Swollen legs, ankles, or feet

Difficulty thinking and focusing

Feeling down or depressed

Trouble remembering things

Slower speech or movement

Swollen thyroid gland

*This is not a comprehensive list of symptoms.

Keep in mind that just because you may have some of the above symptoms, it doesn’t mean you have hypothyroidism. Listen to your body. If something doesn’t feel right, be sure to make a note of it. Keep a record of any symptoms you might be experiencing and let the doctor know about them at your next scheduled visit.

The Symptom Profiler can help you record your symptoms. Remember, everyone is different. Some people with hypothyroidism experience only a few mild symptoms, or sometimes, no symptoms at all. If you think you might have hypothyroidism, talk with your doctor. He or she will be able to give you a proper diagnosis. But realize that even after proper diagnosis and care plan, it’s important to maintain a partnership with your doctor.

WARNING: IMAGE BELOW IS NOT SAFE FOR WORK!

Have some male herpes symptoms?

Most men don't deal well with the reality of male genital herpes!

So they will either deny that they have any herpes symptoms or they will procrastinate going to get TESTED for herpes.

Men can be pretty bad about asking for help and going to the doctor. It's in our nature to try to figure it out ourselves. Not a good idea with herpes.

You'll go crazy trying to figure out if you have herpes by yourself!

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The blisters will be filled with liquid. During your primary outbreak you might get many of them all over your penis, groin area, buttocks, or inner thighs.

This primary outbreak of male genital herpes can last from a few days but more likely the Genital Male Herpes Symptoms will be around for between 5-20 days. It could be around longer.

Again during a primary outbreak all the male herpes symptoms will be VERY INTENSE. You'll feel miserable in this time.

It is very important that you get a blood test for herpes if you have any of these symptoms.

More importantly, you must hold off sleeping with your partner during this time. You are HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS during any male herpes symptoms so you should be honest and truthful with your partner .

After the primary outbreak subsides, then you'll get recurring herpes symptoms in men.

The most common genital male herpes symptom is getting outbreaks of lesions or blisters.

The first few years of having male genital herpes you might get outbreaks fairly often depending on many factors. I did.

If you're lifestyle is unhealthy, you can get many outbreaks.

If you strengthen your immune system, and take care of your health, you'll get a lot less outbreaks or genital herpes symptoms.

And going on herpes medication such as Acyclovir and Valtrex will both treat and suppress the virus. It's kind of a must to take these medications if you are sexually active and your partner does not have the herpes virus.

Well if you've read through this page and you think you (or your partner) have these signs and symptoms of male herpes.

Then I recommend the following steps:

1. Go get tested. You have some options here. If you have an active outbreak you can go for a culture test at your doctors. Or you can go to a testing lab like STDcheck and get it done confidentially on your own. If you do that, you can also ask your doctor for Herpes Medications.

2. Tell your partner. I have written on my website how to tell someone you have Herpes. It's a good idea to tell your partner about your condition.

3. Keep Dating. Your love life is not over. You'll just have to make a few minor changes in the way you date. Consider using a Herpes Dating Site. That way your partners will totally understand.

4. Use some Herpes Products. There are many different herpes products that you can use to alleviate your herpes symptoms. Try some of these to find out what works best for you.

5. Educate yourself. I just wrote a course on how to get healthy and happy, and deal with your outbreaks called The Herpes Survival Guide. It's filled with many, many strategies and tips for living your life with this virus.

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Photo: Getty Images

Another sign of late HIV infection are nail changes, such as clubbing (thickening and curving of the nails), splitting of the nails, or discoloration (black or brown lines going either vertically or horizontally).

Often this is due to a fungal infection, such as candida. "Patients with depleted immune systems will be more susceptible to fungal infections," Dr. Malvestutto says.

Photo: Getty Images

Another fungal infection that's common in later stages is thrush, a mouth infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast.

"It's a very common fungus and the one that causes yeast infections in women," Dr. Malvestutto says. "They tend to appear in the mouth or esophagus, making it difficult to swallow."

Ron woke up one day to find white patches on his tongue. He had thrush. For him, "It was not bothersome other than I didn't like having it." The infection was hard to get rid of, but finally cleared up after Ron started taking drugs to combat HIV.

Photo: Getty Images

Cognitive problems could be a sign of HIV-related dementia, which usually occurs late in the course of the disease.

In addition to confusion and difficulty concentrating, AIDS-related dementia might also involve memory problems and behavioral issues such as anger or irritability.

It may even include motor changes: becoming clumsy, lack of coordination, and problems with tasks requiring fine motor skills such as writing by hand.

Photo: Getty Images

Cold sores (oral herpes) and genital herpes can be a sign of both ARS and late-stage HIV infection.

And having herpes can also be a risk factor for contracting HIV. This is because genital herpes can cause ulcers that make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sex. And people who have HIV tend to have more severe herpes outbreaks more often because HIV weakens the immune system.

Photo: Getty Images

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9 DPO – Backache & tender breasts

10 DPO – Very tired (slept until 11:30 a.m.), back ache, headache, & tender breasts. Negative pregnancy test.

11 DPO – Very tired again, backache, cramps, & headache. Very light positive on FRER and positive digital test.

12 DPO – Very tired again, tender breasts & pretty crampy, particularly on my right side.

13 and 14 DPO – Same symptoms. I was very aware of my abdomen. The cramps felt a little bit like period cramps only not quite as painful, though I occasionally had sharper pains.

In the week that followed, I continued to be very tired (still am for that matter) and have some on and off cramping. I was only queasy occasionally, and I never threw up during the first two weeks post-BFP. Looking back, I think most of my symptoms prior to 9 DPO were just life symptoms and not related to my pregnancy. I’m guessing I implanted at 7 or 8 DPO. Then my symptoms really started manifesting, but I was just too convinced that I wasn’t pregnant to notice.:)

One of my big questions pre-BFP was how to know if I was tired enough to check the “fatigue” box on my Fertility Friend app. My pregnancy fatigue feels like when I had mono. I’m tired in a body achey, can’t stay awake to save my life, might cry if I can’t take a nap soon kind of way. Some days are better than others, and I am fairly unaffected by fatigue, but other days, it is a struggle to not fall asleep at my desk and I go to sleep for the night as soon as I eat dinner. In hind sight, I was putting “fatigue” down in FF too often when I was just really tired from my busy life. I would say to generally look for being notably more tired than usual. For instance, I slept in really late two days in a row when I normally can’t sleep past 8:30.

For those of you who have already gotten a BFP, what were your early symptoms?

It's quite common, yet highly annoying -- a runny nose. Your nose drips when your nasal tissues and blood vessels produce excess fluid or mucus, according to the Mayo Clinic. This excess fluid also runs down the back of your throat in the dreaded post-nasal drip. Sometimes you'll have nasal congestion along with your runny nose, but not always.

Dozens of things can cause your nose to run, from a variety of allergies and illnesses to more serious conditions like a deviated septum. Certain medications, stress and even pregnancy can also cause a runny nose. Sometimes the condition indicates a life-threatening problem, especially if you've suffered a head injury or trauma to the brain.

So, how do you know if your runny nose means you've got a problem? In the past, it was thought that thin, clear mucus meant you weren't too sick, while thick, greenish-yellow mucus meant you should haul it to the doctor. That's not necessarily true. You can have clear mucus and be quite ill and colored mucus when you have a viral infection for which antibiotics won't help a bit. In general though, runny noses are a temporary condition and will clear up on their own.

Read on to learn about why your nose may be mimicking a leaky faucet.

SUPPORT CANADIANS LIVING WITH CANCER

Select the text below and copy the link.

The signs or symptoms of leukemia may vary depending on whether you have an acute or chronic type of leukemia.

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Weil das Grippe-Virus durch veränderte Genabschnitte ständig neue Subtypen entwickelt, kann man mehrmals im Leben an der Grippe erkranken. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Infektionskrankheiten, die man nur einmal bekommt, weil das Immunsystem dann wirksame Schutzmechanismen gegen den Erreger entwickelt hat, wird man also gegen Grippe nicht dauerhaft immun.

Dies gilt zumindest für das häufigere Influenza-A-Virus. Es gibt jedoch verschiedenen Grippe-Viren-Typen. Typ B verändert sich viel langsamer, so dass man meist nur einmal im Leben an einer Grippe durch Influenza-B-Viren erkrankt, häufig bereits im Kindesalter. Die Krankheit verläuft meist mild.

Ebenfalls meist mild ist der Verlauf der sogenannten Sommergrippe, die eigentlich gar keine „echte Grippe“ ist. Denn sie wird nicht durch Influenza-Viren ausgelöst, sondern durch Enteroviren. Wie der Name schon sagt, tritt sie meist im Sommer auf und verläuft ähnlich wie eine Erkältungskrankheit.

Wie man eine Sommergrippe von einer Grippe unterscheidet und Informationen zur Behandlung der Sommergrippe lesen sie im Beitrag Sommergrippe

Wer den Verdacht hat, sich mit dem Grippe-Virus infiziert zu haben, sollte zu einem Arzt gehen. Insbesondere Personen mit einem erhöhten Risiko wie ältere Menschen oder chronisch Kranke sollten bereits bei den ersten Anzeichen einer Grippe ihren Hausarzt aufsuchen.

In vielen Fällen kann der Arzt anhand der Krankengeschichte und einer körperlichen Untersuchung bereits feststellen, ob ein Patient an einer Influenza oder nur an einem grippalen Infekt (Erkältung) erkrankt ist. Wenn es dem Betroffenen aber sehr schlecht geht oder die Gefahr besteht, dass die Erkrankung einen schweren Verlauf nimmt, ist ein Virus-Nachweis sinnvoll. Wenn dieser positiv ausfällt, kann sofort mit einer gegen Viren wirkenden Behandlung begonnen werden.

Einen wichtigen Hinweis, ob es sich tatsächlich um Grippe-Viren handelt, gibt der Influenza-Schnelltest. Für diesen Test wird aus dem Nasen- oder Rachenraum Speichel mit einem Wattestäbchen abgestrichen und auf einen Teststreifen gebracht. Färbt sich der Test, ist eine Influenza-Infektion sehr wahrscheinlich.

Manchmal muss das Material aber weiter in ein Labor geschickt werden, wo man durch eine Genanalyse das Virus hundertprozentig identifizieren kann.

Wurden bei einem Patienten Grippe-Viren nachgewiesen, muss der Arzt dies dem Gesundheitsamt melden. So können Vorsichtsmaßnahmen getroffen werden, die eine größere Ausbreitung der Krankheit verhindern sollen. Im Krankenhaus etwa werden Erkrankte in einem Einzelzimmer isoliert. Besucher und medizinisches Personal müssen Schutzkleidung tragen, wenn sie das Krankenzimmer betreten. Auch regelmäßiges Händewaschen dämmt die Weitergabe der Viren an andere Personen ein.

Die Grippe wird durch Viren hervorgerufen, die man wissenschaftlich als Influenza-Viren bezeichnet. Insgesamt gibt es drei unterschiedliche Grippeviren-Gattungen: A, B und C. Aber nur Influenza A-Viren können den Menschen wirklich gefährlich werden. Anders als die B-Viren, die meist nur mildere Krankheitsverläufe provozieren und die C-Viren, die nur sehr sporadisch auftreten, sind sie für die schweren Grippeepidemien verantwortlich. Sie sind sehr wandlungsfähig und werden in eine ganze Menge Untergruppen eingeteilt.

Diese Subgruppen, die zum Beispiel H1N1 oder H3N2 heißen, gliedern sich nach den Proteinen auf der Oberfläche der Influenza-A-Viren, mit deren Hilfe diese in die Wirtszellen eindringen und sich anschließend aus dieser wieder befreien können. H steht dabei für Hämagglutinin, N für Neuraminidase.

Tritt die Grippe zeitlich und örtlich gehäuft auf, spricht man von einer Epidemie. Überschreitet die Erkrankungswelle Länder oder sogar Kontinente nennt man das Pandemie. Grippewellen treten beinahe jedes Jahr in der Winterszeit auf. Alle zehn bis 40 Jahre kommt es zu einer Grippe-Pandemie, die aber unterschiedlich schwer verlaufen kann. An der „Schweinegrippe“ starben im Jahr 2009 weltweit 18.000 Menschen.

You should be aware of the early signs and symptoms of poisoning. It is important to remove the person from the source of exposure quickly. Remove contaminated clothing and wash off any chemical which has soaked through. You may save a life.

  • Be able to determine whether or not a person has been poisoned by a pesticide.
  • Learn to recognize kinds of poisoning and their symptoms.
  • Become familiar with chemical families and their toxicity.

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Tired or Lethargic
Normally active dogs which suddenly show signs of tiredness, no energy and take to sleeping a lot require urgent attention. An appointment should be made with your Vet ASAP to either prove or discount the possibility of diabetes.

There are three forms of Diabetes in dogs. They are Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Insipidus and Gestational Diabetes. Although all three types of Diabetes occur, Diabetes Mellitus is by far the most common. The use of insulin and prescribed food is often the only method available to enable effective control of your dog's diabetes once the disease has taken hold.

Diabetes Insipidus
This is an abnormal increase in urine output, fluid intake and often thirst. It causes symptoms such as urinary frequency because the urine output is not concentrated normally and instead of being a yellow color, the urine is pale, colorless or watery in appearance and the measured concentration (osmolality or specific gravity) is low.

Diabetes Insipidus resembles diabetes mellitus because the symptoms of both diseases are increased urination and thirst. However, in every other respect, including the causes and treatment, the diseases are completely unrelated.

Diabetes Mellitus in dogs.
Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps regulate blood concentrations of glucose. Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder where their bodies are deficient in the production of insulin or unable to use the insulin produced effectively. The symptoms become worse as the disease progresses so the sooner it is diagnosed the better to avoid complications.

The Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus in dogs.
High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) develop because the animal’s body is unable to break down and use glucose properly. This inability causes sugar to appear in the urine (glucosuria) that in turn causes an excessive amount of urination (polyuria). To compensate for the increase in urination the dog must drink an excessive amount (polydipsia).

Gestational Diabetes
This occurs only in female dogs during pregnancy when her body does not produce enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it produces correctly. Gestational diabetes has the same symptoms as Diabetes Mellitus and is treated similarly with diet control and sometimes with insulin injections.

The most obvious symptom is that of a normally well house-trained dog urinating in the home for no apparent reason. Sometimes this can be confused with incontinence, particularly with elderly dogs, but there are other conditions, such as a bladder infection, which can display the same symptoms.

A relatively simple blood test is required to give an accurate diagnosis. Although the same equipment used for human diabetes blood-sugar checking can also suffice, if the tests confirm diabetes a diabetes management program will be required right away.

The Canine Diabetes Management Guide is an electronic book available
for Windows, Mac, Linux, Kindle, iPhone and iPad.

It was created to help diabetic dog owners overcome the many unforeseen difficulties that can lie ahead with simple solutions to common problems arising from dog diabetes which you can implement at home.

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I am always looking for the next time. My kids do not talk to me anymore because they do not want me reporting it to the police if I know it is their dad. My twins are 35 and 31.

30) It's funny when people reach out on such a scary topic. I am feeling the same thing with recurrent illnesses over the years.

My question to those that posted negatively or said we are stupid: Why did you look for this topic in the first place? Are you someone looking to poison someone yourself? Just have some empathy, because, in my opinion, since you refer to our stupidity, you are probably looking to hurt someone else.

29) Is arsenic found in menthylated spirit and hair relaxers?

28) I am really worried. I have a lot of those symptoms and more that I have read elsewhere. Some symptoms that I have are white lines on my fingernails (I read that is a main symptoms of arsenic poisoning on many websites), it burns sometimes when pee(about two times a month this happens), I have weird texture type horizontal lines on my finger nails (also read on many different sites), a dry throat and purplish-red skin. I cannot think of anybody who would be poisoning me. Is there anything else that would cause these symptoms? Please help.

27) I have many of the symptoms, but my fears seem to be far-fetched. A lot is at stake with me gone from the scene though, and my husband is aggressive and acted violently against me several times already. People's intervention prevented serious consequences.

26) I'm confused. All of you are talking about the people you are living with poisoning you. If you think this is happening, why on earth would you stay there?

I know it's tough to move out on your own, you may not have means of support, but geez, if you think you are being poisoned, get out!

Even if you aren't, obviously you don't trust the person(s) you are with and believe they wish to harm you. Find a shelter, the local mission, ask a local church to help you find shelter, but get out if it's that bad!

23) If you are not sure whether someone is poisoning you, check your place for mold as it can produce many weird symptoms. Stop drinking fluoride in tap/spring water, check your mouth for metal fillings (mercury), and also start eating organic as commercial food has pesticides/herbicides (poisons). Many people are being poisoned by everyday life. I am sorry to those who were literally poisoned! Chlorella might help, along with Vitamin C?

20) @anon293093: See if you can get a lock of her hair. It doesn't have to be much, but poison can sometimes be detected in the hair. If it comes up positive for poison, maybe you can get her to file a complaint against him.

19) Please, someone help me. I have a good friend and she been feeling sick, lost her appetizer and she has been losing a lot of weight and gets sick at her stomach from time to time, I will say very often and she is losing her hair.

Her ex-husband decided to come back and live in her house and he has been preparing her meals. When they divorced, it was a bad divorce and turned really ugly to the point that he ended up in jail twice.

He came back crying to her and said he doesn't have a place to live and her daughter is seven years old. She begged her mom to let him in the house so she practically didn't have a choice but to let him in. Now she has been feeling sick like I said before.

Can someone please help me and get back to me with better advice on what to do to help her? I don't like to the way she is looking and I'm very worried.

18) I have been sick with the same symptoms a few times, four major times that I can recall. I am just getting over another bout. The symptoms were very severe stomach cramps, nausea, stomach bloating as if pregnant. weakness, headaches, lightheadedness, feeling as if I was going to fall over, muscles feel weird and weak, and throat felt restricted when I swallow at times. I realized this usually happened when I spent time over to a certain person's home for a weekend or any length of time, I alone would get sick.

I decided to send some samples of my hair to a toxicology lab and get tested to see what was going on. The tests came back showing arsenic in my system, twice as much as should be found in any human body. God had been good and kept me alive this long. Praise God. Someone has been poisoning me for sure, unless my well water at the former house I lived in was tainted. I am having the water there tested now, just to have it ruled out, really. The poison will show in the body with your hair so you will find it there. Please, if you feel as if you may be being poisoned, seek help and get that test done so you will know for sure. It could save your life.

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    Most people in good health get better from the flu by themselves after 5 to 7 days. You should get good rest and eat according to your appetite.

    Coughing and fatigue may last for 2 weeks or even longer.

    You may relieve symptoms of the flu by taking the following measures:

    If you have a fever, your body naturally loses a lot of fluid, especially through sweating. It is therefore important to drink a lot and often.

    • Preferably drink cold or hot liquids: water, milk, juice, broth.
    • Avoid alcoholic beverages or caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and energy drinks. As these drink make you urinate, they increase loss of fluid.

    In the absence of complications or risk factors, treatment of the flu requires no prescription medication. However, to relieve fever and pain, you may take over-the-counter medicine such as acetaminophen, Tylenol ® for example, and ibuprophen, Advil ® for example.

    Avoid taking medication that includes identical ingredients at the same time. For instance, do not take Tylenol ® and Tylenol ® Sinus together because both these medicines contain acetaminophen.

    In certain cases, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine to reduce the duration and severity of your symptoms. This type of medication is most effective when taken at the onset of an infection.

    If your child is over 3 months old and has a fever, you may give him or her acetaminophen such as Tylenol ®, following instructions given and according to your child’s weight.

    Avoid giving children and adolescents acetylsalicylic acid such as aspirin. Such medication can lead to a serious disease of the brain and liver known as ‘Reye's Syndrome’ in children and adolescents with the flu.

    The flu can lead to certain complications, including:

    • Dehydration due to sweating caused by fever
    • Pneumonia
    • Bronchitis
    • Sinusitis
    • Otitis

    For people considered more vulnerable to sickness, certain complications can lead to hospitalisation or even death.

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    Recurrent tonsillitis
    This diagnosis is made when an individual has 6-7 episodes of acute tonsillitis in a year. Frequent infections lead to certain changes in the lymphoid tissues of the tonsils making them enlarged in size. They may get enlarged to an extent that they may touch each other. Recurring septic tonsillitis may lead to some scarring on the tonsils making them less capable to fight against the future infection.

    Causes of tonsillitis

    Viruses are the most common pathogens responsible for tonsillitis in children under the age of 6 years [5]. A number of respiratory viruses can cause tonsillitis, including the Reovirus, Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Influenza virus, Echoviruses, Coxsackie’s A virus [4].

    EBV infections may cause infectious mononucleosis.

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci) is the most frequent cause of bacterial tonsillitis. Bacteria cause tonsillitis more frequently in older children and adults than in young children. Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae are also frequent causes of tonsil infection [3]. Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter may also cause tonsillitis, however are more prevalent in adults [1], [2].

    In rare instances, tonsillitis can also be caused by fungi or parasites.

    Is tonsillitis contagious?

    Viral and bacterial tonsillitis are contagious illnesses and are typically spread through airborne droplets.

    If tonsillitis is due to a chronic condition (e.g. allergy) it is unlikely to be contagious.

    Signs and symptoms

    The main symptom of tonsillitis is severe pain in the anterior neck area. Tonsillitis typically causes the tonsils to become visibly red and swollen. You may also notice patches of white discharge on infected tonsils. Tonsillitis symptoms include:

    • Red swollen tonsils
    • Sore throat
    • Difficulty and pain during swallowing
    • Difficulty in breathing
    • White spots or yellow or grey coating over the tonsil (exudate)
    • Fever
    • Swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck
    • Bad breath (halitosis)
    • Voice changes, loss of voice

    When should the tonsils be removed?

    Today tonsils are no longer routinely removed after one or two episodes of acute infection. If one or more of the following conditions are present, surgery to remove the tonsils (tonsillectomy) may be recommended:

    • Enlarged tonsils that make breathing or swallowing difficult
    • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
    • Chronic or recurring tonsil or throat infections:
      • Five or more episodes in one year
      • Three or more episodes per year for two years
      • Infections that do not respond to treatment

    Tonsillectomy is considered in those patients who are suffering, or may suffer serious complications of infection. These include peritonsillar abscess, history of streptococcal complications (rheumatic heart disease, glomerulonephritis), or neck abscess.

    Treatment and self help for swollen tonsils

    • Antibiotics. A common bacterium that causes tonsil infection is called streptococcus pyogene. When tonsillitis is caused by bacteria, it can be treated with antibiotics.
      Virally transmitted infections do not respond to any currently known antibiotics. Viral tonsillitis may completely heal on its own within a week. Your body develops antibodies that fight off the infection quickly.
    • Over-the-counter medications. Throat pain and fever may be reduced with over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).
    • Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water).
    • Suck on throat lozenges or hard candy.
    • Use a cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier in the room where you spend the most time.
    • Drink plenty of fluids. Soup, broth and tea are good choices.
    • Get plenty of rest. Sleep helps the body fight infection.
    • Boost intake of Vitamin C.

    There are many effective natural alternatives to OTC medicines and antibiotics routinely prescribed for tonsillitis. Natural herbal and homeopathic remedies can help to safely reduce the symptoms of these conditions, clear the infection, cut recovery time and also strengthen the immune system to prevent recurring infection.

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    CSF in United Kingdom: control & past outbreaks CSF in Wild Boar in Europe: EU

    Clinical signs usually appear 5-10 days after infection (occasionally longer). An individual pig may show one of four types of clinical effect:

    a) Peracute (sudden death)
    Especially at the beginning of a farm outbreak, young pigs may be found dead without any prior sign of illness;
    b) Acute CSF (most common form)
    Fever (40.5-41.5 °C,105-107°F) is often the first sign, then depression, weakness, anorexia, conjunctivitis. Constipation may be followed by diarrhoea or vomiting. There may be purple discoloration of abdominal skin, or necrosis of the tips of extremities (ears, tail, vulva). Neurological signs may occur: incoordination, tremors, convulsions, circling.
    There is a high mortality (close to 100%) of acutely affected pigs, usually within a week of initial signs.
    Other infections may occur concomitantly with CSF, the classic example being Salmonella choleraesuis

    There may be abortions, stillbirths, mummifications and also congenital tremor of piglets.

    Peracute cases may show no gross lesions. In acute cases there are haemorrhagic lesions at autopsy. The haemorrhages are most marked under the kidney capsule and in lymph nodes, ileocaecal valve, bladder and larynx. There may also be skin reddening.

    haemorrhagic swollen lymph node - medial retropharyngeal
    (courtesy of Dr. Stan Done, Veterinary Laboratories Agency UK)

    Intestinal "button ulcers" may be seen, particularly in the proximal colon. They are 1-2 cm diameter with a necrotic centre.

    button ulcers - internal surface of colon
    (photo courtesy of L.D.Sims)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia occurs in neonatal pigs with congenital trembling.

    The Pig is the only species clinically affected although the virus can replicate transiently in sheep and cattle. Wild boars can be a reservoir.

    Pigs can become infected by ingestion, inhalation, genital (natural or A.I. semen) infection, by contamination of abrasions or by transplacental infection of fetuses.

    Most spread of CSF is by movement of infected pigs or feeding of inadequately cooked garbage (swill). Spread by artificial insemination was first recognised during the Netherlands epidemic of 1997.

    Persistent carriers of CSF virus can result from the phenomenon of immunotolerance to CSF virus. Immunotolerance can arise from transplacental infection during fetal life and results in a lifelong high level of viraemia (virus in the blood) without any antibody response. These pigs can only be detected by virus isolation, or by immunohistochemistry after death. Further information can be found in the Chapter on CSF in "Diseases of Swine" (Details of the book and how to order on-line).

    Local spread from infected farms to neighbouring farms within 1 km is well recognised, although the precise means of transmission can rarely be proven. Birds, rodents, pets or other animals may be involved. Slurry spreading is also possibly involved.

    Spread can be associated with vehicles used for moving live pigs or for disposing of carcasses or manure. Other vehicles are theoretically possible but not proven e.g.feed delivery vehicles.

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    Some people who react to milk may either have Coeliac disease or Non Coeliac Gluten Intolerance. This is because these people also develop lactose intolerance. Please read our dedicated page for this. Read More »»

    Currently the only 100% successful treatment for milk allergies is total avoidance of milk proteins. Infants who develop milk allergy, usually outgrow the condition. However, if the infants are breast-fed, the lactating mothers are given an elimination diet. If symptoms are not relieved or if the infants are bottle-fed, milk substitute formulas are used to provide the infant with a complete source of nutrition. Milk substitutes include soy milk, rice milk, and hypoallergenic formulas based on hydrolysed protein or free amino acids. Please note soy milk is hyperallergenic i.e. it is easy for the immune system to think it is harmful.

    Enzyme Therapy:
    As explained above food allergy is triggered by proteins and the immune system mistakenly thinks they are harmful proteins. Proteins are broken down by enzymes when digested, and lack of proper breakdown may be the cause for the proteins to become allergens. Hence, as explained in Better Nutrition Journal and several medical papers enzyme therapy can help eliminate or minimise symptoms. Read Enzymes to the Rescue. Commercially available enzymes that break down proteins are available on the market and a very effective product is availably in the 'products' section here. Prolactazyme Forte does a brilliant job in most cases and can be used by children and adults alike.

    Here's some information about cold and flu problems.

    It is possible to effectively ease the pain and discomfort of colds and flu, naturally. Check out these two pages and hopefully they can help.

    Having a cold or getting flu can really make one feel rotten. There are things you can do to help speed up recovery if you catch one. Also there are things you can do to try and minimise or prevent one in the first place. The same herbs that keep colds and flu at bay, can also help you get rid of it faster.

    The common cold is caused by any one of 200 different viruses. When infection occurs, the walls of the respiratory tract swell and produce excess mucus, giving rise to the typical cold symptoms.

    Symptoms range from sore throat, running nose, nasal congestion, watery eyes to hacking cough, headache, and fever. Most colds run their course in 7-10 days. Recurrent colds (almost constantly suffering) may indicate a lowered immune capacity and too much stress and often not enough sleep.

    Colds spread from person to person and are highly contagious. Coughing, sneezing or hand to hand contact will easily pass the virus on. The virus can also live for several hours on everyday surfaces.

    BUT - the above is what usually happens. It is possible to speed up the recovery and sometimes a cold can last just a day instead of a week!

    One particular herb has recently had a lot of press coverage and marketing as a 'new' cure for colds. Echinacea has in fact been used by America Indians for hundreds of years.

    A key thing with echinacea is that the quality of the actual herbal echinacea is vitally important. This leads on to the question of whether echinacea can be the answer.

    The only way to know if something like echinacea can help or not is to try it. But do not buy a cheap, watered down echinacea or one that is old. It will be a waste of money and you will be disappointed. Ensure the herb is fresh.

    Colds can take hold for many reasons and things such as stress, lack of sleep, poor nutrition, or anxiety or worry over something can all make you more susceptible. So if these other factors are not also looked at and handled, a cold can drag on.

    Echinacea is originally from the North America Plains, but varieties of the species are now found on most continents. Echinacea increases levels of properdin in the body. Perpedin is a chemical which stimulates some of the internal protective mechanisms the immune system responsible. Importantly it seems to stregthen the defence mechanisms which protect the body against bacterial attacks and viruses.

    Its anti-bacterial effect makes it a good herb for treating many viral and bacterial infections. Echinacea is also an excellent blood cleanser, it helps to sweep dead cells and other debris through the channels of the lymphatic system. And dispatches white blood cells to fight the infection.