best ways to prevent flu occurring.

Here are some key points about flu. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

  • Antibiotics cannot be used to treat flu.
  • Approximately 5-20 percent of Americans will develop flu.
  • Experts agree that the best way to prevent flu is to get vaccinated each year.
  • The flu vaccine is not suitable for certain groups of people, such as those who have a severe allergy to chicken eggs.

Confusing flu with a bad cold is common. Flu and cold symptoms may both include a runny/blocked nose, sore throat, and cough.

To help you tell them apart, below are some symptoms of flu that are different from a heavy cold:

  • high temperature
  • cold sweats and shivers
  • headache
  • aching joints and limbs
  • fatigue, feeling exhausted

There may also be gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; these are much more common among children than adults.

Normally, symptoms linger for about 1 week. However, the feeling of tiredness and gloom can continue for several weeks.

It is worth noting that not every person with flu will have all of the symptoms; for instance, it is possible to have flu without fever.

Often, fatigue is one of the earliest signs of flu and cold. With flu, the fatigue is often more extreme. Other early symptoms can include cough, sore throat, fever, body ache, chills, and gastrointestinal changes.

As flu is caused by a virus, antibiotics cannot help, unless the flu has led to another illness caused by bacteria. Antivirals, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza), may be prescribed in some circumstances.

Painkillers can alleviate some of the symptoms, such as headache and body pains. Various painkillers are available to purchase online. It is important to compare different products, and only take them under the advice of a medical professional.

Some painkillers, such as aspirin, should not be given to children under 12.

Individuals with flu should:

  • stay at home
  • avoid contact with other people where possible
  • keep warm and rest
  • consume plenty of liquids
  • avoid alcohol
  • stop smoking
  • eat if possible

It is a good idea for people that live alone to tell a relative, friend, or neighbor that they have flu and make sure someone can check in on them.

A doctor only needs to be informed if:

  • the individual is frail or elderly
  • their temperature remains high after 4-5 days
  • symptoms worsen
  • the individual feels seriously ill
  • they become short of breath and/or develop chest pain

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The symptoms of H1N1 is similar to the ones that people get in regular, seasonal flu and so things like fever, sneezing, cough, body ache, head ache, shivering, sore throat and fatigue are common. Diarrhea and vomiting are also symptoms that have been associated with some cases of this flu, also known as Influenza A.

How do I catch swine flu?
H1N1 is transmitted the same way like seasonal flu. Flu viruses are spread usually from person to person through sneezing or coughing by people who have influenza. Some people may become infected with the deadly H1N1 by touching something that has virus on it and then bringing to their nose or mouth.

How can someone with swine flu infect it to someone else?
Infected people can actually infect others from the first day itself, even before they themselves get any symptoms. This means there are also chances that one can pass on the symptoms of flu even before she or he knows that she or he is sick.

How do I protect myself from swine flu? How can I take precautions against H1N1virus?
There is no vaccine that can protect you or be prevention against H1N1 Flu. You can only maintain hygiene and take care to prevent spread of germs that can lead to illnesses like influenza. Here are the ways in which you can prevent yourself against the flu:

1. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you sneeze or cough. Throw the tissue in the trash after you sneeze into it.

2. Wash your hands with a liquid handwash like Dettol or Lifebuoy, especially after you cough or sneeze.

3. Do not touch your mouth, eyes or nose. Germs can spread in this manner.

4. Avoid contact with people who are infected. This is sad but then the disease is highly infective.

5. If you are sick with influenza, stay at home and do not go to school or work. Limit your contact with people so that they do not get infected.

6. Do not venture into crowded spaces.

7. Increase the airflow in your room by opening the windows for proper ventilation.

8. Sleep well, eat nutritious food and practise healthy habits so that you are physically active and immune to the flu.

How long can the Swine Flu virus stay on things like doorknobs and furniture?
According to medical experts, the influenza virus can stay on environmental surfaces and infect people from 2 to 8 hours after being deposited on things like door knobs, books etc. Germs of H1N1 can spread when a person touches infected areas or infected people and then touches their eyes, ears, nose or mouth. Cough droplets or sneeze from an infected person can travel through the area. When a person comes in contact with droplets of sneeze of another person or touches things like books or desk of that person that is contaminated with sneeze droplets, and touches his or her own eyes, mouth, nose etc; before washing hands, one can contract the virus.

What are the medicines and treatment options?
Taking oseltamivir(Tamiflu) or zanamivir(Relenza) can treat H1N1 but they should be taken in the early stages of the disease. Antiviral drugs or prescription medicines can make your immune system strong and keep the flu viruses at bay and stop them from reproducing in your body. So, you should start taking antiviral drugs within two days of getting H1N1 or influenza symptoms.

How do I prevent getting H1N1 in high risk areas?
If you live in places where people have been infected with H1N1 virus or have influenza like symptoms mentioned above, then you should stay home and avoid contact with these people. If you develop flu like symptoms, do not leave things to chance and take instant medical care. Your health care provider or doctor will be able to tell you whether H1N1 flu testing is required.

Does WHO recommend using a MASK?
If you are not sick or if you are not living in high risk areas, it is not required to wear a mask. If a near and dear one is sick with H1N1, you need to wear a mask since you will be in close contact with the ill person. Dispose the mask after contact and wash and clean your hands thoroughly. Using the mask correctly is important because using it incorrectly will spread infection.

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Your nose is stuffy, your throat is scratchy, and your head is pounding. Is it a cold or the seasonal flu? Symptoms can overlap, so unless your doctor runs a rapid flu test — a quick check done with a cotton swab from the back of your nose or throat — it’s hard to know for sure. Here are some basic guidelines for telling the difference between cold and flu symptoms, and what to do if you have either one of these infections.

Viruses cause colds and the flu. Both are respiratory infections. The simplest way to tell the difference is by looking at your symptoms.

If you have a cold, you’ll probably have symptoms like these:

Flu symptoms can include:

  • dry, hacking cough
  • moderate to high fever, although not everyone with the flu will run a fever
  • sore throat
  • shaking chills
  • severe muscle or body aches
  • headache
  • stuffy and runny nose
  • severe fatigue that may last up to two weeks
  • nausea and vomiting (most common in children)

Colds come on gradually over a few days and are often milder than the flu. They usually get better in 7 to 10 days, although symptoms can last for up to 2 weeks.

Flu symptoms come on quickly and can be severe. They usually last 1 to 2 weeks.

Use your symptoms as a guide to figure out which condition you have. If you think you might have the flu, see your doctor to get tested within the first 48 hours of showing symptoms.

The common cold is an upper respiratory infection caused by a virus. According to the Mayo Clinic, more than 100 different viruses can cause the common cold. However, the rhinovirus is most often the one that makes people sneeze and sniffle, and it’s highly contagious.

Though you can catch a cold at any time of year, colds are more common during the winter months. This is because most cold-causing viruses thrive in low humidity.

Colds spread when someone who’s sick sneezes or coughs, sending virus-filled droplets flying through the air. You can get sick if you touch a surface (such as a countertop or doorknob) that has recently been handled by an infected person and then touch your nose, mouth, or eyes. You’re most contagious in the first two to four days after you were exposed to the cold virus.

Because it is a viral infection, antibiotics are not effective at treating a cold. However, over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, acetaminophen, and NSAIDs, can relieve congestion, aches, and other cold symptoms. Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.

Some people take natural remedies, such as zinc, vitamin C, or echinacea, to prevent or relieve cold symptoms. The evidence is mixed on whether they work.

A 2015 study in BMC Family Practice found that high-dose (80 milligram) zinc lozenges could shorten the length of colds if taken within 24 hours of showing symptoms. Vitamin C doesn’t seem to prevent colds, but if you take it consistently, it might lessen your symptoms, according to a 2013 Cochrane review. And echinacea hasn’t been shown to help prevent or treat colds. A 2017 study in BMJ found vitamin D helps protect against both colds and flu.

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Of course mainland ethnic Chinese have not suffered any noticeable calcium deficiency - or osteoporosis. In addition - ethnic Chinese eating a traditional diet of fish, vegetables and rice alos have low levels of cholesterol and heart disease.

On the other hand - Westerners in developed countries with abundant dairy foods in the diet have the highest levels of osteoporosis and other chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease and arthritis.

  • This is at odds with the 'general rule' peddled by dairy corporations that milk prevents osteoporosis

Recent clinical studies have shown that consuming dairy products at the recommended level (three serves a day) does not reliably prevent osteoporosis. In fact it can contribute to bone density loss. A 1992 study showed that women on dairy-rich diets actually had a higher rate of bone fracture from osteoporosis that those on a dairy-free diet. It was found that the level of calcium in the body was a delicate balance:

  • Calcium absorption from the diet offset by
  • Leaky Gut: allowing nutrients to leave to body before absorption
  • The loss of calcium leached out by eating animal protein, caffeine, salt and also by smoking and physical inactivity.

So prevention of osteoporosis is not just a matter of eating calcium-rich foods. Firstly the calcium must be in a form that is readily absorbed and secondly we must take care with factors that cause calcium loss, like Leaky Gut

I think I might have food intolerance: What should I do?

Beginning with our free e-book, we can help you establish if you are suffering from gluten or wheat intolerance or if your symptoms indicate an intolerance to dairy, fructose or yeast. You may even be suffering from more than one food intolerance.

Doing nothing can be a risk. Undiagnosed food intolerance can cause serious long-term health problems like osteoporosis, anaemia and many others.

To learn more – sign up for the free e-book‘How To Tell If You have Food Intolerance’

Mosquito season is just around the corner, which means the U.S. and other countries are ramping up mosquito control in an attempt to contain the rapidly spreading Zika virus.

But as TIME recently reported in our cover story, authorities still expect the U.S. to see some locally transmitted cases of the virus this summer. One challenge is that it can be difficult to track the exact number of people infected with Zika, because the symptoms are similar to other diseases—and the vast majority of those who are infected don’t show any symptoms at all.

For those who do develop symptoms, the most common ones that characterize a Zika infection are red eyes, joint pain, rash and fever. If a person has a rash with or without a fever and another one of the four symptoms, that is considered a probable case of Zika. Still, there are other ailments that can cause similar symptoms, like the flu or other mosquito-borne illnesses like dengue.

Right now, the people at risk of getting infected are those who travel to one of the over 40 countries with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Should a person start having symptoms of the virus within two weeks of traveling to an affected region, it may be a good idea to see a doctor and determine whether to be tested. All pregnant women who travel to regions with Zika should be tested regardless of whether they have symptoms, health experts advise. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable since Zika is now proven to cause microcephaly, a birth defect, in infants. Partners of pregnant women should also be aware that the virus can be sexually transmitted, which is why health officials are advising men to abstain or use contraception for six months if they have been exposed and don’t want to pass it on. Women who may have been exposed should wait at least eight weeks before trying to get pregnant.

Currently, only state and federal laboratories can test for the virus and sometimes results can take weeks to get back. You can read more about whether you should be tested here.

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Einen wichtigen Hinweis, ob es sich tatsächlich um Grippe-Viren handelt, gibt der Influenza-Schnelltest. Für diesen Test wird aus dem Nasen- oder Rachenraum Speichel mit einem Wattestäbchen abgestrichen und auf einen Teststreifen gebracht. Färbt sich der Test, ist eine Influenza-Infektion sehr wahrscheinlich.

Manchmal muss das Material aber weiter in ein Labor geschickt werden, wo man durch eine Genanalyse das Virus hundertprozentig identifizieren kann.

Wurden bei einem Patienten Grippe-Viren nachgewiesen, muss der Arzt dies dem Gesundheitsamt melden. So können Vorsichtsmaßnahmen getroffen werden, die eine größere Ausbreitung der Krankheit verhindern sollen. Im Krankenhaus etwa werden Erkrankte in einem Einzelzimmer isoliert. Besucher und medizinisches Personal müssen Schutzkleidung tragen, wenn sie das Krankenzimmer betreten. Auch regelmäßiges Händewaschen dämmt die Weitergabe der Viren an andere Personen ein.

Die Grippe wird durch Viren hervorgerufen, die man wissenschaftlich als Influenza-Viren bezeichnet. Insgesamt gibt es drei unterschiedliche Grippeviren-Gattungen: A, B und C. Aber nur Influenza A-Viren können den Menschen wirklich gefährlich werden. Anders als die B-Viren, die meist nur mildere Krankheitsverläufe provozieren und die C-Viren, die nur sehr sporadisch auftreten, sind sie für die schweren Grippeepidemien verantwortlich. Sie sind sehr wandlungsfähig und werden in eine ganze Menge Untergruppen eingeteilt.

Diese Subgruppen, die zum Beispiel H1N1 oder H3N2 heißen, gliedern sich nach den Proteinen auf der Oberfläche der Influenza-A-Viren, mit deren Hilfe diese in die Wirtszellen eindringen und sich anschließend aus dieser wieder befreien können. H steht dabei für Hämagglutinin, N für Neuraminidase.

Tritt die Grippe zeitlich und örtlich gehäuft auf, spricht man von einer Epidemie. Überschreitet die Erkrankungswelle Länder oder sogar Kontinente nennt man das Pandemie. Grippewellen treten beinahe jedes Jahr in der Winterszeit auf. Alle zehn bis 40 Jahre kommt es zu einer Grippe-Pandemie, die aber unterschiedlich schwer verlaufen kann. An der „Schweinegrippe“ starben im Jahr 2009 weltweit 18.000 Menschen.

En date du 17 avril 2018
Semaine du 8 au 14 avril 2018

  • Activité grippale faible, tendance à la baisse

Le système de surveillance de la grippe au Québec est coordonné par la Direction de la vigie sanitaire (DVS) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS). Les renseignements fournis par ce système de surveillance servent à informer le Ministère lui-même, les organisations régionales de la santé et la population sur la situation épidémiologique concernant la grippe ainsi qu’à soutenir les interventions de santé publique.
Ses principaux objectifs sont les suivants:

  • identifier de manière précoce la circulation des virus de la grippe au Québec et en suivre l’évolution;
  • consigner des informations sur le type, le sous-type et la caractérisation antigénique des souches de virus de l’influenza en circulation afin de pouvoir comparer celles-ci avec la composition du vaccin utilisé et orienter les interventions de santé publique;
  • suivre l’évolution de l’activité grippale et évaluer les répercussions de cette activité sur la population, en ce qui a trait à la morbidité et à la mortalité;
  • déterminer quelles sont les populations affectées afin de faciliter l’identification des groupes pour lesquels le risque de souffrir des complications de la grippe est élevé et établir des comparaisons avec d’autres populations ou avec d’autres saisons d’influenza;
  • détecter, de manière précoce, tout phénomène inhabituel, y compris une dérive ou une cassure antigénique, une résistance aux antiviraux, une présentation clinique atypique ou une gravité inusitée de la maladie dans la population;
  • évaluer les effets des mesures de prévention et de contrôle de l’influenza.

Le DSV utilise différents indicateurs pour suivre l’activité grippale au Québec. Il diffuse les résultats toutes les semaines lorsque les virus de l’influenza sont détectés dans plus de 3 % des échantillons analysés.

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    • Internal Exposure: Abdominal and back pain; painful urination; blood in urine
    • External Exposure: Skin rash; sweet taste in mouth
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Copper salts and Organic Complexes - copper sulfate(C)


    Type of Pesticide: Fungicides

    Action on Human System: Injures intestinal lining, brain, liver, kidneys, and blood

    • Internal Exposure: Prompt vomiting; burning pain in chest; diarrhea, headache, sweating
    • External Exposure: Irritates skin and eyes; damages mucous membranes
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Fungicides

    Action on Human System: Irritates stomach and intestine; injury to kidneys, brain lining, and nervous system

    • Internal Exposure: Excitement, tremors, salivation, diarrhea
    • External Exposure: Minimal
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, algicides

    Action on Human System: Damages heart, blood vessels, nervous system, and intestional lining.

    • Internal Exposure: Convulsions, shock, lack of coordination
    • External Exposure: Irritating to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Insecticides

    Action on Human System: Injures nervous system

    • Internal Exposure: Nausea, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, shaking, abdominal pain, lack of coordination, sweating, salivation.
    • External Exposure: Minimal but readily absorbed through the skin
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Phenylmercuric Salts - phenylmercury acetate(C), Agrosan(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Fungicides

    Action on Human System: Injures nervous system and kidneys

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    The most common complication is a chest infection caused by a germ (bacterium). This may develop in addition to the viral infection (that is, a secondary infection). This can sometimes become serious and develop into pneumonia. A course of antibiotic medication will often cure this. However, a bacterial infection can sometimes become life-threatening, particularly in those who are frail or elderly.

    Note: with flu (influenza) or a flu-like illness it is common to have a cough that lingers for 1-2 weeks after other symptoms have gone. Green phlegm (sputum) does not necessarily mean that you have a secondary chest infection. The symptoms to look out for that may indicate a secondary chest infection include:

    • A recurrence of a high temperature (fever).
    • Worsening of cough.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Fast breathing.
    • Chest pain.

    Other complications that sometimes occur include a sinus infection and an ear infection. Other serious complications are rare, such as brain inflammation (encephalitis).

    Immunisation for Flu

    Did you find this information useful? yes no

    If you think you have symptoms of the flu,
    you should talk to your health care
    provider
    immediately. Take a look at the sections
    below to help decide if you are
    experiencing
    flu-like symptoms or something else.

    The flu—also called influenza—is an illness
    caused by
    influenza viruses, which cause epidemics every year. 7,8
    In the United States,
    flu season typically begins in the
    fall, 7,8 and it's recommended that everyone 6 months
    of age and older, with rare exception, get an annual
    flu vaccine. 9

    Younger children may not exhibit the same flu symptoms as adults.
    Ask your pediatrician about
    what signs to look out for. 10

    Flu symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to a
    few weeks. If you’re experiencing any combination of the following symptoms, especially fever, visit your health care provider to see if you have the flu. 7,8

    In the event someone with the flu is experiencing
    any of the emergency signs below,
    please seek
    medical attention right away.

    • Difficulty breathing or shortness
      of breath
    • Pain or pressure in the chest
      or abdomen
    • Sudden dizziness
    • Confusion
    • Severe or persistent vomiting
    • Flu-like symptoms that improve
      but then return with fever and
      worse cough
    • Fast breathing or trouble breathing
    • Bluish skin color
    • Not drinking enough fluids
    • Not waking up or not interacting
    • Being so irritable that the child
      does not want to be held
    • Flu-like symptoms improve but then
      return with fever and worse cough
    • Fever with a rash
    • Unable to eat
    • Trouble breathing
    • No tears when crying
    • Significantly fewer wet diapers
      than normal

    IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

    Fluzone Quadrivalent, Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent, and Fluzone
    High-Dose vaccines should not be administered to anyone with a severe allergic reaction (eg, anaphylaxis) to any vaccine component, including eggs, egg products, or thimerosal (the multidose vial is the only presentation containing thimerosal), or to a previous dose of any influenza vaccine.

    Tell the doctor if you/your child has ever experienced Guillain-Barré syndrome (severe muscle weakness) after a previous dose of influenza vaccine. If you notice any other problems or symptoms following vaccination, please contact your health care professional immediately.

    Side effects to Fluzone Quadrivalent, Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent, and Fluzone High-Dose vaccines include pain and swelling at the injection site (also itching at the injection site and shivering in adults receiving Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent vaccine); muscle aches, fatigue, and headache (also irritability, abnormal crying, drowsiness, appetite loss, vomiting, and fever in young children receiving Fluzone Quadrivalent vaccine). Itching, redness, swelling, and firmness at the injection site have occurred more frequently with vaccine administered into the skin compared to vaccine administered into the muscle. Other side effects may occur. Vaccination with Fluzone Quadrivalent, Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent, or Fluzone
    High-Dose vaccine may not protect all individuals.

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    The research is important information to give health care workers when they are confronted with a person who won’t get a flu vaccine because of concern about GBS, said Hawken.

    “It gives the health-care professionals giving the vaccine another tool to put these vaccines in context for those wondering about risk,” he said, adding that in most cases the vaccine is going to lower a person’s risk from GBS. Flu also kills thousands each year.

    It is possible, the researchers found, that in years when the vaccine is not a good match and is less effective at protecting from the flu, the risk of GBS from the vaccine could be less than the one in the million typically associated with it. The vaccine could also reduce, if not prevent, subsequent influenza illnesses, which could reduce the risk of GBS due to those illnesses. In some cases, researchers said, the risk of GBS from the flu could be overestimated, depending on the severity of the flu.

    Still, the researchers said the finding should provide reassurance that seasonal flu vaccines reduce an individual’s risk of GBS in most cases as well as significantly reducing the risk of flu.

    GBS associated with flu vaccines has been a concern since the 1970s, when a vaccine against swine flu was associated with an increased number of Guillain-Barré cases. There was approximately one case of GBS per 100,000 people who got the swine flu vaccine.

    The risk associated with subsequent vaccines is much lower, but it still remains a significant concern for many, especially health care workers who are encouraged or required to receive a flu vaccine for work.

    About half the population in Canada gets a flu shot annually, “not a great rate for public health,” says Wilson. The research should help clarify some of the concerns, he said.

    Both Wilson and Hawken said a vaccine registry, to more accurately track vaccine coverage across Canada, would help public health officials have a more accurate idea about vaccination rates.

    Otherwise known as the flu, influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses which can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Some people, including older people, young children, and individuals with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious complications from the flu. You can learn more about these groups here.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year. In Guidelines for Immunizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, it is recommended that the immunization schedule for patients with IBD should not, in most cases, deviate from the recommended schedule for the general population of children and adults. Current guidelines recommend inactivated (organisms have been killed or inactivated with heat or chemicals) flu and pneumococal vaccines in patients who are immunosuppressed.(1) Therefore, it is important to ask your gastroenterologist, primary care physician, or other health care provider whether you or your child with IBD should be vaccinated against the flu, as well as discuss its risks versus its benefits.

    Flu viruses primarily spread from through close contact (i.e. coughing or sneezing) with individuals who already have the flu. People also may become infected by touching something—such as a surface or object—with the flu virus on it and then touching their mouth or nose (http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/qa.htm).

    In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that a pandemic of novel H1N1 flu was underway. H1N1 (referred to as “swine flu” early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This virus was first detected in the United States in April 2009. H1N1 is spreading from person to person worldwide, most likely in a similar fashion to regular seasonal influenza viruses.

    For the this year's flu season, the seasonal flu vaccine will protect patients against the common strains of influenza virus as well as the H1N1 flu virus, so only a single vaccination is necessary this year. Patients on steroids, immunosuppressant therapies, and biologic therapies should discuss the risks and benefits of the vaccine with their doctor.

    The CDC is encouraging the public to take the following 3 steps to fight the flu:

    1. Get vaccinated against the flu virus. The CDC recommends a yearly seasonal flu vaccine as the most important step in protecting against the flu. This year, a seasonal flu vaccine will protect against H1N1 strain of flu virus.
    2. Take everyday preventive actions: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze; wash hands frequently with soap and water; avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth; and try to avoid close contact with sick people.
    3. Take flu antiviral drugs if your doctor recommends them. If you get seasonal or novel H1N1 flu, antiviral drugs can treat the flu. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaled powder) that fight against the flu by keeping the viruses from reproducing in your body.

    For more information on the “Take 3” steps, visit: www.cdc.gov

    The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) provides general information about Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, such as this fact sheet. CCFA does not endorse specific treatments or vaccinations, and always encourages patients to discuss their treatment options and associated risks versus the benefits with their physicians.

    (1) Sands BE; Cuffari C, Katz J, Kugathasan S, Onken J, Vitek C, Orenstein W. Guidelines for Immunizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. Vol 10, num 5, Sept 2004

  • achat en ligne inderal effets secondaires

    Pour consulter l’activité hebdomadaire des principaux indicateurs:

    Parmi les principaux indicateurs, on trouve les suivants:

    L’indice d’activité grippale ainsi que le nombre et la proportion de résultats positifs par rapport aux tests de détection de l’influenza effectués par les laboratoires sentinelles du Québec sont publiés de façon hebdomadaire ici même, sur le site Web du MSSS. De plus, lorsque les virus de l’influenza circulent de façon soutenue, le DSV produit un graphique de l’activité virologique relatif aux saisons antérieures. Ce bilan est lui aussi mis à jour une fois par semaine, pendant la saison grippale.

    Assurée en partenariat avec les directions de santé publique, la surveillance des éclosions d’influenza dans les centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) est basée sur le signalement volontaire, par ces centres, des éclosions d’au moins deux cas d’infection au même type d’influenza survenus dans les dix jours, dont un a été confirmé par un test d’amplification des acides nucléiques. Cette surveillance est continue et effective toute l’année.

    La surveillance de l’activité grippale à l’urgence se fait à partir des données consignées dans la Console provinciale des urgences, une base de données administrée par la Direction générale des services de santé et médecine universitaire (DGSSMU). Elle s’appuie sur deux indicateurs: les consultations pour « Fièvre et toux » ainsi que les diagnostics de « Grippe/Influenza » qui ont été posés au terme de cette consultation.

    La surveillance des admissions dans les centres hospitaliers après un diagnostic de « Pneumonie/Influenza » est assurée à partir des données inscrites dans le Relevé quotidien de la situation à l’urgence et au centre hospitalier, une base de données gérée par la Direction générale des services sociaux.

    Autres indicateurs et projets spéciaux de surveillance

    Le DSV, de par son partenariat avec la DGSSMU et l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec, analyse les données relatives à des indicateurs secondaires qui ne font pas l’objet d’une publication régulière. Figurent parmi ces indicateurs:

    • la surveillance des syndromes d’allure grippale (SAG) par les groupes de médecine de famille sentinelles;
    • la surveillance, dans certains hôpitaux, des admissions attribuables à une infection grippale confirmée par laboratoire;
    • la surveillance des appels pour un SAG au service Info-Santé et Info-Social;
    • la veille épidémiologique et scientifique effectuée par différents partenaires.

    En plus des indicateurs de l’activité grippale définis par le DSV, des données et des renseignements sont recueillis auprès de diverses sources aux fins des objectifs du système de surveillance de la grippe. Ces données et renseignements concernent notamment:

    • l’identification des virus de l’influenza dans les laboratoires du Québec
      Au Québec, une quarantaine de laboratoires effectuent une surveillance continue des virus de l’influenza et d’autres virus respiratoires. Ce réseau de laboratoires sentinelles est coordonné par le Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ). Toutes les semaines, ce dernier reçoit les données de surveillance recueillies par les laboratoires hospitaliers membres du réseau et publie les résultats des analyses. Dans ses rapports, le LSPQ indique, notamment, le nombre d’analyses effectuées, le nombre de cas de grippe confirmés par groupe d’âge ainsi que la distribution géographique des cas.

    Le bulletin Flash Grippe est une production de la Direction de la vigie sanitaire (DVS) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux.

    Son contenu est le reflet d’un effort concerté entre service Info-Santé, les directions de santé publique, le Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec, l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec et l’ensemble des laboratoires sentinelles du Québec, que nous remercions pour leur contribution.