It is a contagious and infectious condition which often manifests itself as major pandemics, which may occur in any season interspersed with seasonal epidemics of varying severity.

Influenza is more prominent during the winter season. In winter, the immune system of the body is weak. As people usually stay indoors and are in close proximity to each other, it spreads quickly during winter.

Prognosis of Influenza

The prognosis of Influenza is more severe and lasts longer than ‘common cold’. Recovery period of flu is about one to two weeks. The person remains contagious for about six days from the date of infection.

Influenza leaves the respiratory epithelium weak and prone to several other infections and attack by other pathogens. Influenza can be life threatening when it develops into pneumonia. It may affect people of any age.

Types of Influenza

There are three types of influenza viruses, they are:

1) Type A influenza virus which generally affects the mammals and birds like ducks, chicken and in some cases human beings. There are three variants of Type A influenza viruses namely H1N1 (e.g swine flu), H1N2 (e.g Asian flu and Hongkong flu), and H1N3 viruses.

2) Type B flu virus that infects only humans. This causes mild fever and is less harmful than type A flu.

3) Type C flu which causes mild respiratory infections. virus C. The symptoms of Type C influenza infection resembles the symptoms of common cold and is not pandemic.This flu infects only humans.

Causes of influenza

Influenza is usually caused due to faulty eating habits (dietetic errors) and unhygienic living conditions, like stuffy rooms. Anxiety, overwork, Lack of exercise and faulty lifestyle also provide grounds for influenza infection. The flu virus spreads easily through the saliva droplets released in the air due to sneezing and coughing of the person infected by flu and can infect and weak person quickly.

The birth of influenza virus is closely associated with birds(Avian flu) and other animals (e.g swine flu). Thus Influenza pandemics often originate in places where human beings live in close proximity of animals.

Symptoms of Influenza
The symptoms of influenza are:

  • High fever (upto 40 ° C)
  • Chills and headache
  • Sore throat
  • Dry cough
  • Irritated eyes
  • Nasal congestion and Congestion of the lungs
  • Body aches including Muscle and joint pain
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Pharyngitis

Transmission of influenza virus

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How should I know?

Because that's what I did for about a year before going to the doctor about my herpes symptoms.

A good Herpes test answered my questions.

Herpes is contagious. You owe it to yourself and your partner(s) to get tested and tell them the truth if you see that you have herpes symptoms of any kind.

How Did You Get These Symptoms of Male Genital Herpes?

Herpes is quickly transmitted to and from a partner. In fact, the word herpes in Greek means "Creeping", as even the Greeks knew how quickly this virus could be passed.

Many women don't realize they have any symptoms of herpes. It is something like over 50% of women who have female genital herpes aren't aware of any of their female herpes symptoms.

So you could be having sex with a woman who doesn't even know she has herpes. I think this is what happened to me. Because they certainly didn't tell me.

Although you might be using a condom, the herpes virus can be passed through general skin contact in the genital area. It is highly contagious. Even when there are no obvious symptoms, through asymptomatic viral shedding the virus can be passed through the skin.

That's why a good blood test is essential for you and your partner. You might have herpes, they might have herpes. You don't know unless you get tested.

It only costs about $90 for a blood test for Herpes.

The first signs of male genital herpes will occur within 2-20 days of getting the herpes virus from your sexual partner. Yes, you will see herpes male symptoms that quickly.

The first genital herpes symptoms will be generalized, in other words, you will feel them through large parts of your body as the virus attacks many of your cells. This first outbreak of male genital herpes is called the Primary Outbreak.

Here's some symptoms of male genital herpes you'll likely experience during the p rimary outbreak :

  • Flu or fever (very vommon)
  • High temperatures
  • Decreased appetite
  • Muscle aches (especially in legs, groin, or lower back)
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • Swelling of the penis

So during these first signs of male herpes symptoms it will feel like your whole body is sick. It sucks. For me, I felt like I had the flu!

Male Herpes Symptoms and Lesions during Primary Outbreak

(Picture of male genital herpes on penis)

After feeling flu, fever, or muscle aches, you'll start to feel an intense itching under the skin. This is the virus moving to the surface of your skin.

The next herpes hale symptom you'll experience is small little blisters appearing on the skin surface. They will appear in clusters, many of them together.

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Flu like symptoms can be caused by a variety of other conditions. Hence, a doctor cannot immediately say that a person is suffering from influenza, if he encounters such symptoms. Also, as there exist a number of subtypes of the influenza virus, the seriousness of the condition cannot be gauged without proper tests.
To determine the type of virus, a virus culture is performed on a swab from your nose or throat. Once this is done, accurate medication can be given.

A person often tends to ignore the flu symptoms, as they do not seem serious initially. However, to avoid the serious consequences, it is better to take some safety precautions. They are as follows:

  • Take the flu vaccine on a yearly basis.
  • For a day or two, you can take a medicine for common cold to see, if the effects subside.
  • However, if the symptoms do not subside, it is best to consult a physician, as proper medication depends on the type of flu you have.
Thus, if care is taken, serious effects of flu can be avoided.

What happens when the influenza virus invades?

The impact of an influenza virus depends on viral and host factors. Previous infections or vaccination should provide some protection. If the virus is novel, the severity of an infection will depend on its haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and other viral proteins, which enable the virus to reproduce better in human cells.

In fact, tissue damage has two origins – cells killed by the virus and damage caused to the body’s own cells by the immune system. Both Spanish flu and H5N1 avian flu replicate to high levels and provoke exceptionally powerful immune responses, which run away out of control in the lungs. Influenza viruses also leave patients at risk of secondary bacterial infections.

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 caused comparatively mild symptoms in most people. Those who died usually (but not always) had underlying health problems, such as asthma or other respiratory ailments, morbid obesity or diabetes. Pregnant women were also at higher risk.

Flu pandemics typically affect younger age groups than seasonal flu. Influenza A(H1N1)2009pdm initially had less impact on older groups, possibly because they retained immunity from earlier H1N1 epidemics or benefited from some crossover immunity from vaccination. As the virus adapted to humans, however, it began to infect adults more often.

Infants and young children may be at risk because their immune systems are immature. Paradoxically, young adults may be at risk because they have the strongest immune systems.

The 2009 pandemic provided a unique opportunity to explore whether particular host genetic factors increased the risk of severe disease. Indeed, people with severe disease were more likely to have a particular allele of the IFITM3 gene, which experimental studies have suggested might influence susceptibility to infection.

IFITM3 appears to play a role in preventing the influenza virus from infecting a cell and replicating. A better understanding of natural mechanisms of antiviral defence could suggest new opportunities for antiviral drug development.

Lead image:

Influenza viruses (blue) attaching to the cells of the upper respiratory tract. Viruses floating in the air are breathed in and bind to the hair-like microvilli and cilia on the surface of the cells that line the trachea. They then enter the cells and start to proliferate, eventually causing the cells to die.

R Dourmashkin/Wellcome Images CC BY NC ND

This resource was first published in ‘Influenza special issue’ in October 2009 and reviewed and updated in January 2015.

Many insights into flu transmission have come from research on an unusual model organism – the ferret

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ACID REFLUX (GERD) IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Just like anti-depression medications, many parathyroid patients have been prescribed an anti-stomach acid medication because acid reflux (GERD) is common--seen in about 62% of parathyroid patients. This is expected to go away after the parathyroid tumor has been removed. the high calcium causes increased acid production, so fixing the calcium usually fixes the stomach acid problem completely. Sometimes the acid production can be so severe that it causes an ulcer which bleeds--requiring emergency surgery. Interestingly, relief of GERD symptoms and acid reflux is usually dramatic after parathyroid surgery. Most people have complete resolution of this problem within 1-2 weeks of removal of the parathyroid tumor. never to need their Pepcid, Prevacid, Axid, Protonix, Aciphex, Prilosec, Zantac, Tagamet, etc, etc, ever again. The quickness of this cure is sometimes amazing, but can occasionally take a month or two. We have a blog on GERD and the cure rates after surgery.

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. High blood pressure is another symptom of hyperparathyroidism. As many as 75% of patients with parathyroid disease will have high blood pressure (hypertension). Sometimes it is hard to control and the patient has been put on 2, 3, and sometimes 4 drugs in an attempt to control it. Sometimes it's just one blood pressure drug, but at a time in the patient's life when blood pressure problems should not be showing up. The good news, however, is that fixing the parathyroid problem (having the little parathyroid tumor removed) will make the blood pressure problem go away completely or get better in almost everybody!! So, if you have hypertension, after your parathyroid tumor is removed, you and your doctor can expect to decrease the medications that you are on, and possibly even get rid of one or more of them! If you are on Atenolol, Lisinopril, Toprol, Enalapril, or another high blood pressure medication and your calcium is high. then you have this disease and need your tumor removed. Usually the resolution or decrease in severity of blood pressure occurs gradually during the first 2 weeks to 2 months following successful parathyroid surgery. You should not stop taking your blood pressure medications on your own. but you MUST talk to your doctor about re-assessing your blood pressure with full expectation of being able to 1) remove the only drug you are on, 2) remove one or two drugs if you are taking three drugs, or 3) decreasing the dose of each drug you are on. Almost ALL patients with high blood pressure will be able to decrease or stop one or all of their blood pressure drugs--but this MUST be done with the supervision of your internist or primary care doctor. Do NOT do this on your own.

KIDNEY STONES IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Another common presentation for persistently elevated calcium levels due to parathyroid disease is the development of kidney stones. Since the major function of the kidneys is to filter and clean the blood, they will be constantly exposed to high levels of calcium in patients with an over-active parathyroid gland. The constant filtering of large amounts of calcium will cause the collection of calcium within the renal tubules leading to kidney stones. In extreme cases of long-standing parathyroid disease, the entire kidney can become calcified and even take on the characteristics of bone because of deposition of so much calcium within the tissues. Not only is this painful because of the presence of kidney stones, in severe cases it can cause kidney failure. People with kidney stones are almost guaranteed to have one big parathyroid tumor (not 4 bad glands), so these are usually easy, quick operations for the really experienced endocrine surgeon. Kidney stones are seen in only 24% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. Men with hyperparathyroidism have twice the risk of developing kidney stones as women. People with hyperparathyroidism under the age of 40 have twice the risk of having kidney stones than people over the age of 40. If you have kidney stones you must check your blood calcium AND your PTH levels. You will continue to get stones if you don't remove the parathyroid tumor. We have an entire page dedicated to kidney stones. It is very informative.

CARDIAC SYMPTOMS OF HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Heart problems are often seen in patients with parathyroid disease because hyperparathyroidism CAUSES heart problems. Besides high blood pressure which will affect well over half of people with hyperparathyroidism, the heart is often affected in other ways. About 6 % of people with parathyroid disease (hyperparathyroidism) will discover their parathyroid problem after they show up in the emergency room with a racing heart or heart palpitations. These arrhythmias typically will be treated with a drug called a beta blocker (like Atenolol or Inderal). Removing the parathyroid tumor will almost always cure the arrhythmia (racing heart) and allow the patient to be taken off of these medications within a month or two of the surgery (don't do this on your own. make sure your doctor follows you for this). Your doctor may not be aware of the relationship between hyperparathyroidism and cardiac (atrial) arrhythmias--so print this page and take it to them. If you have this problem, it will almost always resolve following successful parathyroid surgery. Again. DO NOT stop these important drugs without the help of your doctors.

Atrial fibrillation (racing heart beat) is seen in about 3% of humans over the age of 70. They see a cardiologist and are usually on a medication for this and are given a blood thinner called Coumadin (Warfarin). HOWEVER, when patients over the age of 70 have hyperparathyroidism, their chance of having atrial fibrillation is 18%--more than 5 times higher. In patients over the age of 80 with hyperparathyroidism, 45% will have atrial fibrillation. We operate on patients over the age over 80 virtually every day for this reason. Atrial fibrillation is a common complication of high calcium levels in patients over the age of 65. Below that age, some patients will feel like they can sense their heart racing at times. This is called "heart palpitations". This is due to high blood calcium. We have a story about A-Fib on our blog--read it to learn more (cool stories on our blog!). The CalciumPro app will tell you what your risk of A-Fib is.

Another cardiac problem that is often seen with parathyroid disease is the development and worsening of heart valve problems such as mitral valve prolapse. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) show a high incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac calcification within the myocardium, and/or aortic and mitral valve calcification and thus may carry an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases. After surgery the calcium and PTH returns to normal, the progression of heart disease stops, and the patient decreases their risk of developing severe aortic and mitral valve stenosis (blockage). To read more about this click here and a new window will open showing a journal article on this topic. Here is the first line from this article: "Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) show a high incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac calcium deposits in the myocardium, and/or aortic and mitral valve calcification and thus may carry an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases".

Here is a very short list of major articles showing how hyperparathyroidism adversely affects the heart and increases heart related deaths. Nearly all of these articles shows that removing the parathyroid tumor will reverse some or all of the heart damage. This is a very short list. Clicking on the link will open a new window that will show you the article. Close the window to come back here.

  1. Left ventricular hypertrophy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Effects of successful parathyroidectomy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).1999 Mar;50(3):321-8
  2. Left ventricular structure and function in primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy. Cardiology.2000;93(4):229-33.
  3. Cardiac abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: implications for follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.1997 Jan;82(1):106-12.
  4. Maintained normalization of cardiovascular dysfunction 5 years after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery.2005 Jun;137(6):632-8 CONCLUSION: Parathyroidectomy can induce long-lasting improvement in regulation of blood pressure, left ventricular diastolic function, cardiac irritability (ventricular extrasystolic beats), and other signs of myocardial ischemia, with potential implications for the postoperative life expectancy of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who have undergone parathyroidectomy.
  5. We have a blog on this, with over 30 references.

HEADACHES IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Many people with parathyroid disease have recurrent headaches. About 5% of people with parathyroid disease will present with headaches being the major reason they go to the doctor. and after time and money is spent on CAT scans and MRI's of the brain. all the doctor is left with is a high calcium level in the blood. Then the doctor will say: "I'm not sure if the high calcium is causing this or not, let's check some more labs". Au contraire. the calcium IS causing the recurrent headaches and removing the bad parathyroid gland will fix the headaches. Also, it is interesting to note that almost all patients that have recurrent headaches as a symptom of hyperparathyroidism have one big tumor as the cause. and it's usually extremely easy to fix (less than 20 minutes most of the time). Headaches as a presenting symptom are most common in young people. In teenagers, and those in their 20's and 30's, recurrent headaches are the number 2 symptom! (number one symptom in young people is kidney stones). The good news is that removing the parathyroid tumor will stop the headaches usually within 2 weeks!

LIFE EXPECTANCY IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Long-standing parathyroid disease can be very hard on the body, In fact, people with parathyroid disease for more than 15 years have a life-expectancy which is about 5 years less than their peers. In other words, studies have shown that all of these complications add up over the years, and these parathyroid patients tend to die about 5 years faster than they would otherwise. It is not a cancer, but parathyroid disease and too much parathyroid hormone can be very hard on your body! Now its easy to understand why having a mini-operation to remove a bad parathyroid has changed the way this disease is treated. Life insurance companies know this and can deny you coverage if you have hyperparathyroidism. See a typical letter from one of the biggest life insurance companies.

Editor's note: September 3, 2015. Recently we operated on 2 very nice ladies, one 65 and the other 71. Both had a stroke within the past 3 months that was directly due to their parathyroid disease not being treated. Both lost function in 1/2 of their body. Both had parathyroid disease for over 12 years and their doctors told them "don't worry about it until your calcium goes above 12". Neither one of these ladies ever had a calcium above 11.9. Their calcium was usually around 10-9 to 11.4. They both had blood pressure that was very hard to control. Both had bad osteoporosis. Both had severe GERD. Both were tired all the time. Their doctor kept saying to wait. Well they waited until they had a stroke. The sad part is that we see this terrible complication about every month or so. This disease could ruin your life if you don't get it treated. It may make you feel bad, make you tired, jeopardize your marriage (your spouse will get tired of arguing with you!), give you kidney stones, take away your joy, and even might cause you to have a stroke (this is very rare). Both of these ladies had their parathyroid problem fixed via a mini operation that took 17 minutes TOTAL. and had a Band-Aid on their neck when they went home an hour or so later. Be careful of a doctor that tells you to wait until your calcium goes higher. It will almost always NOT go higher. waiting will not necessarily make the calcium go higher because all the calcium goes out in your urine. Waiting until it goes higher is usually not in your best interest. Find an expert and get the tumor removed.

OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERPARATHYROIDISM. Everybody who has hyperparathyroidism will lose calcium out of their bones and thus lose bone density. This loss of bone density is called "osteoporosis" and is such an important part of parathyroid disease that it has its own page on this web site (click here). Let us say this again. EVERYBODY with hyperparathyroidism will develop osteoporosis if the parathyroid tumor is not removed. About half will get SEVERE osteoporosis. Fosamax and Evista will NOT change this! Even 25 year old men get osteoporosis if they have a parathyroid tumor that is not removed. THEREFORE, ALL patients with parathyroid disease MUST have a bone density scan to determine how much damage has been done to their bones. It does not matter if you are a teenager or in your 20's---if you have hyperparathyroidism then you must get a DEXA bone density test. After all, where do you think all that calcium in your blood and in your urine came from. It came from your bones! Almost all patients with hyperparathyroidism with kidney stones have osteopenia or osteoporosis. Yep, those kidney stones came from your bones! Read more on our osteoporosis page.

How long after the parathyroid tumor is removed until my symptoms of hyperparathyroidism go away?

This is a common question. The answer is a little bit obscure, but certain things are very clear. Virtually all patients feel better and "enjoy life" more after the parathyroid tumor is removed.

  • Bone Pain. This almost always resolves within 1 to 4 hours. This is very dramatic in almost all patients with bonepain.
  • High Blood Pressure. Usually hypertension improves in the months following the operation, and you may be able to taper off some of your blood pressure medications. Do NOT do this yourself, you MUST let your doctor help you gradually get off of these drugs.
  • Central Nervous System (brain) Symptoms. There are quite a few symptoms related to the brain and how the brain does its business (fatigue, depression, memory loss, anxiety, low energy level, short temper, sleeping problems). Fatigue and low energy usually improves in the first few weeks after the operation, but can take longer. Depression and memory loss usually take a few months to get noticeably better. Some people get dramatic changes in these symptoms within 1-2 weeks, but most get relief in a very gradual fashion over several months. Often it is their spouse/family that notices the patient is doing things differently and appears much happier. Depression takes longer to resolve, so if you are on an anti-depression medication you should wait to taper off your medications for a few months. Again, do not do this yourself. You MUST get your doctor to oversee this drug removal. If your doctor does not know much about parathyroid disease and is unsure about this. print this page and take it to them. and if you are one of our patients (the Norman Parathyroid Center), have your doctor call us to discuss it.
  • GERD (Acid Reflux). The symptoms of GERD and acid reflux are usually quite dramatically gone within the first 2 weeks following surgery but on occasion can take a few months to resolve. Patients who are taking anti-acid medications (Zantac, Prilosec, Pepcid, Tagamet, Nexium, Prevacid, Protonix, Aciphex, Axid) can usually stop these medications after their very first doctor's visit following the parathyroid tumor removal.
  • Headaches. Some people with hyperparathyroidism have severe headaches that occur every few days to once a month or so. Almost all patients with headaches will have a dramatic elimination of their headaches within the first 2 or 3 weeks of a successful operation. This is often very dramatic!
  • Heart Arrhythmias. About 8% of patients with hyperparathyroidism have heart troubles (almost always this presents as a rhythm problem--arrhythmias, atrial tachycardia, PACs, etc). Usually, a medication is prescribed for this arrhythmia. If the arrhythmia is due to the high calcium level, then it will almost always subside within a month or two of parathyroid surgery. Again, do NOT stop your heart medications until you talk to your doctor (cardiologist?) about this. but, DO print this page and take it to your doctor--because he/she may not be aware that your parathyroid problem may have CAUSED the heart rhythm problem.
  • Hair Loss; Thinning Hair. Most women who have thinning hair due to parathyroid disease notice a difference within 3-4 months. At 6 months, they are usually quite excited to have their old hair coming back.
  • Osteoporosis. By now you know that patients with parathyroid disease will eventually get osteoporosis. unless the parathyroid tumor is removed early enough. We have an entire page on osteoporosis (go there), but let's summarize it by saying: 1) there are NO drugs that can prevent or improve osteoporosis in patients with hyperparathyroidism as long as the tumor is still in their neck, and 2) once the tumor has been removed, ALL patients will gain bone density beginning HOURS after the surgery (that's one of the reasons why we put our patients on high doses of calcium right after the operation!).

Hi Dr. Norman, On May 26th, 2009 you performed a parathyroidectomy on me. The surgery was very uneventful and ordinary for you (16 minutes, out of the hospital about 1 hour later) but was absolutely life changing for me. The higher level of energy and greatly reduced hours of napping have been a real plus. My husband says things that would have "set me off" before I now handle without upset. (I'm not so crabby!) And several of our friends have said they see a real change in me. In fact one told me just yesterday that even my voice has a sound of joy in it. That comment reminded me of your statement in the letter you sent my doctor, "These tumors take away the joys of life", and that is oh so true! It took everything I had just to exist but after surgery, when the symptoms lifted quickly, the change was amazing. Perhaps the thing I appreciate the most is the clarity of mind and how wonderfully well I read and comprehend. Other people didn't notice that so much but to me it seems like a miracle! I have a zest for life because a huge fog has been lifted! I tell people, "I'm not twenty again but I feel so much better and I don't feel like I have one foot in the grave".

Uncommon symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. These two items are listed for completion sake. Old articles (from the 50's and 60's will list these stomach ulcers and pancreatitis as symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. High levels of calcium in the blood can be dangerous to a number of cells including the lining of the stomach and the pancreas causing both of these organs to become inflamed and painful (ulcers and acute pancreatitis). However, we've seen well over 15,000 cases of hyperparathyroidism and we've seen pancreatitis and stomach ulcers very few times. We won't even discuss it here any more. Too uncommon.

Hyperparathyroidism and the risk of developing OTHER types of cancers.

New studies have become quite convincing that untreated hyperparathyroidism can increase a persons risk for developing cancers in other areas of your body. Previously this section of the website caused too much stress in patients reading this page, so we removed it. We struggle with putting this here again, as it has been said we are "scaring people to get an operation". Well, that is clearly not our goal. We have plenty of patients and don't need to scare any more into coming to our clinic. This website ( is the most widely read resource for parathyroid disease world-wide. Our goal is to provide expertise and information so that patients can talk about these issues with their doctors and make intelligent decisions about their health. The facts are that most doctors just don't know much about hyperparathyroidism.

There is now quite convincing evidence from a number of studies which show that prolonged high calcium levels (possibly prolonged PTH levels) increases the risk of developing other types of cancers. We have selected 5 journal articles that are very recent and published in major medical journals by some very respected scientists at some very large universities world-wide. The evidence presented here is that untreated hyperparathyroidism increases the risk of breast cancer, prostate cancer, and to a lesser extent, colon cancer and kidney cancer. We present here the title of the articles and a link to the journal abstract that you can read for yourself. This does NOT mean that all the women with hyperparathyroidism will get breast cancer. It does mean, however, that the risk of developing breast cancer is higher if you have hyperparathyroidism and you should take this into consideration when making a decision about what to do. The association with prostate cancer is even more troubling.

  1. Serum calcium and Breast Cancer risk: results from a prospective cohort study of 7,847 women. Cancer Causes Control.2007 Aug;18(6):595-602. Epub 2007 Apr 5. Showed increased risk of breast cancer in women with untreated hyperparathyroidism. (This has been shown in 6 studies that we are aware of).
  2. A dramatic increase in the rate of aggressive Prostate Cancer was shown several years ago, but most recently in 2008 it was shown in a very large study in the US in cooperation with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). High calcium and PTH are associated with a 2.7-fold increase in aggressive prostate cancer. Read the abstract of this journal article here: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention17, 2302-2305, September 1, 2008. where they summarize by saying "These results support the hypothesis that high serum calcium or a factor strongly associated with it (e.g., high serum parathyroid hormone) increases the risk for fatal prostate cancer". And, you can read about it here on Yahoo also: High blood calcium tied to lethal prostate cancer.
  3. The association between primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy: nationwide cohort analysis on cancer incidence after parathyroidectomy. Endocr Relat Cancer.2007 Mar;14(1):135-40. Showed increased incidence of breast, colon, and kidney cancer in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  4. Hyperparathyroidism and subsequent incidence of breast cancer. Int J Cancer.2004 Jun 20;110(3):449-51
  5. Increased prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism in treated breast cancer. J Endocrinol Invest.2001 May;24(5):315-20

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Für die saisonale Influenza ist der Mensch das einzige Reservoir und damit die einzige Infektionsquelle. Ansteckend sind vor allem Erkrankte während der ersten 4-5 Tage, da sie dann große Mengen von Viren aushusten. Bei Kindern, schwer Erkrankten und insbesondere bei stark Abwehrgeschwächten kann die Ausscheidung von Viren auch länger anhalten (bis zu 2 Wochen, in Einzelfällen mehrere Monate). Eine Ausscheidung ist auch schon 1-2 Tage vor Symptombeginn möglich.

Die Übertragung von Influenzaviren erfolgt überwiegend durch Tröpfchen, die insbesondere beim Husten oder Niesen entstehen und über eine geringe Distanz auf die Schleimhäute der Atemwege von

Kontaktpersonen gelangen können. Selbst beim normalen Atmen oder Sprechen können solche infektiöse Tröpfchen entstehen und länger in der Luft schweben. Darüber hinaus ist eine Übertragung auch durch direkten Kontakt der Hände zu Oberflächen, die mit virushaltigen Sekreten kontaminiert sind, und anschließendem Hand-Mund-/Hand-Nasen-Kontakt möglich (z.B. durch Händeschütteln).

Die Inkubationszeit, also die Zeit von der Infektion bis zum Ausbruch der ersten Krankheitsanzeichen, beträgt bei der Grippe meist nur ein bis zwei Tage. Typisch für eine Influenza ist der plötzliche Beginn der Erkrankung Die Hauptsymptome sind:

  • hohes Fieber bis zu 41°C, häufig mit Frösteln
  • trockener Husten und Heiserkeit
  • Halsschmerzen
  • Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen
  • schweres Krankheitsgefühl

Weitere häufige Symptome sind allgemeine Schwäche, Appetitlosigkeit, Schweißausbrüche, Schnupfen und Augenschmerzen. In einigen Fällen können auch Schüttelfrost, Lichtscheu und Geräuschempfindlichkeit hinzukommen. Bei einem Teil der Patienten liegt auch eine Beteiligung des Magen-/Darmtrakts vor mit Übelkeit/Erbrechen und Durchfall.

Allerdings können auch viele weitere, meist virale Atemwegserreger einige dieser Symptome verursachen. Gerade anfangs kann man die Grippe leicht mit einer Erkältung verwechseln, für die ebenfalls mehrheitlich Viren verantwortlich sind. Der Unterschied zwischen Influenza und Erkältung zeigt sich meist im Verlauf und in der Schwere der Erkrankung (siehe Unterschiede zwischen Grippe und Erkältung). Abhängig von einer vorbestehenden Immunität, vorliegenden Grunderkrankungen aber auch von der individuellen Konstitution erkranken nicht alle Influenza-Infizierten mit den typischen Symptomen. Als Faustregel kann gelten, dass es bei etwa einem Drittel der Infektionen zu einem hochfieberhaften, einem weiteren Drittel zu einem leichteren und dem letzten Drittel zu einem Verlauf ohne Symptome kommt.

Das hohe Fieber dauert meist 3 bis 4 Tage. Ein erneuter Fieberanstieg kann auf den Beginn einer zusätzlichen bakteriellen Infektion (Superinfektion) der Atemwege hinweisen. Die Krankheitsdauer liegt in der Regel bei 5 bis 7 Tagen, kann im Einzelfall jedoch auch deutlich länger sein, insbesondere bei Komplikationen und Risikofaktoren. Der quälende Reizhusten hält nicht selten über Wochen an. Einige Patienten leiden noch Wochen nach Abklingen einer Influenza an einer ausgeprägten allgemeinen Leistungsschwäche, Appetitlosigkeit und Unwohlsein bis hin zur Depression. Schwerwiegende Komplikationen treten zwar nur bei einem kleinen Teil aller Infizierten auf, in Anbetracht der meist sehr großen Zahl von Erkrankten während der jährlichen Grippesaison sind sie dennoch relativ häufig.

Experte: Wissenschaftliche Beratung und Ausarbeitung: Prof. Dr. Thomas Löscher, München

Lehnert R et al. Antivirale Arzneimittel bei saisonaler und pandemischer Influenza. Ein systematisches Review. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016; 113: 799
Rationelle Diagnostik und Therapie in der Inneren Medizin in 2 Ordnern; Meyer, J. et al. (Hrsg.); Elsevier 11/2016
Salzberger B, Schmidt B: Neues zur Influenza. Dtsch med Wochenschr 2016; 141: 1451

Dizziness, a feeling of being off balance or lightheaded, is a common symptom in people with MS. A less common symptom for people with MS is vertigo, which causes the sensation that they or their surroundings are spinning or that the ground suddenly rushes upwards. Vertigo can be exacerbated by lying down or inclining one’s head or in situations where vision cannot be used, such as in a darkened room.

The symptoms of dizziness and vertigo result from lesions (damaged areas) on the nerve pathways responsible for transmitting input from the inner ear to the brain for the purpose of maintaining balance or equilibrium. Damage to the eighth cranial nerve, which serves both the balance (vestibular) and acoustic processes of the ear, can cause dizziness or vertigo.

If dizziness or vertigo become significant problems for you or continue for a long time, your doctor may be able to give you a medication to help resolve the symptom.

Medications for treating motion sickness, including antihistamines such as Antivert ® (meclizine), Dramamine® (dimenhydrinate), and Benadryl (diphenhydramine), may be useful, as well as select drugs in the benzodiazepine family, including Valium (diazepam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), and Xanax (alprazolam). A drawback with both antihistamine and benzodiazepine medications is that they can make you feel drowsy. So, you should work with your doctor to find the lowest dosage that resolves your symptoms.

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Hahaha merveilleux. Est-ce qu’on peut s’attaquer aux “casse grippe” maintenant?

Moi ce qui m’énerve ce sont les erreurs dans la ponctuation: il faut mettre un espace avant et après un point d’exclamation, un point d’interrogation, les deux-points, un point-virgule. Je vais peut-être faire des “infographiques” (wtf? Olivier Bernard | January 30, 2014 at 2:22 pm | Reply

Un commentaire pédant, c’est déjà un début.

Merci pour ces capsules humoristiques de vulgarisation. En matière de typographie canadienne-française (et pas seulement québécoise), Le guide du rédacteur (publication fédérale), Le français au bureau (publication provinciale du Québec) et Le Ramat de la typographie stipulent que le point d’exclamation, le point d’interrogation et le point-virgule ne prennent pas d’espace avant, seulement après. Le français au bureau ajoute même que « si on dispose de l’espace fine*, il est conseillé de l’utiliser » ce que renchérit le Ramat, toujours avec humour et vulgarisation. Comme le Pharmachien!
* « Espace » est, en typographie, le mot qui désigne le blanc qui sépare les chaines de caractères et est féminin.

Je seconde. Par contre, l’encadré sur les risques décrits ci-haut concernant Deux filles le matin a failli m’envoyer à l’urgence.

Haha c’est vraiment bon ton diagramme!

J’adore ta façon d’expliquer la différence. À écouter certaines personnes, elles prétendent avoir en moyennes deux grippes par hiver…

Je vais partager ton arbre décisionnel dans mon entourage, peut être que certains finiront par comprendre la différence.

J’ai déjà entendu Dre Laberge (98.5) mentionner qu’une grippe nous frappe subitement contrairement a un rhume qui s’installe graduellement.

J’adore tes explications, les dessins humoristiques et que tout ne soit plus compliqué! Je cours acheter ton livre, il me le faut! Bravo!

J’imagine qu’il y en a comme moi qui ne font jamais de fièvre.. Je trouve ça bien mais moyennement utile quand tu vas voir le médecin.. Quand tu sais que t’as quelque chose de pas normal.. À l’hôpital, si tu fais pas de fièvre t’es pas réellement malade et tu te fais traiter comme si t’étais niaiseux ou niaiseuse.

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17) I am getting very cold and tingling feet and hands. They are becoming painful, like from frostbite.

I also have bad pain in my lower back. My hair (and I mean all my hair) has become exceptionally thin, not the sturdy shafts as before. I don't feel well after eating and I am scared.

16) I think my on again-off again boyfriend has poisoned me with some type of chemical that he uses at work. He works at a place called varmen guard; it's like Orkin and he has access to all types of chemicals. I think he put it in my food while I was in the shower.

About an hour or two after eating, I started to get headaches, my throat became sore and both of my lower legs started to cramp and convulse really bad. Can insecticides cause these types of problems?

15) I suspect my ex-wife of trying to poison me many years ago. We had curry in the evening and she gave some of the leftover to take to work for lunch. After that I got violently sick. The symptoms included a painful and sensitive stomach, vomiting and confusion.

I looked into her eyes as she was about to give me more curry food and saw this cold look in her eyes. I then refused any food from her which saved my life. I recovered after that within three days.

14) @Post 13: Are you able to purchase test kits online without him knowing? I just purchased an arsenic test kit online, and they have other kinds of test kits too. You can test any liquid, I believe even your urine. I would either recommend testing your urine or saving a drink or other liquid he gives you until you can test it without him knowing.

As far as a way to narrow down what chemical it is, google lists of poisons and symptoms and see which ones fit your symptoms best. That way, you can narrow it down a little and go from there.

My husband and I have been being poisoned by my adoptive parents for a while. We believe it is arsenic, and our symptoms are similar to yours: Every time after we would eat an open food from our fridge (like pickles from a jar), our throats would burn, we would get really tired, very bad headaches, very weak. Then, after about an hour or so, we would both have very bad stomach cramps and severe diarrhea. These people have been poisoning me for a long time (we have since taken many precautions against it and have filed police reports), but from my experience, I can tell you that it will only get worse. I was in the hospital and came very close to dying many times.

Whatever poison this man you are living with is using, it may not just be in the food or drinks. Do you take any vitamins or pills? It can be in there too, especially if the pills are powdery.

I hope this helps and I hope you stay safe and healthy. Good luck.

13) I've been worried that the guy I'm living with is poisoning me with something. He makes food and won't eat it. My symptoms can be mild to severe.

First is my stomach severely bloats like I'm pregnant, my urine smells really odd, like a weird chemical and sometimes my stool does as well. I get nausea and diarrhea and right now I'm really sick.

My throat feels literally like it's been burned. I get a weird menthol type vapor in my throat or it just feels hot inside. Sometimes I'm really tired and weak and either my heart races or it's slow. I'm having tingling in my hands. Please can someone help? He's a farmer. I don't think I'm crazy. What chemical would it be?

12) I am pretty sure I am being poisoned with arsenic. Is there a way to test food or liquids for arsenic? What are other ways people may put arsenic in your house? I have a very sore throat, trouble breathing, stomach pains, severe diarrhea, joint pain, and muscle twitches.

I have been poisoned before by the people I am suspecting, but I am not sure of the poison they are using and how they are getting it into my apartment. I believe they may have a key and come in while I am at work and put it in open food (any time I eat open food, like pickles from a jar or chips, I end up with severe stomach cramps and diarrhea). I stopped eating open food at my house, but I am still sick with the respiratory symptoms, extremely tired, dizzy, and very bad headaches. Does anyone have any suggestions to figure out which poison is being used?

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    Swine Flu and Children – Facts, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment, and Vaccination

    by Salma Jafri

    WHO on June 11th 2009. Its pandemic status means that it is documented as spreading virally from person to person across the globe. Since young children have been deemed a particularly susceptible group to contracting swine flu, it's important for adults caring for children to know the facts about this ailment and how to prevent it.

    As a parent or child care minder here are some facts about swine flu and its affect on children:

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    Diet alone can be effective at healing SIBO but can be slow and take a long time.

    It should take about a month on one of these diets to feel symptom relief but people typically stay on the diet for a year or two, depending on the case. Sometimes people can feel worse on this diet as bacterial die off occurs. That can feel like the worsening of IBS symptoms or flu-like symptoms.

    Because SIBO is thought to prevent people from absorbing and processing fructose and vegetables with insoluble fiber, the diets above should be modified to address these issues. Fruit and veggies with insoluble fiber need to be taken out and reintroduced very slowly.

    Beans and nuts are also foods that are known to cause digestive flare ups.

    One of the best ways to prevent SIBO from recurring is to keep digestive fire strong. That means having sufficient hydrochloric acid in the stomach and sufficient enzymes to help break down the food so no undigested particles remain.

    Things that keep digestion and absorption strong are taking probiotics, enzymes, or bitters before a meal. Or diluting a bit of apple cider vinegar in water and drinking it before a meal.

    Dr. Pimentel also recommends fasting 3 to 5 hours between meals to give the small intestine the opportunity to sweep bad bacteria out.

    Lastly, constipation-dominant SIBO is much harder to teat because it indicates a higher level of bacteria and methane gas, according to Dr.Siebecker.

    I believe there can be many causes of IBS, and SIBO is just one of them. I will talk about more underlying causes for IBS in future blog posts.

    What is your name?

    Please indicate below the emails to which you want to send this article: One cause of IBS: SIBO (Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth)

    Enter one email per line. No more than 100 emails.

    Angela Privin is proof that IBS is NOT an incurable disease or a disease at all. IBS is a body out of balance. It’s an invitation for change. After solving her own IBS mystery more than a decade ago Angela trained as a health coach to help others.

    Angela uses both science and intuition to help people figure out what’s out of balance in their body. She works with lab tests, dietary changes, supplementation and nervous system rebalancing. Get help rebalancing your digestive system and solving your IBS mystery here.

    Brief History of Cocaine

    Cocaine is a substance found in a plant (Erythoxylum coca) which is native to Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador and is cultivated in many other countries. Natives of the countries in which the coca plant was part of the landscape chewed the leaves to increase energy, alertness, and endurance.

    The leaves of the plant are ground into a paste and heated with hydrochloric acid producing cocaine in its powder form. In its powder form, cocaine is most often separated into “lines” and snorted.

    Modern cocaine was originally synthesized in 1855 and by 1880 the medicinal qualities of cocaine were first recognized by the medical community. Although it was widely credited as a cure for many ailments, cocaine was primarily used as a surgical anesthetic.

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    Of course, just because you experience some of these symptoms does not guarantee that you do have an intestinal parasite. You may just have a dreadful diet, and now you are paying for it.

    I've found, though, that if you experience these symptoms chronically, you need a good colon cleaning whether it is harboring parasites or not!

    We really aren't meant to live in discomfort like that. And honestly, if you let these things go, they don't just go away. You usually end up with far greater digestive problems and even some painful and serious conditions.

    As a result of chronic parasitic infections, people have suffered with.

    • irritable bowel syndrome
    • ulcerative colitis
    • allergy problems
    • inflammation
    • joint pain
    • chronic fatigue
    • immune disorders, possibly even AIDS

    After dealing with the parasites and getting them out of their system, their symptoms were gone, too. Remember the little "mimics?" Your situation may not be as serious as you fear.

    I freely admit that I am not a doctor. However, I'm the type who would rather take the simple and natural steps first to try to fix a problem. When all else fails, then I consider drastic measures!:-)

    Why? Take several weeks and apply a few good principles of colon cleansing and healthy eating to your life. You may surprise yourself by the results. And the wonderful thing about a natural cleanse is that it is relatively inexpensive and you won't have to worry about damaging chemical side effects.

    I'd love to hear your story about intestinal parasites symptoms and add it to the other testimonies of those who have found relief and truly been helped. Use the form below to share it with us.

    To your good health!

    If you have a parasite related question, feel free to ask it here.

    Click the links below to see the questions and contributions from other visitors to this page. Add your opinions and comments if you'd like to help.

    Something Living Under My Skin
    I have something living under my skin. It only appears every three to four months. ts starts out like a little blister and itching (the itch …

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    I have now been using progesterone cream for two months, and I'm already experiencing a difference. I had only one migraine this month instead of many, no cramps, less spotting, and a lighter flow. I highly recommend to have your hormones checked if any of these symptoms apply to you!

    26) I have been suffering from anxiety and panic attacks for years and have been treated with meds like prozac and paxil off and on. Anxiety is still a problem, especially around my period and ovulation. I also have been diagnosed with infertility due to endometriosis. I recently had the saliva tests done and my progesterone levels were very low. I now am on 50mg of bioidentical progesterone. This is my first month and my anxiety has gotten worse!

    I am just wondering if after a few months on the progesterone will things get better? I am really worried and stressed every day if I am going to wake up with anxiety. I feel like it has taken over my life.

    25) I was just tested. My progesterone level was.5! I have had anxiety issues for months. I also have severe insomnia. I felt nonhuman. I am angry all the time.

    My poor husband has been fantastic, but I feel miserable. I am on zoloft, xanax and restoril until my hormone replacement arrives this week. I am only 42 years old. I have had this issue for years. I am so tired of being told I am too young for this. Why aren't more doctors and people talking about this?

    24) I would suggest as already mentioned, to seek out a doctor who does bioidentical hormone replacement therapy. It is all natural and much better for our bodies. This really makes a difference for all of those mentioned side effects of low progesterone. I am on 50mg for the very first time, so am already feeling a little better, however, will be able to tell after a few more months. Thanks

    23) all of these women have some of the same symptoms I had and several more. Severe headaches at times, amenorrhea, overwhelming fatigue, thinning of my skin, horrible panic attacks, low back pain, urinating frequently, malaise, respiratory infections that recurred over and over for no reason.

    I researched it extensively, as no doctor was helping at all. I started on progesterone cream, natural progesterone only. Large dosing initially to combat the dominance of the estrogen. I used 200mg daily to start and within days the symptoms subsided. Now on daily lower doses. everyone is different but it was a miracle for me.

    22) I just found out my progesterone level is low after TTC for 14 mos. I had to push doc for a test. It is a 5.4, what is a normal level? I too, notice my hair has been thinning and I have complained to the doc several times about heavy, clotty periods.

    21) Waited to raise my son, finish my education and finally for my second - now good marriage - and bam! Now I am told I am in menopause!

    Started my own research and using progesterone capsules and cream - trying to have this planned baby. No, traditional male docs just aren't following through here. You've got to do your own legwork and pray!

    Whether wanting to deal with the menopause or try to reverse the bioclock, I recommend the hormone cream at least. Good luck out there!

    20) I get severe headaches, body chills, severe cramping, fatigue and heavy bleeding before my period starts and during as well. My gyno tested and said that my progesterone is low, but the pills are not working. I had a miscarriage because of this hormone issue.

    19) I have been on natural progesterone that is made specifically for me at a compounding pharmacy for the last five years. I was diagnosed through saliva testing, which is more specific than blood.

    I had the symptoms mentioned by others. Severe bad moods, period slightly erratic, severe headaches caused by both migraines and at other times by tension, exhaustion, no libido, and hair falling out.