Most people in good health get better from the flu by themselves after 5 to 7 days. You should get good rest and eat according to your appetite.
Coughing and fatigue may last for 2 weeks or even longer.
You may relieve symptoms of the flu by taking the following measures:
If you have a fever, your body naturally loses a lot of fluid, especially through sweating. It is therefore important to drink a lot and often.
- Preferably drink cold or hot liquids: water, milk, juice, broth.
- Avoid alcoholic beverages or caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and energy drinks. As these drink make you urinate, they increase loss of fluid.
In the absence of complications or risk factors, treatment of the flu requires no prescription medication. However, to relieve fever and pain, you may take over-the-counter medicine such as acetaminophen, Tylenol ® for example, and ibuprophen, Advil ® for example.
Avoid taking medication that includes identical ingredients at the same time. For instance, do not take Tylenol ® and Tylenol ® Sinus together because both these medicines contain acetaminophen.
In certain cases, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine to reduce the duration and severity of your symptoms. This type of medication is most effective when taken at the onset of an infection.
If your child is over 3 months old and has a fever, you may give him or her acetaminophen such as Tylenol ®, following instructions given and according to your child’s weight.
Avoid giving children and adolescents acetylsalicylic acid such as aspirin. Such medication can lead to a serious disease of the brain and liver known as ‘Reye's Syndrome’ in children and adolescents with the flu.
The flu can lead to certain complications, including:
- Dehydration due to sweating caused by fever
For people considered more vulnerable to sickness, certain complications can lead to hospitalisation or even death.
This diagnosis is made when an individual has 6-7 episodes of acute tonsillitis in a year. Frequent infections lead to certain changes in the lymphoid tissues of the tonsils making them enlarged in size. They may get enlarged to an extent that they may touch each other. Recurring septic tonsillitis may lead to some scarring on the tonsils making them less capable to fight against the future infection.
Causes of tonsillitis
Viruses are the most common pathogens responsible for tonsillitis in children under the age of 6 years . A number of respiratory viruses can cause tonsillitis, including the Reovirus, Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Influenza virus, Echoviruses, Coxsackie’s A virus .
EBV infections may cause infectious mononucleosis.
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci) is the most frequent cause of bacterial tonsillitis. Bacteria cause tonsillitis more frequently in older children and adults than in young children. Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae are also frequent causes of tonsil infection . Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter may also cause tonsillitis, however are more prevalent in adults , .
In rare instances, tonsillitis can also be caused by fungi or parasites.
Is tonsillitis contagious?
Viral and bacterial tonsillitis are contagious illnesses and are typically spread through airborne droplets.
If tonsillitis is due to a chronic condition (e.g. allergy) it is unlikely to be contagious.
Signs and symptoms
The main symptom of tonsillitis is severe pain in the anterior neck area. Tonsillitis typically causes the tonsils to become visibly red and swollen. You may also notice patches of white discharge on infected tonsils. Tonsillitis symptoms include:
- Red swollen tonsils
- Sore throat
- Difficulty and pain during swallowing
- Difficulty in breathing
- White spots or yellow or grey coating over the tonsil (exudate)
- Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck
- Bad breath (halitosis)
- Voice changes, loss of voice
When should the tonsils be removed?
Today tonsils are no longer routinely removed after one or two episodes of acute infection. If one or more of the following conditions are present, surgery to remove the tonsils (tonsillectomy) may be recommended:
- Enlarged tonsils that make breathing or swallowing difficult
- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
- Chronic or recurring tonsil or throat infections:
- Five or more episodes in one year
- Three or more episodes per year for two years
- Infections that do not respond to treatment
Tonsillectomy is considered in those patients who are suffering, or may suffer serious complications of infection. These include peritonsillar abscess, history of streptococcal complications (rheumatic heart disease, glomerulonephritis), or neck abscess.
Treatment and self help for swollen tonsils
- Antibiotics. A common bacterium that causes tonsil infection is called streptococcus pyogene. When tonsillitis is caused by bacteria, it can be treated with antibiotics.
Virally transmitted infections do not respond to any currently known antibiotics. Viral tonsillitis may completely heal on its own within a week. Your body develops antibodies that fight off the infection quickly.
- Over-the-counter medications. Throat pain and fever may be reduced with over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).
- Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water).
- Suck on throat lozenges or hard candy.
- Use a cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier in the room where you spend the most time.
- Drink plenty of fluids. Soup, broth and tea are good choices.
- Get plenty of rest. Sleep helps the body fight infection.
- Boost intake of Vitamin C.
There are many effective natural alternatives to OTC medicines and antibiotics routinely prescribed for tonsillitis. Natural herbal and homeopathic remedies can help to safely reduce the symptoms of these conditions, clear the infection, cut recovery time and also strengthen the immune system to prevent recurring infection.
CSF in United Kingdom: control & past outbreaks CSF in Wild Boar in Europe: EU
Clinical signs usually appear 5-10 days after infection (occasionally longer). An individual pig may show one of four types of clinical effect:
a) Peracute (sudden death)
Especially at the beginning of a farm outbreak, young pigs may be found dead without any prior sign of illness;
b) Acute CSF (most common form)
Fever (40.5-41.5 °C,105-107°F) is often the first sign, then depression, weakness, anorexia, conjunctivitis. Constipation may be followed by diarrhoea or vomiting. There may be purple discoloration of abdominal skin, or necrosis of the tips of extremities (ears, tail, vulva). Neurological signs may occur: incoordination, tremors, convulsions, circling.
There is a high mortality (close to 100%) of acutely affected pigs, usually within a week of initial signs.
Other infections may occur concomitantly with CSF, the classic example being Salmonella choleraesuis
There may be abortions, stillbirths, mummifications and also congenital tremor of piglets.
Peracute cases may show no gross lesions. In acute cases there are haemorrhagic lesions at autopsy. The haemorrhages are most marked under the kidney capsule and in lymph nodes, ileocaecal valve, bladder and larynx. There may also be skin reddening.
haemorrhagic swollen lymph node - medial retropharyngeal
(courtesy of Dr. Stan Done, Veterinary Laboratories Agency UK)
Intestinal "button ulcers" may be seen, particularly in the proximal colon. They are 1-2 cm diameter with a necrotic centre.
button ulcers - internal surface of colon
(photo courtesy of L.D.Sims)
Cerebellar hypoplasia occurs in neonatal pigs with congenital trembling.
The Pig is the only species clinically affected although the virus can replicate transiently in sheep and cattle. Wild boars can be a reservoir.
Pigs can become infected by ingestion, inhalation, genital (natural or A.I. semen) infection, by contamination of abrasions or by transplacental infection of fetuses.
Most spread of CSF is by movement of infected pigs or feeding of inadequately cooked garbage (swill). Spread by artificial insemination was first recognised during the Netherlands epidemic of 1997.
Persistent carriers of CSF virus can result from the phenomenon of immunotolerance to CSF virus. Immunotolerance can arise from transplacental infection during fetal life and results in a lifelong high level of viraemia (virus in the blood) without any antibody response. These pigs can only be detected by virus isolation, or by immunohistochemistry after death. Further information can be found in the Chapter on CSF in "Diseases of Swine" (Details of the book and how to order on-line).
Local spread from infected farms to neighbouring farms within 1 km is well recognised, although the precise means of transmission can rarely be proven. Birds, rodents, pets or other animals may be involved. Slurry spreading is also possibly involved.
Spread can be associated with vehicles used for moving live pigs or for disposing of carcasses or manure. Other vehicles are theoretically possible but not proven e.g.feed delivery vehicles.
Some people who react to milk may either have Coeliac disease or Non Coeliac Gluten Intolerance. This is because these people also develop lactose intolerance. Please read our dedicated page for this. Read More »»
Currently the only 100% successful treatment for milk allergies is total avoidance of milk proteins. Infants who develop milk allergy, usually outgrow the condition. However, if the infants are breast-fed, the lactating mothers are given an elimination diet. If symptoms are not relieved or if the infants are bottle-fed, milk substitute formulas are used to provide the infant with a complete source of nutrition. Milk substitutes include soy milk, rice milk, and hypoallergenic formulas based on hydrolysed protein or free amino acids. Please note soy milk is hyperallergenic i.e. it is easy for the immune system to think it is harmful.
As explained above food allergy is triggered by proteins and the immune system mistakenly thinks they are harmful proteins. Proteins are broken down by enzymes when digested, and lack of proper breakdown may be the cause for the proteins to become allergens. Hence, as explained in Better Nutrition Journal and several medical papers enzyme therapy can help eliminate or minimise symptoms. Read Enzymes to the Rescue. Commercially available enzymes that break down proteins are available on the market and a very effective product is availably in the 'products' section here. Prolactazyme Forte does a brilliant job in most cases and can be used by children and adults alike.
Here's some information about cold and flu problems.
It is possible to effectively ease the pain and discomfort of colds and flu, naturally. Check out these two pages and hopefully they can help.
Having a cold or getting flu can really make one feel rotten. There are things you can do to help speed up recovery if you catch one. Also there are things you can do to try and minimise or prevent one in the first place. The same herbs that keep colds and flu at bay, can also help you get rid of it faster.
The common cold is caused by any one of 200 different viruses. When infection occurs, the walls of the respiratory tract swell and produce excess mucus, giving rise to the typical cold symptoms.
Symptoms range from sore throat, running nose, nasal congestion, watery eyes to hacking cough, headache, and fever. Most colds run their course in 7-10 days. Recurrent colds (almost constantly suffering) may indicate a lowered immune capacity and too much stress and often not enough sleep.
Colds spread from person to person and are highly contagious. Coughing, sneezing or hand to hand contact will easily pass the virus on. The virus can also live for several hours on everyday surfaces.
BUT - the above is what usually happens. It is possible to speed up the recovery and sometimes a cold can last just a day instead of a week!
One particular herb has recently had a lot of press coverage and marketing as a 'new' cure for colds. Echinacea has in fact been used by America Indians for hundreds of years.
A key thing with echinacea is that the quality of the actual herbal echinacea is vitally important. This leads on to the question of whether echinacea can be the answer.
The only way to know if something like echinacea can help or not is to try it. But do not buy a cheap, watered down echinacea or one that is old. It will be a waste of money and you will be disappointed. Ensure the herb is fresh.
Colds can take hold for many reasons and things such as stress, lack of sleep, poor nutrition, or anxiety or worry over something can all make you more susceptible. So if these other factors are not also looked at and handled, a cold can drag on.
Echinacea is originally from the North America Plains, but varieties of the species are now found on most continents. Echinacea increases levels of properdin in the body. Perpedin is a chemical which stimulates some of the internal protective mechanisms the immune system responsible. Importantly it seems to stregthen the defence mechanisms which protect the body against bacterial attacks and viruses.
Its anti-bacterial effect makes it a good herb for treating many viral and bacterial infections. Echinacea is also an excellent blood cleanser, it helps to sweep dead cells and other debris through the channels of the lymphatic system. And dispatches white blood cells to fight the infection.
Swollen legs, ankles, or feet
Difficulty thinking and focusing
Feeling down or depressed
Trouble remembering things
Slower speech or movement
Swollen thyroid gland
*This is not a comprehensive list of symptoms.
Keep in mind that just because you may have some of the above symptoms, it doesn’t mean you have hypothyroidism. Listen to your body. If something doesn’t feel right, be sure to make a note of it. Keep a record of any symptoms you might be experiencing and let the doctor know about them at your next scheduled visit.
The Symptom Profiler can help you record your symptoms. Remember, everyone is different. Some people with hypothyroidism experience only a few mild symptoms, or sometimes, no symptoms at all. If you think you might have hypothyroidism, talk with your doctor. He or she will be able to give you a proper diagnosis. But realize that even after proper diagnosis and care plan, it’s important to maintain a partnership with your doctor.
WARNING: IMAGE BELOW IS NOT SAFE FOR WORK!
Have some male herpes symptoms?
Most men don't deal well with the reality of male genital herpes!
So they will either deny that they have any herpes symptoms or they will procrastinate going to get TESTED for herpes.
Men can be pretty bad about asking for help and going to the doctor. It's in our nature to try to figure it out ourselves. Not a good idea with herpes.
You'll go crazy trying to figure out if you have herpes by yourself!