2. Respiratory Symptoms

As the fever subsides, cough, runny nose and sore throat will become more common. In some cases, these symptoms can become worse, eventually developing into pneumonia or bronchitis if the symptoms are not treated. In most cases, respiratory symptoms will disappear after a week, though it is possible for the cough to last for several weeks.

3. Stomach Symptoms

Many strains of the condition will cause irritation in the stomach. Because this is so common, this particular type of flue is often referred to as a stomach flu though the virus does not specifically affect the stomach. Stomach symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite or vomiting.

  • Bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia is one of the most common complications that stems from an infection. This virus damages the lungs which can restrict the airways and increase the risk of developing an additional bacterial infection, including pneumonia. Pneumonia is caused by bacteria increasing rapidly in the airways, causing fluid retention, inflammation and swelling of the lungs' air sacs. If the lungs start to fill with fluid, it can make it hard to breath, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing and fever. This is a serious concern for those with chronic illnesses or elderly people.
  • Encephalitis. This is a rare condition that is caused by the brain becoming inflamed due to exposure to the influenza virus. This condition is signaled by headaches and fever which will develop into confusion, drowsiness, seizures, loss of consciousness or coma.
  • Myositis. Myositis largely impacts children, causing muscle inflammation or tenderness in the legs. This inflammation can make it difficult to move or lead to muscle weakness as well. These symptoms typically last around 1-5 days.
  • Reye's syndrome. Some children and adolescents can develop this neurological disease that causes delirium, nausea, vomiting or confusion. In some cases, this syndrome is caused by taking aspirin to help manage influenza symptoms like fever. Talk to your doctor before giving aspirin to an underage patient to make sure it is safe.
  • Others. In addition to causing more serious complications, the respiratory symptoms associated with this virus may cause bronchitis, sinus infections or ear infections.

Medical Treatments

In most cases, there is no need to administer medication to those suffering from the flu. If necessary, antiviral medications such as zanamivir or oseltamivir can be administered to help shorten the duration of the illness or to lower the risk of additional complications developing. Oseltamivir is taken orally and zanamivir is administered with an inhaler like you would use asthma medication. These medications can cause side effects including vomiting. Oseltamivir increases the risk of self-harm or delirium in teenagers.

Home Remedies

  • Fluids. Drinking plenty of beverages like juice, water and warm soup can help prevent dehydration when suffering from the flu. Make sure you drink enough to keep your urine a pale yellow color.
  • Rest. Make sure you get plenty of sleep to encourage your immune system to fight the infection.
  • OTC pain killers. Pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help manage the body aches associated with the flu. Aspirin should not be given to teens or children as this increases their risk of Reye's syndrome.


  • Flu vaccine. Every year a new flu vaccine is developed that contains the antibodies for the strains of flu anticipated to be prominent that season. These vaccines are commonly administered as a nasal spray or injection.
  • Avoiding spreading virus. While there is no way to completely prevent the flu, there are steps you can take to prevent spreading it to others. Wash your hands, scrubbing them for 15 seconds to rid your skin of traces of the virus. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is also helpful in keeping the skin clean. Cover the mouth and nose when you sneeze, but use a tissue or the inner portion of the arm instead of your hand to avoid getting the virus on your hands where it can be spread. Try to avoid crowded areas like public transportation, child care centers or office buildings during the peak of flu season to avoid coming in contact with the virus.

Symptoms of Swine Flu - Know the Difference Between H1N1 Flu and Regular Flu

By Arunraj V.S. | Submitted On August 12, 2009

Swine Flu is a number one health concern the world over. The HI1N1 flu or Swine Flu was first detected in US in April 2009. The worst affected areas initially were Canada and Mexico before H1N1 flu cases began to emerge in other areas of the world. In a short span of four months, the disease has spread to almost all regions in the world. World Health Organization has called H1N1 as pandemic which means a big epidemic that involves the entire country or perhaps the world. Usually, the signs of a pandemic are when a virus without any immunity to stop it, spreads across various parts of the world.

Risk factors of Swine Flu
Swine Flu spreads from person to person in the same way as regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. People with high risk for seasonal flu are also at high risk for H1N1 flu. For example, people above 65 years of age, pregnant women, children below 5 years of age and those with chronic medical conditions and lifestyle diseases like diabetes are at high risk.

Symptoms of Swine Flu
In children, the symptoms of H1N1 virus include:
1. Rapid Breathing or Difficulty in breathing.
2. Grayish or Bluish Skin Color
3. Dehydration
4. Persistent of severe vomiting
5. Not able to interact properly with people, become irritable
6. Flu like symptoms, bad cough and fever

In adults, the symptoms of swine flu include:
1. Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
2. Pain in chest or abdomen
3. Sudden dizziness or loss of energy
4. Severe or continuous vomiting
6. Flu like symptoms, bad cough and fever

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When you are ill (when you have a cold or the flu, for example), check for ketones every 4 to 6 hours. And check every 4 to 6 hours when your blood glucose is more than 240 mg/dl.

Also, check for ketones when you have any symptoms of DKA.

If your health care provider has not told you what levels of ketones are dangerous, then call when you find moderate amounts after more than one test. Often, your health care provider can tell you what to do over the phone.

Call your health care provider at once if you experience the following conditions:

  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones.
  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones and your blood glucose level is high.
  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones and you have vomited more than twice in four hours.

Do NOT exercise when your urine tests show ketones and your blood glucose is high. High levels of ketones and high blood glucose levels can mean your diabetes is out of control. Check with your health care provider about how to handle this situation.

Here are three basic reasons for moderate or large amounts of ketones:

  • Not enough insulin
    Maybe you did not inject enough insulin. Or your body could need more insulin than usual because of illness.
  • Not enough food
    When you're sick, you often don't feel like eating, sometimes resulting in high ketone levels. High levels may also occur when you miss a meal.
  • Insulin reaction (low blood glucose)
    If testing shows high ketone levels in the morning, you may have had an insulin reaction while asleep.

Suppose you have made the decision to change your diet and improve your health. You understand how the body heals itself and you are more aware of its needs. Yet, you may not have complete faith in your body.

A splitting headache, chills, nausea, a dripping nose, increased body odor, reappearance of old aches and pains, rashes, boils, drastic weight loss—all the symptoms that can shake the faith of the most sincere health seeker.

Without proper understanding or support, you could panic at these symptoms and believe your new diet or way of life is the cause of them. You might revert to your old unhealthy practices because you became afraid.

Thousands of people have experienced the same sort of problems as they improved their health. Books about fasting and dietary changes should be read so that you may feel reassured. Case histories, such as the one below, may help you understand these changes.

Larry was a college junior and had become a vegetarian after graduating from high school. He had tried to improve his diet, but college life put him under stress and so he started drinking coffee in the evening to stay awake and study. After staying up late, he felt tense so he started smoking marijuana for relaxation and to get to sleep.

He also had little time to prepare lunch, so he got in the habit of eating a quart of fruit flavored yogurt for lunch every day.

When the summer came, Larry decided to kick his coffee and marijuana habits. The hot weather was also making him feel uncomfortable eating dairy products, so he gave up his daily yogurt. He had been suffering from sore throats and nasal congestion, and he changed over to a diet of raw fruits and vegetables to allow his body to cleanse itself.

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Diet alone can be effective at healing SIBO but can be slow and take a long time.

It should take about a month on one of these diets to feel symptom relief but people typically stay on the diet for a year or two, depending on the case. Sometimes people can feel worse on this diet as bacterial die off occurs. That can feel like the worsening of IBS symptoms or flu-like symptoms.

Because SIBO is thought to prevent people from absorbing and processing fructose and vegetables with insoluble fiber, the diets above should be modified to address these issues. Fruit and veggies with insoluble fiber need to be taken out and reintroduced very slowly.

Beans and nuts are also foods that are known to cause digestive flare ups.

One of the best ways to prevent SIBO from recurring is to keep digestive fire strong. That means having sufficient hydrochloric acid in the stomach and sufficient enzymes to help break down the food so no undigested particles remain.

Things that keep digestion and absorption strong are taking probiotics, enzymes, or bitters before a meal. Or diluting a bit of apple cider vinegar in water and drinking it before a meal.

Dr. Pimentel also recommends fasting 3 to 5 hours between meals to give the small intestine the opportunity to sweep bad bacteria out.

Lastly, constipation-dominant SIBO is much harder to teat because it indicates a higher level of bacteria and methane gas, according to Dr.Siebecker.

I believe there can be many causes of IBS, and SIBO is just one of them. I will talk about more underlying causes for IBS in future blog posts.

What is your name?

Please indicate below the emails to which you want to send this article: One cause of IBS: SIBO (Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth)

Enter one email per line. No more than 100 emails.

Angela Privin is proof that IBS is NOT an incurable disease or a disease at all. IBS is a body out of balance. It’s an invitation for change. After solving her own IBS mystery more than a decade ago Angela trained as a health coach to help others.

Angela uses both science and intuition to help people figure out what’s out of balance in their body. She works with lab tests, dietary changes, supplementation and nervous system rebalancing. Get help rebalancing your digestive system and solving your IBS mystery here.

Brief History of Cocaine

Cocaine is a substance found in a plant (Erythoxylum coca) which is native to Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador and is cultivated in many other countries. Natives of the countries in which the coca plant was part of the landscape chewed the leaves to increase energy, alertness, and endurance.

The leaves of the plant are ground into a paste and heated with hydrochloric acid producing cocaine in its powder form. In its powder form, cocaine is most often separated into “lines” and snorted.

Modern cocaine was originally synthesized in 1855 and by 1880 the medicinal qualities of cocaine were first recognized by the medical community. Although it was widely credited as a cure for many ailments, cocaine was primarily used as a surgical anesthetic.

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The severity of symptoms varies from one person to another and depends on two factors: how much or little enzymes a person produces; and on the quantity of food consumed.

The easiest test for a food intolerance is to remove the food from your diet for at least two weeks, see if symptoms improve and then try reintroducing the food (one by one). If symptoms return, an intolerance is likely.

Lactose intolerance can be tested far more thoroughly using a lactose tolerance test, a hydrogen breath test and a stool acidity test. Your doctor can arrange these and other food intolerance tests if necessary.

Food intolerance can be managed simply by cutting the food out of your diet. Babies or younger children with a lactose intolerance can be given soya milk instead of cow's milk. Adults may be able to tolerate small amounts of troublesome foods, so may need to experiment to work out what they can eat.

Supplements of digestive enzymes make life easier. The right enzyme will help break down food consumed that before it caused the symptoms. These enzymes are now available from foodreactions.org. Below is a list of digestive enzymes to help you understand which enzyme is required to break which food.

An enzyme is a protein that binds itself to a substance and converts it into another substance or smaller substances. Unless proteins, fats and carbohydrates (sugars) are converted into absorbable components they will remain in the digestive track leading to unpleasant symptoms as a result of their consumption by the bacteria living in our guts. The following table gives a glance for what each enzyme does and where it is produced/found:

Opiate withdrawal refers to a wide range of symptoms that can occur once opioid intake is interrupted or reduced. The amount, length and intensity of the symptoms vary from person to person. For some individuals, it can be a natural process, and for others, withdrawal can be severe. Opiate withdrawal occurs because it takes time for the body to regulate to no longer having the drug in the system.

An opioid is synthetic narcotic works similarly to naturally occurring opiates. These opiate-like substances bind to the opioid receptor sites in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. Once the drugs attach to these receptor sites, they immediately exert their effects. The brain manufactures its own opioids which are responsible for a host of physical responses. Some of these reactions are the decrease of pain, a slower respiratory rate, and sometimes even used to control anxiety or depression. However, the body does not produce the number of opioids needed to manage high levels of pain. Taking prescription or illicit opioids can reduce adverse effects caused by pain, but with an array of dangerous side-effects.

Opiate withdrawal symptoms can be harsh to surpass if not correctly treated. The fear of going through withdrawal is what keeps many people dependent upon drugs like Heroin and Oxycodone. They don’t want to stop using opiates because they fear a return of pain and withdrawal symptoms that can resemble the worst imaginable flu. Symptoms can affect the individual both physically and emotionally.

An important fact to keep in mind is that different opioids remain in your system for various lengths of time what can affect the withdrawal syndrome onset. The amount of time your symptoms last depends on a combination of factors including frequency and amount of the use, length of the addiction, as well as individual factors like your health and emotional status.

Opiate withdrawal symptoms can include

  • Strong cravings
  • Nausea
  • Cramps
  • Sweating
  • Chills
  • Goosebumps
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Shakes
  • Irritation
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Muscle aches
  • A runny nose
  • Yawning
  • Insomnia
  • Dilated pupils.

In most cases, these symptoms can be managed by a specialized medical treatment facility Opiate withdrawal can be a long and painful process and very hard to get through. For health compromised patients, untreated and unmonitored withdrawal can lead to unnecessary medical complications such as nausea, rapid heart-rate, elevated blood pressure and dehydration. The consecutive loss of fluids & electrolytes can cause abnormal heart rate and low potassium levels, which can lead to blood circulation issues or even a heart attack.

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    • Notes marked (A) are for Lactose Intolerance
    • Notes marked (B) are for Casein allergy

Video: Inflammatory Symptoms Caused By Food Intolerance

Dairy intolerance is increasing due to very effective marketing of milk products - and the mass production of foods containing low-cost dairy derivatives.

A. Lactose Intolerance: Recent evidence indicates that up to 75% of the world’s population is Lactose Intolerant to some extent*. That is, three quarters (¾) of all people have difficulty digesting lactose. Depending on cultural background it can be higher or lower (90% of African Americans are Lactose Intolerant - and around 25% of Northern Europeans.)

B. Casein Allergy: Many people are also allergic to Casein (the protein found in milk). One study gives prevalence as 2 - 3% of the general population. Casein allergy is usually detected in babies by projectile vomiting, colic or other troublesome conditions. "Colicky" babies are often regarded as a nuisance and some doctors even think colic is 'normal'. But a screaming baby suffering colic frequently indicates nothing more than allergy to cow's milk. Casein allergy leads to chronic disease - especially later in life from autoimmune diseases.

Comments: Dairy intolerance is responsible for symptoms like Stomach Bloating, and Flatulence, and Diarrhea and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in millions of people and appears more frequently now that thousands of processed foods contain dairy derivatives. Heavily subsidised dairy farming now produces millions of tons of milk derivatives (like milk solids, whey protein isolate, skim milk powder and lactose) - delivering cheap ingredients for making processed foods.

Could you have Dairy Intolerance? To learn more – sign up for the free e-book‘How To Tell If You have Food Intolerance’

A. Symptoms of Lactose intolerance:

B. Symptoms of Casein allergy:

To learn more – sign up for the free e-book ‘How To Tell If You have Food Intolerance’

Comments: The symptoms of Dairy intolerance are just like symptoms of Fructose intolerance and Gluten intolerance, they all overlap. All food intolerance symptoms - if left untreated - become worse with age. so just because you have these symptoms - it does not mean you have Dairy intolerance. The way to find out which you have is via Journal Method - as used in the Healing Program.

A. Lactose Intolerance: Some people get clinical tests including the Hydrogen breath test and stool acidity tests. Unfortunately most clinical testing for food intolerance is not reliable. In fact breath tests are amongst the least trusted methods. Types of Testing

However the Journal Method easily identifies and Food Intolerance.

B. Casein allergy is often apparent with very young babies when they are first given cow's milk formula. But the intolerance can remain undiagnosed until adulthood. Symptoms including hives, eczema, projectile vomiting, asthma and diarrhea are common. Again - the Journal Method easily identifies casein allergy.

A. Lactose Intolerance: All food intolerance is genetic. You got it from your parents, grandparents and other ancestors - it’s in your genes. If your ancestry is Northern European (eg. Dutch or Scandinavian) the chance of Lactose Intolerance is only 25%. If not - then generally you have a 75% chance of being Lactose Intolerant*.

B. Casein Allergy: Milk protein allergy is also genetic.

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  • Internal Exposure: Delirium, muscle weakness,lack of coordination
  • External Exposure: Minimal
  • Chronic Exposure: Weakness and lack of coordination in arms and legs; difficulty in talking and swallowing

Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, defoliants

Action on Human System: Injury to intestinal lining, nervous system, and kidneys

  • Internal Exposure: Swelling of mouth and throat; pain in esophagus, stomach, and intestines; restlessness
  • External Exposure: Irritant
  • Chronic Exposure:

Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritants

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Moderately irritating to skin and eyes
  • Chronic Exposure:

Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

Action on Human System: Irritant

  • Internal Exposure:
  • External Exposure: Mild irritants; propachlor is a skin irritant and sensitizer
  • Chronic Exposure:

Chemical Family: Alumino Flouride Salt - cryolite(C), Kryocide(T)

Type of Pesticide: Insecticide

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Acid reflux frequently causes spells of continuous cough due the irritation caused by the stomach acid to the throat. In order to protect the larynx from injury during these spells of cough, a lot of mucus is generated along the larynx and pharynx, which, over prolonged period of time, is also believed to trigger sinusitis.

Sinusitis can be treated in many ways. Commonly, nasal sprays and nasal strips are used but the particle sizes of the nasal sprays are so large that they cannot fully reach the sinus cavity and may only help the lower nasal passage. Oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. However, in the sinus cavity there are very few blood cells, so the antibiotic cannot really get rid of the infection entirely.

When acid reflux is present along with sinusitis, it helps to treat the acid reflux first, following which, the mucus clears by itself. Making lifestyle changes, improving diet habits, avoiding foods and medications that trigger acid reflux, eating smaller meals more frequently, chewing the food well, regularizing sleep cycles, reducing weight, avoiding tight clothes, not lying down immediately after a meal, stress management through exercise, meditation, sleeping with the head of the bed raised by 6 to 9 inches, natural herbs, etc. are some ways which are effective in controlling heartburn.

The holistic method of treatment would incorporate all these and more changes into your daily life not only to cure acid reflux and clear the mucus but also to improve your overall health. There are no side effects and it is a long term cure without using any harmful medications. Holistic treatment is the ideal solution for acid reflux as it mitigates ALL the internal imbalances in your body that trigger the painful condition.

Melissa Kaplan's
Lyme Disease
Part of the Anapsid.org Chronic Neuroimmune Diseases Information Resources for CFS, FM, MCS, Lyme Disease, Thyroid, and more.
Last updated January 1, 2014

Short Symptom List: Lyme Disease & Common Co-Infections

Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia

The following symptoms were excerpted from Diagnostic Hints And Treatment Guidelines For Lyme And Other Tick Borne Illnesses, by Joseph J. Burrascano Jr., M.D. (Fifteenth Edition 2008).

(Borreliosis, neuroborreliosis; also known as Lyme Disease)
Spread primarily though the bite of infected ticks that live on a wide range of mammalian species; secondary human-to-human transmission through semen, breast milk, and possibly in utero

Bladder dysfunction
Burning or stabbing sensations
Cardiac impairment
Change in bowel function
Chest pain
Difficulty thinking
Difficulty with concentration and reading
Difficulty with speech, writing
Difficulty finding words; name blocking
Disorientation: getting lost, going to wrong places
Disturbed sleep: too much, too little, fractionated, early awakening
Ears/Hearing: buzzing, ringing, ear pain, sound sensitivity
Exaggerated symptoms or worse hangover from alcohol
Eyes/Vision: double, blurry, increased floaters, light sensitivity
Facial paralysis (Bell's palsy)
Fatigue, tiredness, poor stamina
Heart block
Heart murmur
Heart palpitations
Heart valve prolapse
Increased motion sickness
Irritable bladder
Joint pain or swelling
Mood swings
Muscle pain or cramps
Neck creaks & cracks
Neck stiffness, pain
Pelvic pain
Poor attention
Poor balance
Poor short-term memory
Problem absorbing new information
Pulse skips
Rib soreness
Sexual dysfunction or loss of libido
Shooting pains
Shortness of breath; cough
Skin hypersensitivity
Sore throat
Stiffness of the joints or back
Swollen glands
Testicular pain
Twitching of the face or other muscles
Unavoidable need to sit or lay down
Unexplained breast pain
Unexplained fevers, sweats, chills or flushing
Unexplained hair loss
Unexplained menstrual irregularity'
Unexplained milk production
Unexplained weight loss or gain
Upset Stomach or abdominal pain

Babesia is a protozoan spread by ticks, blood transfusion, and in utero. Despite there being 20+known forms to date, current testing only looks for two of them.

Air hunger
Imbalance without true vertigo
Mild encephalopathy
Shaking chills

(Bartonellosis, also known as cat scratch fever)
Spread by bites from infected ticks and in utero

abnormal liver enzymes
flu-like malaise
hemolysis with anemia
high fever
immune deficiency
papular or angiomatous rash
sore throat
weakened immune response

Bites from infected ticks

elevated liver enzymes
ongoing fatigue
persistent leukopenia

This symptom list is available in PDF format.

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    Wenn Sie sich eine Grippe eingefangen haben, müssen Sie sich ausgiebig schonen, um Komplikationen vorzubeugen. Durch die Infektion ist nämlich das Immunsystem geschwächt und somit anfälliger für andere Erreger wie beispielsweise Bakterien. Damit es nicht zu einer gefährlichen Sekundärinfektion kommt, ist genügend Ruhe bis zur völligen Ausheilung der Grippe extrem wichtig.

    Die Inkubationszeit der Grippe ist kurz, sie liegt zwischen wenigen Stunden und drei Tagen. Bricht die Erkrankung aus, fühlen sich die Betroffenen innerhalb von wenigen Stunden sehr krank.

    Bei einem unkomplizierten Verlauf dauert die Grippe in der Regel etwa eine Woche. In schwereren Fällen oder bei auftretenden Komplikationen kann es aber auch länger dauern, bis Sie wieder fit sind.

    Eine Ansteckungsgefahr geht von den Betroffenen bereits ab dem Zeitpunkt der Infektion und nicht erst nach dem Ausbruch der Grippe aus. Ist die Erkrankung ausgebrochen, besteht die Ansteckungsgefahr noch etwa drei bis fünf Tage lang. Kinder können auch noch einige Tage länger ansteckend sein.

    Haben Sie sich eine Grippe eingefangen, ist es vor allem wichtig, dass Sie sich körperlich schonen. Nehmen Sie außerdem genügend Flüssigkeit zu sich – das gilt vor allem dann, wenn Sie hohes Fieber haben und stark schwitzen. Gut geeignet sind heiße Tees in den Sorten Pfefferminze, Kamille oder Lindenblüte. Auf schwarzen Tee sollten Sie dagegen besser verzichten, ebenso wie auf Kaffee und Alkohol.

    Außerdem sind auch die folgenden Hausmittel empfehlenswert:

    • Eine frisch zubereitete Hühnersuppe lindert Beschwerden wie Husten und Schnupfen.
    • Inhalierenwirkt sich ebenfalls positiv auf Husten- und Schnupfenbeschwerden aus.
    • Wadenwickel können helfen, hohes Fieber zu senken. Wenden Sie die Wickel aber nur an, wenn dem Betroffenen warm ist.
    • Mit Gurgeln lassen sich Halsschmerzen effektiv bekämpfen. Neben Salzwasser ist auch Salbeitee gut zum Gurgeln geeignet.

    Eine Grippe muss normalerweise nicht mit Medikamenten behandelt werden. In Einzelfällen können jedoch spezielle antivirale Medikamente wie Neuraminidase-Hemmer eingesetzt werden. Sie beeinflussen den Krankheitsverlauf vor allem dann positiv, wenn sie unmittelbar nach dem Auftreten der ersten Grippe-Symptome (innerhalb der ersten 48 Stunden) eingenommen werden.

    Neuraminidase-Hemmer blockieren die Verbreitung der Viren und können so die Dauer der Erkrankung verkürzen und deren Schwere abmildern. Ein Antibiotikum zeigt bei einer Grippe dagegen keine Wirkung, da es nur gegen Bakterien wirkt.

    Wenn Sie unter starken Kopf- oder Gliederschmerzen leiden, können Schmerzmittel helfen, die Symptome zu lindern. Geeignet sind unter anderem Tabletten mit Acetylsalicylsäure, Paracetamol oder Ibuprofen. Kinder unter 14 Jahren sollten allerdings auf keinen Fall Medikamente mit Acetylsalicylsäure bekommen, da bei ihnen ansonsten das lebensbedrohliche Reye-Syndrom auftreten kann.

    Der beste Weg, der Grippe vorzubeugen, ist die Impfung. Sie muss jedes Jahr neu erfolgen, da sich das Virus ständig verändert. Die Impfung ist besonders für Risikogruppen – beispielsweise chronisch Kranke und Krankenhauspersonal – sowie Personen über 60 Jahre empfehlenswert. Diese sollten sich idealerweise jedes Jahr vor Beginn des Winters (September bis November) impfen lassen.

    Daneben gibt es aber auch noch andere Möglichkeiten, einer Influenza vorzubeugen. Wichtig ist, dass Sie sich während der Grippe-Zeit regelmäßig die Hände waschen. Fassen Sie sich außerdem mit den Händen möglichst nicht an Nase und Mund, wenn Sie vorher mit Viren – beispielsweise in Bussen oder Bahnen, Einkaufszentren oder Arztpraxen – in Kontakt gekommen sein könnten.

    Aktualisiert: 25.01.2018 – Autor: Kathrin Mehner

    Canine Bordetella is a highly contagious upper respiratory condition that affects a high amount of dogs. Also known as kennel cough and more recently, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, canine bordetella has distinct symptoms that can make it fairly easy to diagnose.

    When a dog is infected with canine Bordetella, he will usually display a dry, hacking cough. Some describe the cough as having a “honky” sound. The dog may act like he has something stuck in his throat and may actually vomit or retch after the cough. A cough caused by canine Bordetella may also worsen with activity or excitement and can last for a few minutes.

    Dogs who have canine Bordetella may also have a watery nasal discharge, as well as conjunctivitis and sneezing. Typically, those affected by canine Bordetella have their normal appetite and activity levels. In severe cases and those where secondary bacterial pneumonia has developed, dogs can have fevers, lethargy, breathing difficulties and anorexia.

    Canine Bordetella is spread from dog to dog. It is often passed when there is a high amount of dogs in one contained area, such as with boarding kennels, shelters, obedience classes, dog parks and dog day care facilities. If your dog has visited any areas such as these and has a dry, hacking cough, there is good probability that she has canine Bordetella. If you take her to her veterinarian, the doctor will likely ask if she has been around other dogs recently. This information is important as it will help the vet accurately diagnose the illness and the proper treatment can be prescribed.

    Canine Bordetella is typically self-limiting, therefore, treatment can vary. Canine Bordetella is usually caused by bacteria. Depending upon the severity of the case, antibiotics may or may not be prescribed. Antibiotics are usually given to reduce the risk of a secondary infection, such as pneumonia, or if it is likely that bacteria has caused the infection. However, treating the canine Bordetella will not reduce the length in which the dog is contagious. The symptoms of canine Bordetella usually occur for about ten days, but the dog is still contagious for six to 14 weeks after the infection is resolved.

    In severe cases of canine Bordetella, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics, such as doxycycline or trimethoprim-sulfa. In addition, the veterinarian may also prescribe a cough suppressant or a bronchodialator.

    Canine Bordetella can be prevented by a number of ways. The easiest method is to keep your dog away from others, especially if you have a puppy, as their immune systems are weak and they can catch illnesses easily. If you cannot prevent interaction between your dog and others, you may want to have your dog vaccinated against canine Bordetella. These vaccines can be given either intranasally or via injection. While the canine Bordetella vaccine is highly effective, it does not totally prevent your dog from contracting the illness.

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    Another type of influenza vaccine (nasal spray) is made with live attenuated (altered) influenza viruses (LAIV) but is not currently recommended by the CDC. This vaccine is made with live viruses that can stimulate the immune response enough to confer immunity but do not cause classic influenza symptoms (in most instances). The nasal spray vaccine (FluMist) was only approved for healthy individuals ages 2-49 years of age and was recommended preferentially for healthy children aged 2 through 8 who did not have contraindications to receiving the vaccine, if it is readily available. This nasal spray vaccine contains live attenuated virus (less able to cause flu symptoms due to a designed inability to replicate at normal body temperatures). This live vaccine could possibly cause the disease in infants and immunocompromised people and does not produce a strong immune response in many older people. Side effects of the nasal spray vaccine include nasal congestion, sore throat, and fever. Headaches, muscle aches, irritability, and malaise have also been noted. In most instances, if side effects occur, they only last a day or two. This nasal spray has been produced for conventional flu viruses and should not be given to pregnant women or anyone who has a medical condition that may compromise the immune system because in some instances the flu may be a side effect. Please note that the CDC recommended that the nasal spray (LAIV) vaccine should not be used during the 2017-2018 flu season because of relatively lower effectiveness seen from 2013-2016 (see the entire recommendation at http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/s0622-laiv-flu.html).

    Some people do not receive influenza vaccine because they believe it is not very effective. There are several different reasons for this belief. People who have received influenza vaccine may subsequently have an illness that is mistaken for influenza, and they believe that the vaccine failed to protect them. In other cases, people who have received the vaccine may indeed have an influenza infection. Overall vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year, depending upon the degree of similarity between the influenza virus strains included in the vaccine and the strain or strains that circulate during the influenza season. Because the vaccine strains must be chosen nine to 10 months before the influenza season, and because influenza viruses mutate over time, sometimes mutations occur in the circulating virus strains between the time the vaccine strains are chosen and the next influenza season ends. These mutations sometimes reduce the ability of the vaccine-induced antibody to inhibit the newly mutated virus, thereby reducing vaccine effectiveness. This commonly occurs with the conventional flu vaccines as the specific virus types chosen for vaccine inclusion are based on reasoned projections for the upcoming flu season. Occasionally, the vaccine does not match the actual predominating virus strain and is not very effective in generating a specific immune response to the predominant infecting flu strain.

    Vaccine efficacy also varies from one person to another. Past studies of healthy young adults have shown influenza vaccine to be 70%-90% effective in preventing illness. In the elderly and those with certain chronic medical conditions such as HIV, the vaccine is often less effective in preventing illness. Studies show the vaccine reduces hospitalization by about 70% and death by about 85% among the elderly who are not in nursing homes. Among nursing-home residents, vaccine can reduce the risk of hospitalization by about 50%, the risk of pneumonia by about 60%, and the risk of death by 75%-80%. However, these figures did not apply to the 2014-2015 flu vaccine because the quadrivalent (four antigenic types) vaccine did not match well with 2014-2015 circulating strains of the flu (vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 23%). This occurs because the vaccine needs to be produced months before the flu season begins, so the vaccine is designed by projecting and choosing the most likely viral strains to include in the vaccine. If drift results in changing the circulating virus from the strains used in the vaccine, efficacy may be reduced. However, the vaccine is still likely to lessen the severity of the illness and to prevent complications and death, according to the CDC.

    Why should the flu (influenza) vaccine be taken every year?

    Although only a few different influenza virus strains circulate at any given time, people may continue to become ill with the flu throughout their lives. The reason for this continuing susceptibility is that influenza viruses are continually mutating, through the mechanisms of antigenic shift and drift described above. Each year, the vaccine is updated to include the most current influenza virus strains that are infecting people worldwide. The fact that influenza viral genes continually change is one of the reasons vaccine must be taken every year. Another reason is that antibody produced by the host in response to the vaccine declines over time, and antibody levels are often low one year after vaccination so even if the same vaccine is used, it can act as a booster shot to raise immunity.

    Many people still refuse to get flu shots because of misunderstandings, fear, "because I never get any shots," or simply a belief that if they get the flu, they will do well. These are only some of the reasons -- there are many more. The U.S. and other countries' populations need to be better educated about vaccines; at least they should realize that safe vaccines have been around for many years (measles, mumps, chickenpox, and even a vaccine for cholera), and as adults they often have to get a vaccine-like shot to test for tuberculosis exposure or to protect themselves from tetanus. The flu vaccines are as safe as these vaccines and shots that are widely accepted by the public. Consequently, better efforts need to be made to make yearly flu vaccines as widely acceptable as other vaccines. Susceptible people need to understand that the vaccines afford them a significant chance to reduce or prevent this potentially debilitating disease, hospitalization and, in a few, a lethal flu-caused disease.

    What are some flu treatments an individual can do at home (home remedies)?

    First, individuals should be sure they are not members of a high-risk group that is more susceptible to getting severe flu symptoms. Check with a physician if you are unsure if you are a higher-risk person. Home care is recommended by the CDC if a person is healthy with no underlying diseases or conditions (for example, asthma, lung disease, pregnant, or immunosuppressed).

    Increasing liquid intake, warm showers, and warm compresses, especially in the nasal area, can reduce the body aches and reduce nasal congestion or head congestion. Nasal strips and humidifiers may help reduce congestion, especially while trying to sleep. Some physicians recommend nasal irrigation with saline to further reduce congestion; some recommend nonprescription decongestants like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed). Fever can be treated with over-the-counter acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin and others); read labels for safe dosage. Cough can be suppressed by cough drops, over-the-counter cough syrup, or cough medicine that may contain dextromethorphan (Delsym) and/or guaifenesin (Mucinex). Notify a doctor if an individual's symptoms at home get worse.

    Individuals with mild flu symptoms may not require the care of a physician unless they are a member of a high-risk group as described above. For many individuals, treatment is provided by their primary care physician or provider (including internists or family medicine specialists and physician assistants and other primary caregivers) or pediatrician. Complicated or severe flu infections may require consultation with an emergency-medicine physician, critical care specialist, infectious-disease specialist, and/or a lung specialist (pulmonologist).

    The CDC published the following guidance concerning antiviral drugs:

    Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are an important adjunct to influenza vaccine in the control of influenza.

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    They’re warning people in some central Kentucky counties about a fast-spreading stomach virus.

    This winter's cold weather is keeping people inside and in close quarters which is allowing sicknesses, like the norovirus, to spread easily.

    “We have had a lot of reports of illness in the community and the schools of G.I. symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting and fever,” said Pam Spradling, the Director of Administrative Services at the Montgomery County Health Department.

    Spradling says the county hasn't had any confirmed norovirus cases yet.

    But she says it is common for people to think they have the flu when they actually have norovirus.

    “A lot of the times we hear people call norovirus the stomach flu which isn't true. It is not the flu. The flu is influenza and a completely different virus.”

    Each year, the highly contagious norovirus causes about 21 million illnesses, including 70,000 hospitalizations and 800 deaths, according to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Recently, many schools in our area have reported low attendance due to illness.

    Health experts say this isn't surprising since viruses, like the norovirus, spread the quickest in schools, hospitals and nursing homes.

    There isn’t a particular treatment or vaccine against norovirus but Spradling says the best defense is remembering not to skip the sink.

    Health experts say symptoms of the norovirus last for about two days.

    10 Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms Many Doctors Miss

    Flu is actually vitamin D deficiency disease. It is not a happenstance occurrence because you didn’t get a flu shot or sat next to a coughing person at Church or on the train.

    Dr. John Cannell of the Vitamin D Council and one of the most preeminent Vitamin D researchers in the world today, has identified that vitamin D helps produce the antimicrobial peptides that protect against the flu. This is why people are more prone to the flu in winter when Vitamin D producing sunshine is minimal or nonexistent at some latitudes, or people are too bundled up to get enough skin exposed in the first place.

    Scientific research bolsters Dr. Cannell’s suggestion that vitamin D deficiency is why people get the flu. A study published in the journal Nature Immunology further explains how vitamin D protects us by properly activating T cells, an important part of the immune system:

    “When a T cell is exposed to a foreign pathogen, it extends a signaling device or ‘antenna’ known as a vitamin D receptor, with which it searches for vitamin D.

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    If you are at high risk, have your vaccinations updated every year, as directed by your physician.

    La grippe est une infection des voies respiratoires qui se transmet très facilement. Elle est causée par le virus de l’influenza.

    Ce virus circule chaque année au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Au Québec, il circule surtout pendant la période allant de la fin de l’automne au début du printemps.

    La durée de la saison de la grippe peut varier. Ainsi, elle peut commencer plus ou moins tôt et durer plus ou moins longtemps selon les années.

    Les symptômes de la grippe, qui débutent soudainement, et leur gravité peuvent varier en fonction de l’âge et de l’état de santé. Les principaux symptômes sont les suivants:

    • fièvre soudaine, entre 39 °C et 40 °C (102 °F et 104 °F);
    • toux soudaine;
    • mal de gorge;
    • douleurs musculaires ou articulaires;
    • fatigue extrême;
    • maux de tête.

    Des symptômes comme des nausées, des vomissements, de la diarrhée et des douleurs au ventre peuvent aussi être présents. Ces symptômes sont plus fréquents chez les enfants.

    Les personnes âgées peuvent se sentir faibles et être parfois confuses sans présenter d’autres symptômes.

    La grippe est souvent confondue avec d’autres infections respiratoires comme le rhume. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la page Différences entre la grippe et le rhume.

    Généralement, la grippe se soigne à la maison. Dans certaines situations, cependant, il faut consulter un médecin.

    Vous devez consulter un médecin le jour même si vous avez des symptômes de la grippe et que vous présentez aussi l’un des symptômes suivants:

    • douleur qui augmente ou qui persiste lors de la respiration;
    • fièvre qui augmente ou qui persiste depuis plus de 5 jours.