Wenn Sie sich eine Grippe eingefangen haben, müssen Sie sich ausgiebig schonen, um Komplikationen vorzubeugen. Durch die Infektion ist nämlich das Immunsystem geschwächt und somit anfälliger für andere Erreger wie beispielsweise Bakterien. Damit es nicht zu einer gefährlichen Sekundärinfektion kommt, ist genügend Ruhe bis zur völligen Ausheilung der Grippe extrem wichtig.
Die Inkubationszeit der Grippe ist kurz, sie liegt zwischen wenigen Stunden und drei Tagen. Bricht die Erkrankung aus, fühlen sich die Betroffenen innerhalb von wenigen Stunden sehr krank.
Bei einem unkomplizierten Verlauf dauert die Grippe in der Regel etwa eine Woche. In schwereren Fällen oder bei auftretenden Komplikationen kann es aber auch länger dauern, bis Sie wieder fit sind.
Eine Ansteckungsgefahr geht von den Betroffenen bereits ab dem Zeitpunkt der Infektion und nicht erst nach dem Ausbruch der Grippe aus. Ist die Erkrankung ausgebrochen, besteht die Ansteckungsgefahr noch etwa drei bis fünf Tage lang. Kinder können auch noch einige Tage länger ansteckend sein.
Haben Sie sich eine Grippe eingefangen, ist es vor allem wichtig, dass Sie sich körperlich schonen. Nehmen Sie außerdem genügend Flüssigkeit zu sich – das gilt vor allem dann, wenn Sie hohes Fieber haben und stark schwitzen. Gut geeignet sind heiße Tees in den Sorten Pfefferminze, Kamille oder Lindenblüte. Auf schwarzen Tee sollten Sie dagegen besser verzichten, ebenso wie auf Kaffee und Alkohol.
Außerdem sind auch die folgenden Hausmittel empfehlenswert:
- Eine frisch zubereitete Hühnersuppe lindert Beschwerden wie Husten und Schnupfen.
- Inhalierenwirkt sich ebenfalls positiv auf Husten- und Schnupfenbeschwerden aus.
- Wadenwickel können helfen, hohes Fieber zu senken. Wenden Sie die Wickel aber nur an, wenn dem Betroffenen warm ist.
- Mit Gurgeln lassen sich Halsschmerzen effektiv bekämpfen. Neben Salzwasser ist auch Salbeitee gut zum Gurgeln geeignet.
Eine Grippe muss normalerweise nicht mit Medikamenten behandelt werden. In Einzelfällen können jedoch spezielle antivirale Medikamente wie Neuraminidase-Hemmer eingesetzt werden. Sie beeinflussen den Krankheitsverlauf vor allem dann positiv, wenn sie unmittelbar nach dem Auftreten der ersten Grippe-Symptome (innerhalb der ersten 48 Stunden) eingenommen werden.
Neuraminidase-Hemmer blockieren die Verbreitung der Viren und können so die Dauer der Erkrankung verkürzen und deren Schwere abmildern. Ein Antibiotikum zeigt bei einer Grippe dagegen keine Wirkung, da es nur gegen Bakterien wirkt.
Wenn Sie unter starken Kopf- oder Gliederschmerzen leiden, können Schmerzmittel helfen, die Symptome zu lindern. Geeignet sind unter anderem Tabletten mit Acetylsalicylsäure, Paracetamol oder Ibuprofen. Kinder unter 14 Jahren sollten allerdings auf keinen Fall Medikamente mit Acetylsalicylsäure bekommen, da bei ihnen ansonsten das lebensbedrohliche Reye-Syndrom auftreten kann.
Der beste Weg, der Grippe vorzubeugen, ist die Impfung. Sie muss jedes Jahr neu erfolgen, da sich das Virus ständig verändert. Die Impfung ist besonders für Risikogruppen – beispielsweise chronisch Kranke und Krankenhauspersonal – sowie Personen über 60 Jahre empfehlenswert. Diese sollten sich idealerweise jedes Jahr vor Beginn des Winters (September bis November) impfen lassen.
Daneben gibt es aber auch noch andere Möglichkeiten, einer Influenza vorzubeugen. Wichtig ist, dass Sie sich während der Grippe-Zeit regelmäßig die Hände waschen. Fassen Sie sich außerdem mit den Händen möglichst nicht an Nase und Mund, wenn Sie vorher mit Viren – beispielsweise in Bussen oder Bahnen, Einkaufszentren oder Arztpraxen – in Kontakt gekommen sein könnten.
Aktualisiert: 25.01.2018 – Autor: Kathrin Mehner
Canine Bordetella is a highly contagious upper respiratory condition that affects a high amount of dogs. Also known as kennel cough and more recently, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, canine bordetella has distinct symptoms that can make it fairly easy to diagnose.
When a dog is infected with canine Bordetella, he will usually display a dry, hacking cough. Some describe the cough as having a “honky” sound. The dog may act like he has something stuck in his throat and may actually vomit or retch after the cough. A cough caused by canine Bordetella may also worsen with activity or excitement and can last for a few minutes.
Dogs who have canine Bordetella may also have a watery nasal discharge, as well as conjunctivitis and sneezing. Typically, those affected by canine Bordetella have their normal appetite and activity levels. In severe cases and those where secondary bacterial pneumonia has developed, dogs can have fevers, lethargy, breathing difficulties and anorexia.
Canine Bordetella is spread from dog to dog. It is often passed when there is a high amount of dogs in one contained area, such as with boarding kennels, shelters, obedience classes, dog parks and dog day care facilities. If your dog has visited any areas such as these and has a dry, hacking cough, there is good probability that she has canine Bordetella. If you take her to her veterinarian, the doctor will likely ask if she has been around other dogs recently. This information is important as it will help the vet accurately diagnose the illness and the proper treatment can be prescribed.
Canine Bordetella is typically self-limiting, therefore, treatment can vary. Canine Bordetella is usually caused by bacteria. Depending upon the severity of the case, antibiotics may or may not be prescribed. Antibiotics are usually given to reduce the risk of a secondary infection, such as pneumonia, or if it is likely that bacteria has caused the infection. However, treating the canine Bordetella will not reduce the length in which the dog is contagious. The symptoms of canine Bordetella usually occur for about ten days, but the dog is still contagious for six to 14 weeks after the infection is resolved.
In severe cases of canine Bordetella, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics, such as doxycycline or trimethoprim-sulfa. In addition, the veterinarian may also prescribe a cough suppressant or a bronchodialator.
Canine Bordetella can be prevented by a number of ways. The easiest method is to keep your dog away from others, especially if you have a puppy, as their immune systems are weak and they can catch illnesses easily. If you cannot prevent interaction between your dog and others, you may want to have your dog vaccinated against canine Bordetella. These vaccines can be given either intranasally or via injection. While the canine Bordetella vaccine is highly effective, it does not totally prevent your dog from contracting the illness.
Another type of influenza vaccine (nasal spray) is made with live attenuated (altered) influenza viruses (LAIV) but is not currently recommended by the CDC. This vaccine is made with live viruses that can stimulate the immune response enough to confer immunity but do not cause classic influenza symptoms (in most instances). The nasal spray vaccine (FluMist) was only approved for healthy individuals ages 2-49 years of age and was recommended preferentially for healthy children aged 2 through 8 who did not have contraindications to receiving the vaccine, if it is readily available. This nasal spray vaccine contains live attenuated virus (less able to cause flu symptoms due to a designed inability to replicate at normal body temperatures). This live vaccine could possibly cause the disease in infants and immunocompromised people and does not produce a strong immune response in many older people. Side effects of the nasal spray vaccine include nasal congestion, sore throat, and fever. Headaches, muscle aches, irritability, and malaise have also been noted. In most instances, if side effects occur, they only last a day or two. This nasal spray has been produced for conventional flu viruses and should not be given to pregnant women or anyone who has a medical condition that may compromise the immune system because in some instances the flu may be a side effect. Please note that the CDC recommended that the nasal spray (LAIV) vaccine should not be used during the 2017-2018 flu season because of relatively lower effectiveness seen from 2013-2016 (see the entire recommendation at http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/s0622-laiv-flu.html).
Some people do not receive influenza vaccine because they believe it is not very effective. There are several different reasons for this belief. People who have received influenza vaccine may subsequently have an illness that is mistaken for influenza, and they believe that the vaccine failed to protect them. In other cases, people who have received the vaccine may indeed have an influenza infection. Overall vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year, depending upon the degree of similarity between the influenza virus strains included in the vaccine and the strain or strains that circulate during the influenza season. Because the vaccine strains must be chosen nine to 10 months before the influenza season, and because influenza viruses mutate over time, sometimes mutations occur in the circulating virus strains between the time the vaccine strains are chosen and the next influenza season ends. These mutations sometimes reduce the ability of the vaccine-induced antibody to inhibit the newly mutated virus, thereby reducing vaccine effectiveness. This commonly occurs with the conventional flu vaccines as the specific virus types chosen for vaccine inclusion are based on reasoned projections for the upcoming flu season. Occasionally, the vaccine does not match the actual predominating virus strain and is not very effective in generating a specific immune response to the predominant infecting flu strain.
Vaccine efficacy also varies from one person to another. Past studies of healthy young adults have shown influenza vaccine to be 70%-90% effective in preventing illness. In the elderly and those with certain chronic medical conditions such as HIV, the vaccine is often less effective in preventing illness. Studies show the vaccine reduces hospitalization by about 70% and death by about 85% among the elderly who are not in nursing homes. Among nursing-home residents, vaccine can reduce the risk of hospitalization by about 50%, the risk of pneumonia by about 60%, and the risk of death by 75%-80%. However, these figures did not apply to the 2014-2015 flu vaccine because the quadrivalent (four antigenic types) vaccine did not match well with 2014-2015 circulating strains of the flu (vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 23%). This occurs because the vaccine needs to be produced months before the flu season begins, so the vaccine is designed by projecting and choosing the most likely viral strains to include in the vaccine. If drift results in changing the circulating virus from the strains used in the vaccine, efficacy may be reduced. However, the vaccine is still likely to lessen the severity of the illness and to prevent complications and death, according to the CDC.
Why should the flu (influenza) vaccine be taken every year?
Although only a few different influenza virus strains circulate at any given time, people may continue to become ill with the flu throughout their lives. The reason for this continuing susceptibility is that influenza viruses are continually mutating, through the mechanisms of antigenic shift and drift described above. Each year, the vaccine is updated to include the most current influenza virus strains that are infecting people worldwide. The fact that influenza viral genes continually change is one of the reasons vaccine must be taken every year. Another reason is that antibody produced by the host in response to the vaccine declines over time, and antibody levels are often low one year after vaccination so even if the same vaccine is used, it can act as a booster shot to raise immunity.
Many people still refuse to get flu shots because of misunderstandings, fear, "because I never get any shots," or simply a belief that if they get the flu, they will do well. These are only some of the reasons -- there are many more. The U.S. and other countries' populations need to be better educated about vaccines; at least they should realize that safe vaccines have been around for many years (measles, mumps, chickenpox, and even a vaccine for cholera), and as adults they often have to get a vaccine-like shot to test for tuberculosis exposure or to protect themselves from tetanus. The flu vaccines are as safe as these vaccines and shots that are widely accepted by the public. Consequently, better efforts need to be made to make yearly flu vaccines as widely acceptable as other vaccines. Susceptible people need to understand that the vaccines afford them a significant chance to reduce or prevent this potentially debilitating disease, hospitalization and, in a few, a lethal flu-caused disease.
What are some flu treatments an individual can do at home (home remedies)?
First, individuals should be sure they are not members of a high-risk group that is more susceptible to getting severe flu symptoms. Check with a physician if you are unsure if you are a higher-risk person. Home care is recommended by the CDC if a person is healthy with no underlying diseases or conditions (for example, asthma, lung disease, pregnant, or immunosuppressed).
Increasing liquid intake, warm showers, and warm compresses, especially in the nasal area, can reduce the body aches and reduce nasal congestion or head congestion. Nasal strips and humidifiers may help reduce congestion, especially while trying to sleep. Some physicians recommend nasal irrigation with saline to further reduce congestion; some recommend nonprescription decongestants like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed). Fever can be treated with over-the-counter acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin and others); read labels for safe dosage. Cough can be suppressed by cough drops, over-the-counter cough syrup, or cough medicine that may contain dextromethorphan (Delsym) and/or guaifenesin (Mucinex). Notify a doctor if an individual's symptoms at home get worse.
Individuals with mild flu symptoms may not require the care of a physician unless they are a member of a high-risk group as described above. For many individuals, treatment is provided by their primary care physician or provider (including internists or family medicine specialists and physician assistants and other primary caregivers) or pediatrician. Complicated or severe flu infections may require consultation with an emergency-medicine physician, critical care specialist, infectious-disease specialist, and/or a lung specialist (pulmonologist).
The CDC published the following guidance concerning antiviral drugs:
Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are an important adjunct to influenza vaccine in the control of influenza.
They’re warning people in some central Kentucky counties about a fast-spreading stomach virus.
This winter's cold weather is keeping people inside and in close quarters which is allowing sicknesses, like the norovirus, to spread easily.
“We have had a lot of reports of illness in the community and the schools of G.I. symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting and fever,” said Pam Spradling, the Director of Administrative Services at the Montgomery County Health Department.
Spradling says the county hasn't had any confirmed norovirus cases yet.
But she says it is common for people to think they have the flu when they actually have norovirus.
“A lot of the times we hear people call norovirus the stomach flu which isn't true. It is not the flu. The flu is influenza and a completely different virus.”
Each year, the highly contagious norovirus causes about 21 million illnesses, including 70,000 hospitalizations and 800 deaths, according to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Recently, many schools in our area have reported low attendance due to illness.
Health experts say this isn't surprising since viruses, like the norovirus, spread the quickest in schools, hospitals and nursing homes.
There isn’t a particular treatment or vaccine against norovirus but Spradling says the best defense is remembering not to skip the sink.
Health experts say symptoms of the norovirus last for about two days.
10 Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms Many Doctors Miss
Flu is actually vitamin D deficiency disease. It is not a happenstance occurrence because you didn’t get a flu shot or sat next to a coughing person at Church or on the train.
Dr. John Cannell of the Vitamin D Council and one of the most preeminent Vitamin D researchers in the world today, has identified that vitamin D helps produce the antimicrobial peptides that protect against the flu. This is why people are more prone to the flu in winter when Vitamin D producing sunshine is minimal or nonexistent at some latitudes, or people are too bundled up to get enough skin exposed in the first place.
Scientific research bolsters Dr. Cannell’s suggestion that vitamin D deficiency is why people get the flu. A study published in the journal Nature Immunology further explains how vitamin D protects us by properly activating T cells, an important part of the immune system:
“When a T cell is exposed to a foreign pathogen, it extends a signaling device or ‘antenna’ known as a vitamin D receptor, with which it searches for vitamin D.
If you are at high risk, have your vaccinations updated every year, as directed by your physician.
La grippe est une infection des voies respiratoires qui se transmet très facilement. Elle est causée par le virus de l’influenza.
Ce virus circule chaque année au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Au Québec, il circule surtout pendant la période allant de la fin de l’automne au début du printemps.
La durée de la saison de la grippe peut varier. Ainsi, elle peut commencer plus ou moins tôt et durer plus ou moins longtemps selon les années.
Les symptômes de la grippe, qui débutent soudainement, et leur gravité peuvent varier en fonction de l’âge et de l’état de santé. Les principaux symptômes sont les suivants:
- fièvre soudaine, entre 39 °C et 40 °C (102 °F et 104 °F);
- toux soudaine;
- mal de gorge;
- douleurs musculaires ou articulaires;
- fatigue extrême;
- maux de tête.
Des symptômes comme des nausées, des vomissements, de la diarrhée et des douleurs au ventre peuvent aussi être présents. Ces symptômes sont plus fréquents chez les enfants.
Les personnes âgées peuvent se sentir faibles et être parfois confuses sans présenter d’autres symptômes.
La grippe est souvent confondue avec d’autres infections respiratoires comme le rhume. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la page Différences entre la grippe et le rhume.
Généralement, la grippe se soigne à la maison. Dans certaines situations, cependant, il faut consulter un médecin.
Vous devez consulter un médecin le jour même si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe et que vous présentez aussi l’un des symptômes suivants:
- douleur qui augmente ou qui persiste lors de la respiration;
- fièvre qui augmente ou qui persiste depuis plus de 5 jours.
2. Respiratory Symptoms
As the fever subsides, cough, runny nose and sore throat will become more common. In some cases, these symptoms can become worse, eventually developing into pneumonia or bronchitis if the symptoms are not treated. In most cases, respiratory symptoms will disappear after a week, though it is possible for the cough to last for several weeks.
3. Stomach Symptoms
Many strains of the condition will cause irritation in the stomach. Because this is so common, this particular type of flue is often referred to as a stomach flu though the virus does not specifically affect the stomach. Stomach symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite or vomiting.
- Bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia is one of the most common complications that stems from an infection. This virus damages the lungs which can restrict the airways and increase the risk of developing an additional bacterial infection, including pneumonia. Pneumonia is caused by bacteria increasing rapidly in the airways, causing fluid retention, inflammation and swelling of the lungs' air sacs. If the lungs start to fill with fluid, it can make it hard to breath, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing and fever. This is a serious concern for those with chronic illnesses or elderly people.
- Encephalitis. This is a rare condition that is caused by the brain becoming inflamed due to exposure to the influenza virus. This condition is signaled by headaches and fever which will develop into confusion, drowsiness, seizures, loss of consciousness or coma.
- Myositis. Myositis largely impacts children, causing muscle inflammation or tenderness in the legs. This inflammation can make it difficult to move or lead to muscle weakness as well. These symptoms typically last around 1-5 days.
- Reye's syndrome. Some children and adolescents can develop this neurological disease that causes delirium, nausea, vomiting or confusion. In some cases, this syndrome is caused by taking aspirin to help manage influenza symptoms like fever. Talk to your doctor before giving aspirin to an underage patient to make sure it is safe.
- Others. In addition to causing more serious complications, the respiratory symptoms associated with this virus may cause bronchitis, sinus infections or ear infections.
In most cases, there is no need to administer medication to those suffering from the flu. If necessary, antiviral medications such as zanamivir or oseltamivir can be administered to help shorten the duration of the illness or to lower the risk of additional complications developing. Oseltamivir is taken orally and zanamivir is administered with an inhaler like you would use asthma medication. These medications can cause side effects including vomiting. Oseltamivir increases the risk of self-harm or delirium in teenagers.
- Fluids. Drinking plenty of beverages like juice, water and warm soup can help prevent dehydration when suffering from the flu. Make sure you drink enough to keep your urine a pale yellow color.
- Rest. Make sure you get plenty of sleep to encourage your immune system to fight the infection.
- OTC pain killers. Pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help manage the body aches associated with the flu. Aspirin should not be given to teens or children as this increases their risk of Reye's syndrome.
- Flu vaccine. Every year a new flu vaccine is developed that contains the antibodies for the strains of flu anticipated to be prominent that season. These vaccines are commonly administered as a nasal spray or injection.
- Avoiding spreading virus. While there is no way to completely prevent the flu, there are steps you can take to prevent spreading it to others. Wash your hands, scrubbing them for 15 seconds to rid your skin of traces of the virus. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is also helpful in keeping the skin clean. Cover the mouth and nose when you sneeze, but use a tissue or the inner portion of the arm instead of your hand to avoid getting the virus on your hands where it can be spread. Try to avoid crowded areas like public transportation, child care centers or office buildings during the peak of flu season to avoid coming in contact with the virus.
Symptoms of Swine Flu - Know the Difference Between H1N1 Flu and Regular Flu
By Arunraj V.S. | Submitted On August 12, 2009
Swine Flu is a number one health concern the world over. The HI1N1 flu or Swine Flu was first detected in US in April 2009. The worst affected areas initially were Canada and Mexico before H1N1 flu cases began to emerge in other areas of the world. In a short span of four months, the disease has spread to almost all regions in the world. World Health Organization has called H1N1 as pandemic which means a big epidemic that involves the entire country or perhaps the world. Usually, the signs of a pandemic are when a virus without any immunity to stop it, spreads across various parts of the world.
Risk factors of Swine Flu
Swine Flu spreads from person to person in the same way as regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. People with high risk for seasonal flu are also at high risk for H1N1 flu. For example, people above 65 years of age, pregnant women, children below 5 years of age and those with chronic medical conditions and lifestyle diseases like diabetes are at high risk.
Symptoms of Swine Flu
In children, the symptoms of H1N1 virus include:
1. Rapid Breathing or Difficulty in breathing.
2. Grayish or Bluish Skin Color
4. Persistent of severe vomiting
5. Not able to interact properly with people, become irritable
6. Flu like symptoms, bad cough and fever
In adults, the symptoms of swine flu include:
1. Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
2. Pain in chest or abdomen
3. Sudden dizziness or loss of energy
4. Severe or continuous vomiting
6. Flu like symptoms, bad cough and fever