Alberta has a voluntary immunization policy for healthcare workers, and are focused on education, promotion, and making it as easy as possible for health care workers to get immunized.
Canine Influenza or commonly called dog flu (H3N8) is a newly emerging highly infectious airborne type virus that can cause contagious respiratory illness and infection in dogs with no exception to breed or age.
Since canine flu is a new disease so there is still much more to learn from this virus. Dog flu (H3N8) is very different from avian influenza or commonly called bird flu (N5N1) that has killed many birds, chickens and peoples in Asia countries.
Nearly 100 percent of dogs that are exposed to dog flu will get infected because they have no natural immunity to this new emerging disease and around 80 percent of infected dogs will develop mild flu symptoms within the range of two to five days after exposure. However some them may not show signs or symptoms at all but remain contagious for few day or weeks. The conditions and illness can be severe for young puppies, old dog and canine with low or weaken immune systems.
Most infected dogs make a full recovery within a few weeks but there are some case that canine influenza can lead to pneumonia if left untreated.
Canine Influenza continuously mutates itself and has the adaptation ability to infect a large variety of animals.
The incubation period for dog flu is around four weeks. If infected dogs had good treatment of antibiotics then they should be back to normal conditions. Mortality rate is very low.
There are molecular studies which indicated that dog flu mutated from equine influenza virus which is commonly called horse flu (H7N7 or H3N8). Equine influenza has been around for more than 40 years ago and there is no report on horse flu disease transmitted to humans. Centers for disease control (CDC) researchers do not expect dog flu transmission to humans because Canine Influenza and Equine Influenza are closely related.
Initially Influenza viruses are specific for their own host species and it requires a dramatic mutation in order to jump to other kind of species so if mutation occurs in the future then there is a chance that human can get infected but at present there is nothing to worry about.
Spread and Transmission
Dog flu is an airborne type virus which spread or transmitted to other nearby dogs by coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread by direct contact with contaminated surface or secretions from the nose.
Symptoms may be seen after 2-5 days of exposure and infected dog have the ability to spread flu virus for 7-10 days.
Dog Flu Symptoms
Goiter can form when the production of T4 falls sharply. To renew the production, TSH is secreted in large amounts from the pituitary gland.
However, if the low production of T4 is caused by iodine deficiency, the increased secretion of TSH does not translate into an increased synthesis of T4. Instead, TSH needlessly stimulates the growth of new cells in the thyroid gland, and this causes the enlargement of the gland.
In mild cases, which are the most common, a mild iodine deficiency may lead to increased production of T3 in the thyroid gland. However, since most of the body’s store of T3 is made from the available T4 which are not being replenished, T4 is rapidly depleted.
Goiter is a big public health problem not only in poor countries but in some affluent nations of Europe and in Australia and New Zealand. The treatment is, however, simple. By supplying iodine supplements, goiter cases can be quickly resolved.
The easiest way to provide iodine supplementation to any population is by mandating that sale of only iodized salts.
Although goiter responds well to iodine supplementation, it is best to treat the iodine deficiency immediately. If left untreated, iodine deficiency progressively destroys the tissues of the thyroid gland. After five years, even iodine supplement or thyroxine replacement cannot reduce the size of goiter because the damage is then permanent.
It should be noted that goiter can be caused by hyperthyroidism too and this second type of goiter does not involve iodine deficiency.
Cretinism is closely linked to iodine deficiency and goiter. In fact, it was the observation that parents with goiter are more likely to have mentally retarded children that revealed the nature of cretinism.
Signs of cretinism include impaired mental development, squint, deaf-mutism, stunted growth, improper stance and walking gait as well as all the other symptoms of hypothyroidism including low basal metabolic rate, low basal body temperature, cold intolerance, fatigue, weight gain and hair loss.
Iodine deficiency is the most important cause of cretinism and it can account for about 15-point difference on the IQ (intelligence quotient) scale.
Iodine supplementation is the only way to prevent cretinism and the supplementation is most effective when given in early childhood while mental capacity is in rapid development.
Salt elimination may also cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. People who go on salt-free diets may actually experience a slight increase in their blood pressure as the heavy elimination of salt begins. Later the blood pressure renormalizes itself and eventually becomes below the norm on a salt-free diet.
Eliminating sugar from the diet may make a person feel slightly nervous and hyperactive until the energy levels adjust to a sugar-free diet.
Mood changes, however, are usually more noticeable than any physical symptoms when sugar is eliminated. Reformed sugar addicts may feel periods of unaccountable depression as their blood sugar level tries to right itself. Getting off the sugar roller coaster, with its rapid rises and falls in blood sugar levels, is easier when a diet high in raw foods is followed. Such a diet renormalizes blood sugar levels and promotes tranquility of emotions.
Almost every person is poisoned by deposits of heavy metals in the body. Lead, aluminum, copper and arsenic collect in organs throughout the body. Because of their heavy weight, they are difficult to eliminate, and may cause discomfort as they leave the body.
Lead enters the body through auto exhaust, paints and canned foods. Aluminum may come from preparing or storing food in aluminum containers. Arsenic is present on sprayed foods, and so on.
Since these metals are heavy, they, tend to remain in the body until a cleansing diet or fast is followed. As these metals come out, headaches and a general achiness all through the body may occur. The gums may hurt and the kidneys may throb as these metals leave the organs and bones.
Occasionally, you can actually taste the metal that is being eliminated. Lead, especially often leaves a metallic taste on the tongue when it is leaving the body.
Heavy-metal poisoning can make you feel uncomfortable all over, and it is very common due to all the environmental toxins. As you eliminate these metals, bear the uncomfortable body aches and realize that they are leaving your body forever.
Meat-eating creates an acid condition in the body. When meat is eliminated, the body tries to reestablish its naturally-healthy, alkaline condition. As the acid condition of the body changes to one of alkalinity, symptoms may arise that may confuse the new vegetarian.
A sour, disagreeable odor may emit from the body as the acids leave or are neutralized. Hair may fall out and the breath may turn foul. Urine may be very dark and a sharp, bitter taste may be in the mouth.
Weakness of the arms and legs may occur. Many people contuse this weakness for protein deficiency. Instead, the weakness has resulted from a consumption of too much acid-forming protein in the past. The body’s energies are directed toward neutralizing these old toxins and so you may feel weak for a temporary period. Once the toxins are taken care of and an alkaline condition is reestablished, then strength returns to the limbs.
The discomfort of an over-acid body caused by meat-eating can be quickly overcome by a high-alkaline diet, such as fresh fruits and vegetables.
Most people who change their diet and improve their health may experience one or more of the symptoms described below. Depending upon your past health, these symptoms may be mild or intense, short-term or long-term, temporary or recurrent.
As you improve your health, however, and stay on an optimum diet, all symptoms will gradually disappear.
Under no circumstances should these symptoms be halted by drugs.
Relief from some of these symptoms may come through fasting and rest primarily.
"This is when the nerves are actually damaged," Dr. Malvestutto says. These symptoms can be treated with over-the-counter pain relievers and antiseizure medicines such as Neurontin (gabapentin).
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Advanced HIV disease appears to increase the risk of having menstrual irregularities, such as fewer and lighter periods.
These changes, however, probably have more to do with the weight loss and poor health of women with late-stage infection rather than the infection itself.
Infection with HIV also has been associated with earlier age of menopause (47 to 48 years for infected women compared to 49 to 51 years for uninfected women).
Individuals pictured are models and are used for illustrative purposes only.
Think you have HIV? The only way to tell is to get an HIV test, but here are some possible symptoms.
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Within a month or two of HIV entering the body, 40% to 90% of people experience flulike symptoms known as acute retroviral syndrome (ARS).
But sometimes HIV symptoms don't appear for years—sometimes even a decade—after infection.
"In the early stages of HIV infection, the most common symptoms are none," says Michael Horberg, MD, director of HIV/AIDS for Kaiser Permanente, in Oakland, Calif. One in five people in the United States with HIV doesn't know they have it, which is why it's so important to get tested, especially if you have unprotected sex with more than one partner or use intravenous drugs.
Here are some signs that you may be HIV-positive.
The most common type of malaria infection is that of Plasmodium falciparum and this strain does fortunately NOT have a relapsing phase.
The other strains such as Plasmodium vivax, ovale, or malariae can infect the liver and persist in a dormant state for months, or even years after exposure to the infection.
Should a relapse develop it can be treated by restraining the acute symptoms with chloroquine and then overcome the liver infection with medication called primaquine.
This medication is more toxic and has more side effects than chloroquine but is a very effective form of treatment.
People with a deficiency of the blood enzyme G6PD are predisposed to reactions from primaquine treatment but such an enzyme blood deficiency is easy to ascertain with a simple blood test before treatment with primaquine is started.
Prevention of malaria infection is better than curing the disease as the infection is becoming increasingly resistant to prescribed drugs.
Various insecticides, which are used to spray areas favored by mosquitoes, are also no longer effective, and a constant struggle is under way to develop new anti-malarial drugs and insecticides, to keep the disease at bay.
Influenza B: Cause, Symptom, Treatment and Prevention
Influenza B can cause respiratory and stomach symptoms. It can be easily treated. Vaccine and staying away from virus can prevent it.
Influenza or the flu refers to a respiratory infection that can be caused by a variety of viruses. The virus will move through the air and become inhaled through the mouth or nose. Approximately 5-20 percent of people catch the flu each year in the United States. Influenza can cause a serious infection or death in newborns, the elderly and people with some chronic illnesses. The viruses that cause influenza are classified as A, B or C types, depending on how their proteins are composed. Type B viruses are the most common in humans.
All flu viruses travel in the air as droplets of moisture. It spreads when people talk, cough or sneeze, releasing this moisture. Some people inhale this moisture in the air while others touch objects like a keyboard or telephone that are covered in the virus and then transfer them to the eyes, mouth or nose by touching these areas.
The influenza virus alters and creates new strains constantly so those that have already been affected by the flu may have developed antibodies to ward of a specific type of flu virus. If you are exposed to a virus in the future that is similar to those you have experienced before or you have been given a vaccination against a certain type of flu, it will be easier for the body to fight off the infection.
The antibodies a person has developed will not be able to prevent an infection caused by new strains of the virus or subtypes of the virus that are different than those you have already been exposed to.
1. Body Symptoms
A common sign that someone is developing the flu is fever. Fevers caused by this virus can climb as high as 106 degrees F, though this particular type of fever tends to be less severe than other types. Adults also tend to experience lower fever than children when they are infected with the virus. Those infected with this type of flu will also commonly have fatigue and body aches.