Pain: Pain in the breasts and nipples, although indicative of several conditions and issues, can be a telltale sign of breast disease. When the pain accompanies such symptoms as nipple discharge, breast swelling or lumps, contact your physician.

Peeling of Skin: Peeling or flaking of the nipple skin, in conjunction with other indicative symptoms, is symptomatic of breast cancer and inflammatory breast cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Lumps: Noticeable lumps in or surrounding breast tissue, such as underneath your arms, indicate both benign and malignant breast diseases. Lumps that come and go with a woman's menstrual cycle are normal hormonal occurrences, however, when lumps don't go away it may be indicative of malignant breast disease.

Swollen Lymph Nodes: lymph nodes under your arms, in your breasts and sometimes in your neck become swollen and hard when breast disease and other conditions are apparent. Lymph nodes swell to fight off infection, which is a normal function, but when the lymph nodes continue to swell without going down, contacting your doctor is necessary to make a diagnosis.

Signs and symptoms of eye disease are not only signals that something is amiss with your vision, they could also indicate ailments in other areas of your body. Indeed, many times an ophthalmologist can diagnose signs of such ailments as diabetes by a simple eye examination. Thus paying attention your eyes give can not only save your vision, but could also possibly save your life.

Bleeding Never ignore bleeding, especially in the eyes. According to the Nethealthbook website, bleeding is always cause for alarm. It could be that a blood vessel is hemmorrhaging. In the case of a person with diabetes, it could be diabetic retinopathy, in which blood leaks from brittle vessels. If an ophthalmologist does not evaluate that condition right away, it could lead to blindness.

Blind Spots: Blind spots could be an early sign of glaucoma. Sadly, often a patient doesn't even notice them until they invade his main area of vision. The Nethealthbook website notes that such spots could be an early sign of glaucoma. Evaluation by an eye doctor becomes key to avoiding irreversible blindness.

Blurred/Distorted Vision: Any change in vision is a sign that you should contact your ophtalmologist. This is true especially if you notice blurriness, distortion or clouding in any part of your vision. According to the Docshop website, it could be a common ailment such as astigmatism, which means that objects appear distorted because your cornea has assumed an abnormal shape. This could also be a sign of other common eye problems such as nearsightedness and farsightedness, which a pair of eyeglasses or contacts can fix.

Peripheral Vision Loss: According to the Docshop website, our peripheral vision is important in that it helps us discern danger from behind. Perhaps the best example of this is when you drive or ride a bicycle. You need to be able to see on either side of you. Thus if you notice a change in your side vision, go to an ophthalmologist and have them test the pressure behind your eyeballs; it could be glaucoma. If the doctor catches this early, he might be able to save your sight. By the time the disease causes pain, or that a significant amount of your vision is already gone, it is most likely too late.

Because there are many possible conditions that follow under the umbrella of heart disease, the related symptoms are numerous. But here are some key symptoms to be aware of:

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Vaccination is perhaps the best guard against influenza infection. Prophylaxis is the most commonly administered vaccination for influenza. However the kind of vaccination administered depends on the epidemiological context.
The effectiveness of Influenza vaccination lasts for around a year, after which fresh vaccination is required. The body develops immunity after round two weeks of vaccination. In addition, the vaccination is effective only against certain strains of influenza and may fail as new strains originate.

No information obtained on this site should be relied on as the basis for treating or diagnosing conditions, symptoms, or illness. All queries should be directed to your health professional.

Always see your practitioner concerning your treatment options if you are pregnant or if suffering an illness or injury resulting from an accident. Read: complete disclaimer.

Since July 2011, 345 people in the U.S. have reported infection with the H3N3v virus, and most human cases have been mild. Twenty of the cases were hospitalized, with only 1 reported death. For the most current information from CDC about the influenza A H3N2v virus and how best to prevent it, click here. OSHA will continue to work with the CDC and update recommendations based on the situation.

See also, OSHA Fact Sheet: Influenza in Workers and Pigs: Guidance for Commercial Swine Farmers and Pork Producers (October 2010), for protecting workers who may be exposed to known or suspected influenza infections in pigs.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration
200 Constitution Ave., NW,
Washington, DC 20210
800-321-6742 (OSHA)
TTY
www.OSHA.gov

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

Doctors, Army officers, and reporters wear surgical gowns and masks while making a tour of a hospital to observe influenza treatment of patients in 1918. Bettmann/Corbis hide caption

A flu virus that killed tens of millions worldwide after it appeared in 1918 has been recreated in the virological equivalent of the Jurassic Park story. Scientists rebuilt it from pieces of genetic material retrieved from the lungs of people who died 87 years ago. Researchers writing in the journals Science and Nature say the tightly guarded replica is even more virulent than they expected.

Yet public health officials aren't worried that the 1918 flu will again terrorize the population. It's no longer a new virus, and most people in the world have some immunity to the H1N1 virus family.

What if the virus that caused the 1918 flu, or one similar to it, re-appeared today?

The Bad News: The 1918 virus was a million times more potent than the average modern flu virus.

The Good news: Most people living today would have some immunity to viruses in the 1918 virus' family, called H1N1.

More Good News: The current bird flu virus, which the global public health community is watching, is mostly transmitted from bird to bird. It has infected about 120 humans, but rarely has it spread from human to human, making it not very infectious.

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This graph was produced in 2014 from our last 16,000 patients at the Norman Parathyroid Center. Each of these patients had a parathyroid tumor removed from their neck. There are 16 symptoms of hyperparathyroidism (some symptoms listed above are generalized and overlap each other). This graph shows how many symptoms the average patient had (on the vertical y-axis) and what their blood calcium was (on the bottom x-axis). The black dots are the average number of symptoms all patients had at each calcium level. The thin vertical lines are statistical error bars showing that there is some variability. a few patients at every calcium level had zero symptoms, while a few patients at every calcium level had all 16 symptoms. People with higher calcium levels do not have more symptoms. So if your doctor says "your symptoms can't be from hyperparathyroidism because your calcium is not high enough", then you print this graph and educate them. The number of symptoms a patient has is NOT related to how high the calcium level is.

UPDATE: In January 2017 we published the largest study of parathyroid patients of all time (20,081 consecutive adults). We looked at the symptoms and the complications (stones, osteoporosis, etc, etc) in patients that have very high calcium and compared them to parathyroid patients with only very mild elevations of calcium. The two groups were those with hyperparathyroidism with calcium levels below 11.0 mg/dl (2.75 mmol/l) and those with calcium levels above 11. The result: NO DIFFERENCE! People with calcium levels of 12.5 do NOT have more symptoms, or stones, or osteoporosis, or fatigue (or anything) than people with calcium of 10.5. A calcium of 12.5 is not worse than a calcium of 10.5. It's all about the duration, not the height. Read and print the entire article here. This is a great article for you to print and educate your doctors with!

Our Hypercalcemia page has a cool Hypercalcemia Calculator that will give the exact upper limit of normal calcium for your age.

Another extremely common problem is that patients will go to their doctor with one (or often several) of the symptoms listed on this page. The doctor will run some tests and nothing shows up. The doctor then says "Everything is fine. Your lab work is all fine except for a slightly elevated calcium level which can't be the problem. Let's just wait for 6 months and check it again". This often goes on for years until eventually somebody decides to look into the high calcium, or incredible as it seems, the patient changes doctors and the new doctor says "Hey, what the heck are we doing about all these high calcium levels?". This doctor gets it! 26% of our last 20,000 cases of hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed when that patient went to a new doctor--on their first visit!.

Again, we want to stress the fact that almost all patients with high calcium will have some of the symptoms listed on this page. How bad these symptoms are is not necessarily related to how high your calcium is elevated. If it's elevated a little bit (around 10.7), you may be depressed, forgetful, constantly tired, etc, etc. You do not need to have a calcium of 12 or higher to get symptoms.

To illustrate this point, during the month of February 2010 Drs Norman and Politz operated on 195 patients with hyperparathyroidism. Three had already had a stroke. One stroke patient had calcium levels around 12.8. The other two never had a calcium level above 11.7, but they had calcium levels over 10.1 for 12 years. Similarly, 36 of the 195 parathyroid patients that month already had kidney stones. Half of them never had a single calcium level above 11.3. Tiredness and/or depression was seen in 82% of all the patients during this month, yet 3/4 of them never had calcium levels above 11.3, some never had a calcium level higher than 10.8. Ninety percent of these patients had osteopenia or osteoporosis, yet this was not predictable by how high their calcium was.

Again, the symptoms you get--even the bad complications like kidney stones, heart problems, stroke, cancer, kidney failure, and osteoporosis are NOT related to how high your calcium levels are. So if your doctor says "lets just wait and see what happens since your calcium is not that high"--that is when you print this page and take it to him/her and educate them! This is bad advice. A high calcium level, regardless of how "high" it is, is not normal and your body will not like it. Waiting until your calcium goes above 11.5 is absolutely the worst advice you could ever get (malpractice?). and is given by doctors who don't know much about this disease. Let's face it. most doctors might see hyperparathyroidism once in a blue moon. Even endocrinologists will see diabetes patients all day long, and see one parathyroid patient every couple of weeks or months. They are extremely up to date on diabetes and thyroid disease because they see this daily. Sadly, there are some endocrinologists that are not up to date on parathyroid disease. It's probably because they don't see it very often.

Remember - It is almost never normal to have a high blood calcium level.

It is well known that almost all people with parathyroid disease will have obvious parathyroid symptoms, while some aren't quite so sure they have any. For this latter group (about 2-5%), it can only be known several months after the operation to remove the bad parathyroid gland. Almost all of those patients who thought they didn't have any parathyroid symptoms preoperatively will claim to sleep better at night, be less irritable, and find that they remember things much easier than they could when their calcium levels were high (nervous system problems). Just ask your family members if you have become more irritable or cranky over the past couple of years!

The most common symptoms are those listed at the top of the list. with about 75% of people with hyperparathyroidism having 4 or 5 of the first 6 listed. MOST people will have several symptoms--the average person will have between 4 and 6 (see the dots on the graph above). Also be aware that the symptoms that people get are somewhat different depending on their age (teenagers get different symptoms than people in their 60's). Read more about the age differences in parathyroid symptoms on our age page. Important: when young people get hyperparathyroidism, their symptoms are usually different than when a parathyroid tumor develops in older people.

In many cases, it's the spouse or children who has detected a change in personality over the past several years -- "He/She is more cranky than he/she used to be; he/she has a shorter fuse and is quicker to anger than he/she used to be". In some cases, its ONLY the spouse who notices a big difference in the patient with the parathyroid problem, while the person with the parathyroid problem will claim they don't see much difference in their personality. After the parathyroid operation, spouses typically comment that their husband or wife sleeps better, can remember things better, and is easier to get along with -- "After the operation, he/she quickly returned to his/her old self again!". As Dr Norman says: "A good parathyroid surgeon can save a lot of marriages!"

FATIGUE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. The number one symptom that people with hyperparathyroidism complain about is fatigue. Just over 82% of our last 28,000 patients said this was their main problem. Many patients are diagnosed with parathyroid disease because they went to their doctor saying "I'm tired all the time, something must be wrong". Often the doctor will say "I can't find anything wrong", but the patient says "I know my body, and I'm telling you, something is wrong!" Many will say that they noticed "something changed last year", or "for the past 4 years I've been tired and I just thought it was menopause". A lot of people with hyperparathyroidism say that they are ok in the morning, but by noon they just can't get going any more. They can't stay motivated past noon or 1 o'clock in the afternoon. This all makes sense when we understand that our nervous system runs on calcium and when the calcium is high in the blood, this makes our nerves conduct electricity a bit slower--we interpret this as tiredness, fatigue, poor sleeping, poor memory, and other issues regarding how we feel. Almost all patients with a parathyroid tumor will feel remarkably better a week or two after the tumor has been removed. Most say "it was like the fog was lifted from me overnight". Read our testimonial page to see what other parathyroid patients say about this. This is the best part of our job. our patients love us because we give them back their energy and their "joy of life".

BONE PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Patients with persistently elevated calcium levels due to overproduction of parathyroid hormone can also have complaints of bone pain. Bone pain is due to the activity of the parathyroid hormone on the bones, causing the calcium to be pulled OUT of the bones. In the severe form of parathyroid disease--or parathyroid disease that has been present for several years, bones can give up so much of their calcium that the bones become brittle and break (osteoporosis and osteopenia). This problem is even more of a concern in older patients. Bones can also have small hemorrhages within their center which will cause bone pain. This is why many patients with parathyroid disease will have a DEXA bone density scan performed by their doctor. The doctor is looking to see how much calcium has already been lost due to the excess parathyroid hormone. Although mini-parathyroid surgery has made it so ALL patients with parathyroid disease should be operated on for cure, those with osteoporosis or a decrease in bone density really should have it done! Also. If you have this disease and have not had a DEXA bone density scan--you need to get one. This will allow us to determine how much bone calcium you have lost and how best to get it replaced. Parathyroid.com has a complete page on osteoporosis due to parathyroid disease (click here).

Does everybody with hyperparathyroidism get osteoporosis? YES, some faster than others. Some people will have osteoporosis when they are 25 years old if they have a parathyroid tumor. Heck, where do you think all the extra calcium in the blood and urine comes from? It's coming from your bones!

Get the Calcium-Pro App FOR SMART PHONES AND TABLETS. The experts at the Norman Parathyroid Center developed an app that will diagnose your hyperparathyroidism, tell you what tests you need and which ones to avoid, and tell you what your risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney stones and even your increased risk for several cancers based upon your calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels. Get this Award-Winning app. It is smarter than your doctor.

DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Another frequent symptom of parathyroid disease is depression. Just under 48% of our last 22,000 patients were either diagnosed with "depression" or were put on an anti-depressant within the previous 2 years. The vast majority of patients have some depression symptoms such as lack of energy, sadness, inability to sleep well, anxiety, nervousness, irritability, (etc) that their doctor felt was consistent with the diagnosis of "depression" so they were put on an anti-depressant medication (examples: Effexor, Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac, Lexapro, Wellbutrin, Celexa, etc). Thus, because hyperparathyroidism is a rare problem, most doctors are not aware that depression, tiredness, lack of energy, etc are some of the most common symptoms of this disease--so they treat the symptoms instead of treating the disease! Sadly, your doctor can miss the proper diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism because they don't see this disease very often (or they don't recognize it when they see it!). Read our blog on this topic, you will see common stories of the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism.

IMPORTANT, almost all parathyroid patients that have been given the diagnosis of depression and have been put on one of these drugs can be taken off of the antidepressant medication after the operation. You should wait about 2 months after the operation for your hormones and calcium levels to stabilize, and then work with your doctor to see if you can be weaned from the drugs. Almost all can. But, don't do it on your own, do this with your doctor's help.

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  • Gastritis [inflammation of the lining of the stomach]
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Liver disease
  • Cardiomyopathy [chronic disease of the heart muscle]
  • Pancreatitis
  • Neurological impairment
  • Electrolyte imbalances
  • Nutritional deficiencies

While hospitalized, the patient in withdrawal is monitored closely for the following psychiatric concerns: “Unstable mood disorders—delirium, psychosis, severe depression, suicidal or homicidal ideation—while potentially difficult to assess during intoxication, need to be considered and ruled out”(Asplund, et.al).

While it may appear that most medical professionals are well prepared to deal with the patient obviously suffering through alcohol withdrawal symptoms, the fact is that many who are hospitalized are not accurately diagnosed as being in withdrawal. Disturbingly, according to an article published in 2010 by Jose Maldonado M.D. entitled An Approach to the Patient with Substance Use and Abuse, a poll of physicians clearly illustrates concerns relating to the confidence with which physicians treat the patient with alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Consider from Dr. Maldonado’s report:

Although alcoholism is present in 20% to 50% of hospitalized patients, it is diagnosed only about 5% of the time. A poll of physicians affiliated to the American Medical Association revealed that 71% of them believed they were too ambivalent or not competent to properly treat alcoholic patients.

Taking into consideration the research and science now readily available, the facts are clear concerning the dangers of alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol withdrawal should never be taken lightly and, in light of Dr. Maldonado’s findings relating to potential failings within the medical community; when considering detoxification from alcohol for yourself or a loved one, take the time necessary to research detox facilities within your area. Use the above information to ask questions of the facility. Armed with the knowledge of the severity and duration of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, make sure your choice of detox facility is prepared and equipped to deal with all of the above symptoms, from benign shakes to the potentially fatal DTs and seizures. When dealing with alcohol withdrawal, your life or the life of a loved one, may well depend upon it.

Parathyroid disease (hyperparathyroidism) causes symptoms in most people, and can decrease life expectancy if the parathyroid tumor is not removed. This page discusses the symptoms associated with disease of the parathyroid glands. Most people with hyperparathyroidism don't feel well. Parathyroid tumors take away the "joy of life".

The most common symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are chronic fatigue, body aches, difficulty sleeping, bone pain, memory loss, poor concentration, depression, and headaches. Parathyroid disease also frequently leads to osteoporosis, kidney stones, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and kidney failure. This is a devastating condition if left untreated.

Parathyroid disease, called hyperparathyroidism, is a serious disease that becomes very destructive with time. The longer a person has parathyroid problems the more problems and destruction of body tissues it causes, including osteoporosis, high blood pressure, kidney stones, kidney failure, stroke and heart rhythm problems. Because it is a serious and progressive disease, hyperparathyroidism should not be watched or monitored since the destruction will continue as long as the disease is present. Importantly, this disease makes most people feel bad by causing many symptoms while it slowly causes problems throughout the body.

Since parathyroid gland disease (hyperparathyroidism) was first described in 1925, the symptoms have become known as "moans, groans, stones, and bones. with psychic overtones". Nearly all patients with parathyroid problems have symptoms. Sometimes the symptoms are really obvious, like kidney stones, frequent headaches, fatigue, and depression. Sometimes the symptoms are not so obvious, like high blood pressure and the inability to concentrate. If you have symptoms, you are almost guaranteed to feel remarkably better once the parathyroid tumor has been removed. As we often tell our patients: "you will be amazed at how a 16 minute mini-procedure will change your life!"

The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are different in different people. Sometimes people have symptoms making them miserable within the first year or two of having high blood calcium. Other times it can go 6-8 years without causing too many problems other than fatigue, bad memory, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. But make no mistake about it, hyperparathyroidism kills people--it just takes 25 years to do so (read blog on this topic). Hyperparathyroidism is a simple benign disease that will slowly destroy your body and take away the "joy of life" while it does so. It will make you miserable! Keep reading to see how this hormone-producing tumor makes you feel bad. The good news is that hyperparathyroidism is typically very easy to cure if you have a surgeon with lots of experience.

We know that there is a lot of information on the site and it can be hard to take it all in. If you have a question for our surgeons, please contact us using this form and we'd be happy to help.

There is no other disease that is so easy to cure which has such a huge impact on a person's overall health and their quality of life

—Dr James Norman, 2011 address to the American College of Surgeons.

Symptoms of Parathyroid Disease (Hyperparathyroidism)

  • Loss of energy. Don't feel like doing much. Tired all the time. Chronic fatigue. (#1 symptom)
  • Just don't feel well; don't quite feel normal. Hard to explain but just feel kind of bad.
  • Feel old. Don't have the interest in things that you used to.
  • Can't concentrate, or can't keep your concentration like in the past.
  • Depression. (blog)
  • Osteoporosis and Osteopenia.
  • Bones hurt; typically it's bones in the legs and arms but can be most bones.
  • Don't sleep like you used to. Wake up in middle of night. Trouble getting to sleep.
  • Tired during the day and frequently feel like you want a nap (but naps don't help).
  • Spouse claims you are more irritable and harder to get along with (cranky, bitchy). (blog)
  • Forget simple things that you used to remember very easily (worsening memory).
  • Gastric acid reflux; heartburn; GERD. (blog)
  • Decrease in sex drive. (blog)
  • Thinning hair (predominately in middle aged females on the front part of the scalp).
  • Kidney Stones (and eventually kidney failure). (blog)
  • High Blood Pressure (sometimes mild, sometimes quite severe; up and down a lot).
  • Recurrent Headaches (usually patients under the age of 40).
  • Heart Palpitations (arrhythmias). Typically atrial arrhythmias. (blog)
  • Atrial Fibrillation (rapid heart rate, often requiring blood thinners and pacemakers). (blog)
  • High liver function tests (liver blood tests).
  • Development of MGUS and abnormal blood protein levels.

Most people with hyperparathyroidism will have 5 - 6 of these symptoms. Some will have lots of them. A few people will say they don't have any. but after an operation they will often say otherwise. In general, the longer you have hyperparathyroidism, the more symptoms you will develop.

Not sure if you have a parathyroid problem? Download the CalciumPro App developed by our expert doctors. The app will graph and analyze your lab tests, help you diagnose hyperparathyroidism, and save you lots of doctor visits. Was top 3 medical app of 2014, 15 and 16.

If you have a parathyroid problem, go through this list with your family members. Very frequently they will notice subtle changes in your personality over the past couple of years. Often they will say that you have become tired and run-down, without the energy of your old self. They will also confirm that you have become a little more "cranky" over the past couple of years. Have an honest discussion with them and you will be surprised what you may learn. You may realize that the reason for these changes in your personality is that you have a parathyroid tumor that is causing your brain and nervous system to react to the high calcium. The best news is that hyperparathyroidism can almost always be fixed in 20 minutes or less. A simple, out-patient procedure that can change your life.

It is important to know that patients with untreated primary hyperparathyroidism will die an average of 5-6 years earlier than their peers, due to increased rates of heart disease, stroke, and several types of cancers (discussed more at the bottom of this page). Hyperparathyroidism is a more deadly disease than high cholesterol. Thus, if you have hyperparathyroidism, there is an operation in your future to remove the hormone producing tumor so you feel better, and live longer.

This section on parathyroid symptoms cannot be stressed enough.

In other words, people with calcium levels which are only slightly elevated can have some of the worst symptoms, while people with calcium levels around 12 can have kidney stones as their first symptoms. Don't let the fact that your calcium is only 'mildly elevated' fool you (or your doctor) into thinking you have 'mild parathyroid disease' and therefore your symptoms can't be due to the parathyroid problem. If your doctor tells you "your calcium is not that high, let's wait and see what happens", then find a new doctor. This is the most common mistake we see made by doctors and endocrinologists--they tell the patient that their calcium of 10.9 cannot be the cause of their depression, fatigue, and blood pressure. This is not true. The level of the calcium does NOT correlate with the amount of symptoms a patient will have. There is no reason to "wait and see if the calcium goes higher". It doesn't matter if the calcium goes higher. the current level is making the patient sick. And, the tumor will not go away by waiting and watching. If you have this disease, you need to get it fixed. Let's look at symptoms more closely by examining the number of symptoms patients have when we graph them according to what their calcium is.

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Dampfinhalation: Inhalieren Sie Kamille, ätherische Öle oder Kochsalzlösung um Ihren Schnupfen zu lindern! Ist Ihre Nasenatmung behindert, sollten Sie nachts eine leicht erhöhte Liegeposition einnehmen. Auch warme Milch mit Honig kann sich ebenso positiv wie ein Medikament auswirken.

Abwehrkräfte stärken: Essen Sie rohes Sauerkraut, trinken Sie rote Bete Saft und essen sie Kiwis und Orangen! Der hohe Vitamin C Gehalt in bestimmtem Obst und Gemüse unterstützt den Abwehrkampf Ihres Immunsystems.

Nasenduschen: Lindern Sie Ihren Schnupfen durch Nasenduschen! Diese sind in der Apotheke erhältlich, werden mit einer Salzlösung befüllt und mehrmals täglich angewendet. Sie schwemmen Keime aus und die Schleimhäute können abschwellen.

Kalte Lappen: Kalte Lappen auf Nacken und Stirn können Kopfschmerzen lindern! Auch Pfefferminzöl auf den Schläfen oder ein Tee aus Weidenrinden kann hilfreich sein.

Bei einer „echten“ Grippe handelt es sich um eine Infektion mit Influenza-Viren. Bereits einen Tag nach der Infektion können erste Krankheitssymptome auftreten und die Erreger sind etwa eine Woche lang ansteckend. Die Grippe ist eine plötzlich auftretende, fieberhafte Erkrankung. Da sie im Winter häufiger ausbricht, wird sie auch "saisonale Grippe" genannt. Die „echte“ Grippe, kann auch als akute Erkrankung der Atemwege bezeichnet werden. Sie ist äußerst ernstzunehmend, da sie im schlimmsten Fall lebensbedrohlich werden kann.

Gibt es einen Unterschied zwischen Grippe und Influenza?

Als "Influenza" bezeichnet man eine Erkrankung durch das Influenza-Virus. Die Influenza gilt als „echte Grippe“. Es gibt verschiedene Arten von Influenza-Viren (Typ A, B, C). Am häufigsten und gleichzeitig am gefährlichsten ist das Influenza-A-Virus. Dieses ist auf der ganzen Welt verbreitet und unterliegt einer ständigen Veränderung. Auch das Influenza-B-Virus kann beim Menschen zu schweren Atemwegserkrankungen führen. Das Typ C-Virus verursacht bei Erwachsenen eher selten und bei Kindern gelegentlich schwache Erkrankungen. Influenza-Viren bilden ständig neue Varianten, was es schwierig macht, einer Infektion vorzubeugen. Aus diesem Grund wird der Influenza-Impfstoff jedes Jahr neu angepasst.

Die Influenza unterscheidet sich vom grippalen Infekt. Bei einem grippalen Infekt handelt es sich normalerweise nicht um eine Infektion mit dem Grippevirus, sondern um eine Erkältung. Ebenso wird die Magen-Darm-Grippe fälschlicherweise mit der Influenza gleichgesetzt. Gerade zu Beginn der Erkrankung ist eine Abgrenzung zur Erkältung schwierig. Differenzen zwischen Influenza und einer gewöhnlichen Erkältung zeigen sich erst in Verlauf und Schwere der Krankheit. Erkältungen und grippale Infekte werden von anderen Erregern verursacht. Oftmals tritt das Virus zeitlich und örtlich gehäuft auf. In diesem Fall spricht man von einer Grippe-Welle oder auch Epidemie. In größeren Zeitabständen von mehreren Jahren breitet sich die Influenza länder- als auch kontinentübergreifend aus. Diese Art der massenhaften Ausbreitung bezeichnet man als Pandemie. Im Unterschied zur Epidemie (Grippewelle) ist eine Pandemie nicht örtlich beschränkt.

Von Mensch zu Mensch
Eine „echte“ Grippe ist sehr ansteckend. Die Verbreitung erfolgt oftmals durch eine Tröpfcheninfektion und erzeugt nicht selten eine Grippewelle. Beim Niesen, Husten oder Sprechen gelangen kleinste, virushaltige Tröpfchen des Nasen-Rachen-Sekrets von Erkrankten in die Luft und werden von anderen Menschen in der Nähe eingeatmet.
Das hochansteckende Virus kann auch über die Hände weitergereicht werden, wenn diese mit virushaltigen Sekreten in Kontakt gekommen sind. Werden daraufhin Mund, Nase oder Augen berührt, können die Grippeviren leicht über die Schleimhäute in den Körper eindringen.

Über verunreinigte Gegenstände
Die Influenza-Erreger können auch an Türklinken, Haltegriffen, Treppengeländern oder ähnlichen Gegenständen haften und von dort ebenfalls über die Hände weiter gereicht werden. Es kommt zu einer Schmierinfektion.

Den besten Schutz gegen eine Grippewelle bietet eine entsprechende Impfung, die jährlich aufgefrischt werden sollte. Die Impfung erfolgt optimalerweise in den Monaten Oktober und November, da es in diesen, neben Erkältungen, besonders häufig zu Grippewellen kommt. Der Impfstoff wird jedes Jahr überprüft und gegebenenfalls an die aktuellen Virus-Varianten angepasst. Eine Grippe-Impfung ist nicht für jeden Menschen zwingend notwendig, es gibt allerdings bestimmte Gruppen, die besonders gefährdet sind.

Die Ständige Impfkommission (STIKO) empfiehlt eine Grippeimpfung für:

  • ältere Menschen über 60 Jahre und älter
  • Schwangere ab dem zweiten Schwangerschaftsdrittel; bei chronischen Grunderkrankungen schon ab dem ersten Schwangerschaftsdrittel
  • Kinder, Jugendliche und Erwachsene mit Grundleiden (chronische Krankheiten der Atmungsorgane, Herz- oder Kreislauferkrankungen, Leber- oder Nierenkrankheiten, Diabetes oder andere Stoffwechselkrankheiten, Multiple Sklerose, Störungen des Immunsystems, HIV-Infektion)
  • Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter als auch Bewohner von Alten- oder Pflegeheimen
  • medizinisches Personal oder Personal in Einrichtungen mit umfangreichem Publikumsverkehr


Neben der Impfung ist gründliche Hygiene das A und O zur Vorbeugung einer Grippe. Waschen Sie sich mehrmals täglich, sehr gründlich die Hände mit Wasser und Seife. Trocknen Sie die Hände nach dem Waschen sorgfältig mit einem sauberen Tuch ab. Vermeiden Sie das Berühren Ihrer Schleimhäute an Augen, Mund und Nase. Verzichten Sie bei Grippewellen auf das Händeschütteln und halten Sie Abstand zu niesenden oder hustenden Personen. Weiterhin sollten Sie engen Kontakt zu Erkrankten, besonders im häuslichen Umfeld, vermeiden.

Verlauf und Schwere von Grippe-Erkrankungen können von Fall zu Fall sehr unterschiedlich sein. Sollten keine Komplikationen auftreten, halten die Beschwerden in der Regel etwa 5 bis höchstens 7 Tage an. Der Krankheitsverlauf kann von beschwerdefrei bis hin zum Todesfall reichen.
Bei einem schweren Verlauf kann eine Lungenentzündung, eine Entzündung des Gehirns als auch Herzmuskels entstehen. Bei Kindern können sich zudem Komplikationen in Form von Mittelohrentzündungen entwickeln.

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  • Be aware, one of the main ways of transmission of this virus is the air.
  • When in a closed space with someone with a cold, cover your face.
  • When someone sneezes or coughs, the germs travel and lands on surfaces.
  • Wash your hands after you touch doorknobs, keyboards, remote control, ATM machine.
  • Be aware of hand to face contamination.
  • Avoid people who appear to be sick.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Eat foods that strengthen the immune system.

One of the best common cold and flu treatments and prevention is, avoiding someone who is sick and washing your hand frequently. Thankfully today there are many hand sanitizer on the market. Make sure you always have a bottle of sanitizer with you, if you can’t wash your hands immediately. Also, when at home periodically disinfect surfaces and doorknobs regularly. Antibacterial soap containing triclosan is also very helpful.

Pregnancy symptoms differ from woman to woman and pregnancy to pregnancy; however, one of the most significant pregnancy symptoms is a delayed or missed period.

Understanding the signs of pregnancy is important because each symptom may have causes other than pregnancy. You may experience pregnancy signs within a week of conception.

Some women report that they did not experience any symptom for a few weeks. If you need free testing, you can search below or order affordable early detection pregnancy tests online.

If you would like to speak to someone about your symptoms or the possibility of being pregnant, you may call the APA toll-free helpline at 1-800-672-2296, or search locally by your zip code below.

What are the most common first signs of pregnancy? In a poll conducted by the American Pregnancy Association, the most commonly reported first symptoms of pregnancy included:

  • 29% of women surveyed reported a missed period as their first pregnancy symptom
  • 25% indicated that nausea was the first sign of pregnancy
  • 17% reported that a change in their breasts was the initial symptom of pregnancy

While implantation bleeding is often considered the first pregnancy symptom, the survey conducted by the American Pregnancy Association revealed that only 3% of women identified implantation bleeding as their first sign of pregnancy.

Each of your symptoms of pregnancy below could be explained by other causes. What else could they be?

Spotting or light bleeding: If pregnant, this symptom is usually associated with implantation bleeding and is considered one of the earliest signs of pregnancy. The embryo usually implants to the uterine between 6 to 12 days after conception. Some women will experience spotting as well as cramping. Other women do not even notice implantation bleeding or cramping, so don’t worry if you are trying to get pregnant and don’t experience these symptoms; you could still be pregnant.

When this implantation occurs, light bleeding or spotting is perfectly normal. This symptom is sometimes accompanied by light cramping. Many women will conceive and not notice any implantation bleeding, so do not worry if you are trying to get pregnant and do not see this symptom, you could still be pregnant.

Missed period: A delayed or missed period is the most common pregnancy symptom leading a woman to test for pregnancy. When you become pregnant, your next period should be missed.

Is it possible to be pregnant and still have a period? Some women can bleed while they are pregnant, but typically this bleeding will be shorter or lighter than a normal period. A missed period can be a symptom of pregnancy caused by something else.

Nausea or morning sickness: Nausea or morning sickness is the second most commonly reported first sign of pregnancy. Experienced to some degree by most expecting women, nausea typically shows up between 2 to 8 weeks after conception.

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The Bad News: The current bird flu virus, a member of the H5N1 family, could mutate into a form that spreads among humans. No one in the world will have had exposure to this new flu, making it particularly virulent.

The Good News: Modern antiviral drugs may be effective against a pandemic-flu type virus, and supportive care, such as rehydration therapies and ventilators to help lungs under attack, are far more advanced.

The Bad News: The 1918 virus kills chicken eggs. Currently, modern vaccines are made by growing influenza in chicken eggs, extracting the virus and turning it into vaccines. Scientists are experimenting with new ways to produce flu vaccines, but even if they find ways to do this, worldwide production capacity is so limited that it would take months or years to make an adequate supply. — Vikki Valentine

But scientists are interested in what it can reveal about future pandemics. and they say the copy of the 1918 flu bears an ominous resemblance to the bird flu virus now circulating in Asia. — Richard Knox

A snapshot of what's known about the 1918 pandemic:

Name: The virus was at the time called the "Spanish Flu" by some. The label came from reports in the medical press that as many 8 million Spanish were killed by it in May 1918. The name is a misnomer, however, it's now thought that the 1918 flu originated in the United States.

Global Death Toll: Estimates range from 20 million to 100 million. Authors of the paper in this week's Nature say 50 million were killed in the pandemic.

Compared with Other Epidemics: The 1918 flu is thought to have killed the most people in the shortest amount of time. However, its spread was aided by modern ships and a world war that required moving huge armies quickly across the globe. The 14th-century's Black Death killed as many as 20 million in Europe alone over a period of two years. However, global population was much smaller, cities weren't as dense, and global transportation relied on wind and animal caravans; considering its high death toll, the bacteria that caused it may have been more deadly.

U.S. Death Toll: About 25 percent of the population was infected, with perhaps 650,000 people dying from the virus.

Symptoms: Normal flu symptoms of fever, nausea, aches and diarrhea. Many developed severe pneumonia attack. Dark spots would appear on the cheeks and patients would turn blue, suffocating from a lack of oxygen as lungs filled with a frothy, bloody substance.

Origins: New research reconstructing the virus suggests it began in birds, then rapidly mutated, leaping to humans.

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    If you’re having trouble with lousy breath on the keto diet, check out my article on keto and bad breath.

    I hope this helps. I know it helped me get over the worst of the dreaded keto flu.

    We have been asked a lot about the swine influenza and whether or not people need to get a swine flu vaccine. Here is the latest info on the subject.

    Swine influenza is actually a broad term used to refer to a number of types of influenza viruses that are contracted by pigs. Some types of swine flu can also be contracted by humans. Humans can get swine flu from pigs, but this is pretty rare. Humans can also pass swine flu on to other humans.

    The current (2009) outbreak of swine flu (H1N1) is not actually a virus that people can get from pigs. It is very similar to a virus that pigs get, but it is not the same. The name is deceiving.

    People spread this swine flu virus to other people the same way the regular flu is spread. It's a virus and when people with swine flu cough or sneeze, tiny droplets of the virus are sprayed into the air. If you breathe in these droplets, you can catch swine flu. Also, if a person with swine flu coughs or sneezes on something like a phone or doorknob and you touch that object and then touch your mouth or nose, you can catch the flu.

    While most cases of swine influenza are fairly mild, it can be a very serious illness and people do die from it. People die from the regular flu, as well, but the swine flu is more likely to be deadly. It is wise to take steps to prevent getting sick.

    A swine flu vaccine has recently been approved, and is expected to be available around mid-October of 2009. The swine flu vaccine will probably require two different shots, given a week or two apart. The vaccine will take a couple weeks to "kick in," so you would not actually be immune until some time in November. Contact your doctor in October if you are interested in getting a swine flu vaccine. The regular flu vaccine will not protect you against swine flu.

    Treatment for swine influenza is pretty much the same as treatment for other types of flu. In most cases, the virus will clear up on its own even without any treatment. However, treatment may speed the recovery process, and there is treatment available to help with the symptoms as well.

    Antiviral medications may be prescribed to speed to the recovery process. They work by preventing the virus from replicating itself. Antiviral medications are not usually necessary, but can be helpful. You will need to see your doctor and get a prescription if you want to try them.

    There are a number of over-the-counter remedies that can help relieve flu symptoms. Try Tylenol for fever, an antihistamine for runny nose and sneezing, and a cough suppressant for cough. You can have problems if you take too many over-the-counter drugs at one time, though, so you might do best to talk to your doctor or pharmacist about which medications would be best to take.

    Although over-the-counter flu remedies will provide some relief, we have found two products that may be significantly more effective:

    • A highly recommended natural flu remedy is Sambucol. It is a homeopathic remedy that relieves flu symptoms, including fever, headache, body aches, chills, sore throat, coughing, and sneezing. It also helps speed the recovery process.

    See your doctor in mid-fall if you want to get a swine flu vaccine. If you do catch the flu, you do not normally need to see a doctor, as the symptoms will generally go away on their own without treatment. However, if your symptoms are particularly severe, if you have a high fever, if your symptoms last longer than a week, or if you have trouble breathing, you should see a doctor. While most cases of the flu, including swine flu, are fairly mild, the flu can be serious, even deadly, so contact your doctor if you have concerns.

    Animal influenza viruses are distinct from human seasonal influenza viruses and do not easily transmit between humans. However, zoonotic influenza viruses - animal influenza viruses that may occasionally infect humans through direct or indirect contact - can cause disease in humans ranging from a mild illness to death.

    Birds are the natural hosts for avian influenza viruses. After an outbreak of A(H5N1) virus in 1997 in poultry in Hong Kong SAR, China, since 2003, this avian and other influenza viruses have spread from Asia to Europe and Africa. In 2013, human infections with the influenza A(H7N9) virus were reported in China.

    Most swine influenza viruses do not cause disease in humans, but some countries have reported cases of human infection from certain swine influenza viruses. Close proximity to infected pigs or visiting locations where pigs are exhibited has been reported for most human cases, but some limited human-to-human transmission has occurred.

    Just like birds and pigs, other animals such as horses and dogs, can be infected with their own influenza viruses (canine influenza viruses, equine influenza viruses, etc.).

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    Cold symptoms are unpleasant but are usually milder than the flu. They include:

    Read more about how to tell if you have a cold or the flu.

    If you are mildly ill, stay home and avoid contact with other people until your symptoms are gone. This will help prevent the spread of the virus.

    If you are a person at high risk of flu-related complications, contact your health care provider. Tell them about your symptoms.

    See a health care provider immediately if you develop any of these symptoms:

    • shortness of breath
    • fast or trouble breathing
    • pain in your chest
    • blueish or grey skin colour
    • bloody or coloured mucous in your mouth or spit
    • sudden dizziness or confusion
    • severe or ongoing vomiting
    • a high fever (39°C and above) that lasts more than 3 days
    • low blood pressure

    Tell your health care provider about your flu symptoms over the phone before your appointment. That way, they can arrange to see you without exposing other people to the virus.

    Also see a health care provider if you are caring for a child who is sick with the flu and is:

    • not drinking or eating as usual
    • not waking up or interacting with others
    • irritable (not wanting to play or be held)

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    So, what are the symptoms of walking pneumonia? Most of the symptoms of walking pneumonia are very similar to what a person gets when they have a cold or a flu. They could have: a sore throat, a fever, malaise, a dry cough and a headache. What makes the symptoms of walking pneumonia different from the symptoms associated with a bad cold or flu? Two words can answer that question: timeframe and severity. When a person is suffering through the symptoms of walking pneumonia, they will suffer a lot longer than if they were simply experiencing the typical problems of a cold or a flu. Additionally, the treatment methods that work for colds and flus won’t work for alleviating the symptoms of walking pneumonia.

    The only real way to get rid of the symptoms of walking pneumonia is to either wait for the disease to go away on its on or get medical attention. The latter is recommended, since there are rare cases where the disease can become something more serious. And even when it doesn’t, it can take up to a month for the body to get rid of the disease on its own. That is way to long to be suffering with these types of symptoms. But if you go to the doctor once the symptoms appear, you can get antibiotics. With antibiotics the symptoms of walking pneumonia will clear up in a week or less. In addition, you will be monitored to make sure the disease doesn’t get any worse. Sure, such things are not very common for people with healthy immune systems, but since it can happen it’s best you don’t take any chances.

    Once you get on antibiotics, you do not necessarily need bed rest to help speed up the recovery process. As long as walking pneumonia is medically treated, you can do what you would normally do without fear of infecting other people. However, even while you are on antibiotics, you will still suffer through the symptoms of walking pneumonia, even if it’s for a small period of time. You may want to wait for your symptoms to clear up before you return to work, since they can still make you feel miserable.

    In conclusion, don’t ignore the symptoms of walking pneumonia because they are not in the same league as traditional pneumonia. True, they are not as extreme, but they are still indicative that things are not completely normal with your body.

    When someone says, "I have a cold," what he or she means is, "There is something in my body that is causing me to have the set of symptoms that we call a 'cold.'" The set of symptoms normally includes things like a runny nose, sneezing, coughing, "chills" and a headache. It does not include a fever -- normally, if there is a fever it's called "the flu."

    There are many different viruses that can cause cold symptoms, but about half of the time a cold is caused by a class of viruses called rhinoviruses.

    The rhinovirus gets into the cells lining your nose and starts reproducing. It arrives from other people -- it is not cold weather that causes a cold, but the fact that cold weather causes people to congregate together indoors, which makes transmission of the virus easier. The virus generally moves from someone else's hands to your hands (either directly or through some intermediate surface like a door knob), and from your hands into your nose or eyes.

    Your body reacts to the presence of the virus with its immune system. The article How Your Immune System Works talks about infectious diseases and how your immune system deals with them. In the case of a cold, the immune system opens up blood vessels through inflammation and also increases mucus secretions. These two processes give you the runny nose and the stuffy feeling. The irritation caused by the virus and all of the fluid causes sneezing. If the virus makes it into the cells lining the lungs, then they start producing fluid and mucus as well, which produces the cough.

    As the immune system gears up over several days and fights the virus, the mucus thickens and changes color with dead cells (a form of pus, really). Eventually, the immune system eliminates the virus completely and you are well again!

    For more information, see the links on the next page.

    Malaria can occur despite taking anti-malarial drugs and symptoms of malaria infection usually occur within 9 to 14 days.

    The general symptoms include:

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    But as TIME recently reported in our cover story, authorities still expect the U.S. to see some locally transmitted cases of the virus this summer. One challenge is that it can be difficult to track the exact number of people infected with Zika, because the symptoms are similar to other diseases—and the vast majority of those who are infected don’t show any symptoms at all.

    For those who do develop symptoms, the most common ones that characterize a Zika infection are red eyes, joint pain, rash and fever. If a person has a rash with or without a fever and another one of the four symptoms, that is considered a probable case of Zika. Still, there are other ailments that can cause similar symptoms, like the flu or other mosquito-borne illnesses like dengue.

    Right now, the people at risk of getting infected are those who travel to one of the over 40 countries with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Should a person start having symptoms of the virus within two weeks of traveling to an affected region, it may be a good idea to see a doctor and determine whether to be tested. All pregnant women who travel to regions with Zika should be tested regardless of whether they have symptoms, health experts advise. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable since Zika is now proven to cause microcephaly, a birth defect, in infants. Partners of pregnant women should also be aware that the virus can be sexually transmitted, which is why health officials are advising men to abstain or use contraception for six months if they have been exposed and don’t want to pass it on. Women who may have been exposed should wait at least eight weeks before trying to get pregnant.

    Currently, only state and federal laboratories can test for the virus and sometimes results can take weeks to get back. You can read more about whether you should be tested here.

    Travelers who return from a place where they may have been bitten by a mosquito carrying Zika, but do not have symptoms, can ask their doctor to be tested, but they will likely be low priority. Typically if a person does get sick, the symptoms will last for several days to a week.

    More than 75% of all people have some kind of food sensitivity. Discovering yours is the simple natural cure for nagging and long-term health issues.

    Nagging health issues? Why keep taking medications? It could be food intolerance - so easily fixed with a simple Journal!

    Wheat sensitivity is frequently confused with Celiac (Coeliac) disease and Gluten intolerance. These affect 15% (1 in 7). Start healing within days – on the right diet.

    This includes both casein allergy and lactose intolerance – and affects 3 in 4 people (75%) all around the world. Thousands of foods contain dairy in dozens of forms - so it can be tricky to avoid, without a food guide.

    Dairy Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance, Casein Allergy

    Cow's Milk Allergy: Prevalence, Symptoms, Testing and Treatment

    Three in four of all people - 75% - are intolerant to Dairy foods like milk, yoghurt, cheese and ice cream. The vast majority are unaware. The presence of persistent symptoms like headaches, cough or asthma, frequent cold or 'flu, skin problems, stomach bloating, sinus pain, Irritable Bowel, depression or low iron levels suggest Dairy Intolerance.

    Dairy intolerance can be either Lactose Intolerance or Milk protein (Casein) allergy.