Treatment of infections can be through several different strategies.

Prevention of infections is difficult, if not impossible, if the intent is to avoid all possible sources of infection.

The cheapest, easiest, and most globally effective method for infection prevention is good hygiene.

Washing your hands frequently is perhaps the single most important measure to avoid more personal infections, and avoid transmission of harmful microorganisms to others.

Vaccination is another powerful method in avoiding infections. Vaccination programs have been effective in reducing many viral and bacterial microorganisms to the history books.

What are the Symptoms of Mono?

Mono Symptoms:
Are you are looking for information related to mono symptoms, what are the symptoms of mono, symptoms of mononucleosis, mononucleosis symptoms or kissing disease then read on…

What is Mononucleosis?

Infectious Mononucleosis also known as Mono or Glandular Fever or “the kissing disease“, is a severe infection caused by Epstein Barr virus.

This cruel disease is commonly found in children as well as in young adults.

Is Mononucleosis Contagious?

Mono is a contagious disease and can easily be transmitted from an individual to another.

Moreover, the Epstein Barr virus has no noticeable symptoms and so it cannot be detected earlier and is considered as a common cold. This increases the development of mononucleosis and leads to various health related problems. Living under the threat of mononucleosis is really disgusting and miserable because the Epstein Barr virus has the ability to develop lifelong process in the human body. A person suffering from chronic mononucleosis only knows how devastating this disease is.

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Quels sont les symptômes que l'on doit présenter avant d'envisager avoir contracté le virus? Après une période d'incubation de 24 à 48 heures, il y a peut-être eu contamination si l'on constate:

  • qu'on a de la fièvre pouvant atteindre 41 °C;
  • qu'on éprouve des douleurs musculaires, en particulier dans le dos;
  • qu'on a la gorge irritée;
  • qu'on a des maux de tête;
  • qu'on ressent une fatigue intense causée par la douleur;
  • qu'on éprouve de la difficulté à respirer;
  • qu'on a une toux sèche et profonde par épisodes;
  • qu'on a des écoulements nasaux;
  • qu'on perd l'appétit;
  • qu'on a la diarrhée (assez rare);
  • qu'on a des nausées et des vomissements (assez rare).

La grippe A(H1N1) nous inquiète et on veut savoir comment s'en prémunir? On lit ce qui suit.

Asian influenza, commonly known as the Asian flu, is a viral respiratory illness caused by the H2N2 strain of Type A influenza. The H2N2 Asian flu is the result of avian influenza — that is, a flu normally found in birds — crossed with a human influenza virus. The Asian flu results in symptoms similar to many other strains of influenza, including fever, body aches, chills, cough, weakness, and loss of appetite. The Asian flu was responsible for a Category 2 flu pandemic from 1956 to 1958, meaning that it was a worldwide spread of the virus with a case-to-fatality ratio between 0.1 and 0.5 percent. H2N2 became extinct in the wild circa 1968.

Influenza is an illness caused by many subtypes that can change, mutate, and cross with other strains. Occasionally a bird or animal flu can reassort its genetic material, cross the animal-human species barrier, and begin infecting the human population. The H2N2 Asian flu was the result of a cross between a virus found in wild ducks and a human influenza virus.

Asian flu causes many of the symptoms commonly reported in an influenza virus. Influenza is a respiratory illness, so a dry cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing are all widely reported among flu sufferers. Influenza usually results in a high fever and body aches or chills. An individual might have no appetite and subsequently lose weight. Recovery from the H2N2 can take many weeks; complications include pneumonia, seizures, heart failure, and death.

Asian influenza caused a worldwide pandemic in 1956, when the virus jumped from ducks to humans and then began human-to-human transmission. It originated in the province of Guizhou, China, and traveled to Singapore and Hong Kong. From there, the Asian influenza virus spread to the rest of the world. Although the illness infected humans across the globe, it remained a relatively mild pandemic and is rated as a Category 2 on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Pandemic Severity Index Chart. This chart rates pandemic flu from one to five — mild to severe — according to the number of influenza deaths reported in the U.S.

A vaccine for H2N2 was introduced in 1957, and the pandemic slowed down. There was a second wave in 1958, and H2N2 went on to become part of the regular wave of seasonal flu. In 1968, the H2N2 Asian flu disappeared from the human population and is believed to have gone extinct in the wild. Vials of H2N2 influenza remain in laboratories across the world.

6) How come I get the flu after Thanksgiving?

5) @Steamland-- The question itself is a very judgmental and prejudiced. What makes you think that all pandemic diseases come from Asia? They emerge in other areas of the world all the time. Take Ebola, which emerged in Africa.

The only difference is that in countries where health care systems are very developed, these instances are diagnosed and quarantined much faster. So the chances of the pandemic spreading is reduced and it's usually eliminated altogether this way.

4) @donasmrs-- They are not the same but they mutated from the same virus. They are subtypes of what is called influenza A. Asian flu is H2N2 as the article said and Avian flu is H5N1. They start out in wild birds and sometimes, they infect humans and become an epidemic. There are other types of influenza A that affect other animals like pigs (aka swine flu). But most flu viruses in this category exist in birds, fewer amount affect pigs and humans.

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4. Peppermint Essential Oil

Image source: Piabay.com

Peppermint essential oil (Mentha piperita) has antiseptic and anti-viral properties and can be useful as an expectorant. Use peppermint oil in a steam inhaler, but not where babies or young children are present.

5. Thyme Essential Oil

Thyme essential oil (Thymallus) is antiseptic and anti-bacterial. Many aromatherapists recommend you use it in a blend with tea tree, lemon and eucalyptus oils in the bath or in an inhaler to help fight congestion. Do not use this oil if you have high blood pressure, however.

6. Lemon Essential Oil

Lemon essential oil (citrus limon), with its high vitamin content, helps boost the body’s immune system and stimulates the production of white blood cells, thereby increasing your ability to fight off illness.

Lemon oil also improves circulation throughout the body.

7. Eucalyptus Essential Oil

As an antiviral and a decongestant, eucalyptus essential oil (eucalyptus globulus) helps treat colds and congestion. In her book Aromatherapy A – Z, author Patricia Davis recommends using eucalyptus oil in a steam inhaler to help open blocked nasal passages, to soothe inflammation and to fight bacteria.

8. Rosemary Essential Oil

Image source: Piabay.com

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  • Milder infections
  • Pneumonia that doesn't last as long
  • Fewer serious complications

Two vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia and potentially fatal complications such as bacteremia and meningitis. Pneumococcal vaccines are particularly important for:

  • Adults who are 65 years old or older.
  • People who have chronic (ongoing) diseases, serious long-term health problems, or weak immune systems. For example, this may include people who have cancer, HIV/AIDS, asthma, sickle cell disease, or damaged or removed spleens.
  • People who smoke.
  • Children who are younger than five years old.
  • Children older than five years of age with certain medical conditions such as heart or lung diseases or cancer.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that adults who are 65 and older should have two pneumococcal vaccinations. Visit the CDC’s Pneumococcal Vaccination for information about pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines for adults.

Because many people get pneumonia after having influenza or the flu, your yearly flu vaccine can help you and your family not get pneumonia. The flu vaccine is usually given in September through November before the months when influenza or the flu is most frequently spread.

For more information about the influenza or flu vaccine, go to the CDC's Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination Web page.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia and meningitis. The Hib vaccine is given to children to help prevent these infections. The vaccine is recommended for all children in the United States who are younger than five years old. The vaccine often is given to infants starting at two months of age.

For more information about the Hib vaccine, go to the CDC's Hib Vaccination Web page.

You also can take the following steps to help prevent pneumonia:

  • Wash your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based rubs to kill germs.
  • Don't smoke. Smoking damages your lungs' ability to filter out and defend against germs. For information about how to quit smoking, read Smoking and Your Heart. Although this resource focuses on heart health, it includes general information about how to quit smoking.
  • Keep your immune system strong. Get plenty of rest and physical activity and follow a healthy diet. Read more about heart-healthy eating and physical activity.

The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from mild to severe. But some people are at risk for developing more severe pneumonia or potentially fatal complications.

See your doctor promptly if you have the following signs and symptoms:

  • Have a high fever
  • Have shaking chills
  • Have a cough with phlegm (a slimy substance), which doesn't improve or worsens
  • Develop shortness of breath with normal daily activities
  • Have chest pain when you breathe or cough
  • Feel suddenly worse after a cold or the flu

If you have pneumonia, you also may have other symptoms, including nausea (feeling sick to the stomach), vomiting, and diarrhea.

Symptoms may vary in certain populations. Newborns and infants may not show any signs of the infection. Or, they may vomit, have a fever and cough, or appear restless, sick, or tired and without energy.

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Ischemia of the eye may result in temporary loss of vision.

Familial hypercholesterolemia known as type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia may be associated with the following signs and symptoms:

  • xanthomata (deposits of yellowish material containing cholesterol)
  • xanthelasma palpebrarum (yellowish patches under the skin around the eyelids)
  • arcus senilis (gray or white discoloring of the eye’s cornea.

A form of hypercholesterolemia known as type III hyperlipidemia may be associated with the following signs and symptoms:

  • xanthomata (deposits of yellowish material containing cholesterol) in the palms
  • xanthomata in the elbows
  • xanthomata in the knees

If you experience any of the above symptoms, consult your health care provider. The risk of hypercholesterolemia is increased in those who are obese, maintain unhealthy diets, and have genetic predispositions to hypercholesterolemia. There are medications available for those with high cholesterol. Ways we can all treat and prevent high cholesterol:

  • engaging in physical exercise
  • maintaining a healthy body weight
  • eating nutritious and low fat foods

100-129 mg/dL = Near Optimal/Above Optimal
130-159 mg/dL = Borderline High
160-189 mg/dL = High
≥190 mg/dL = Very High

Bei der Grippe (Influenza) handelt es sich um eine Infektion, die durch Viren ausgelöst wird. Typische Symptome sind Fieber und ein starkes Krankheitsgefühl. Nimmt die Erkrankung keinen schweren Verlauf, ist das Schlimmste in der Regel nach einer Woche überstanden. Während dieser Zeit können Sie die auftretenden Symptome mit Hausmitteln wie Bettruhe, Hühnersuppe und Wadenwickeln lindern. In einigen Fällen ist auch eine medikamentöse Behandlung sinnvoll. Erfahren Sie hier, woran Sie eine Grippe erkennen, wie Sie diese behandeln und wie Sie sich wirkungsvoll vor dem Infekt schützen können.

Die Grippe wird durch das Influenza-Virus verursacht, welches in Form verschiedener Typen vorliegt. Am gefährlichsten sind Typ A-Viren, die beispielsweise für den Ausbruch der Vogelgrippe oder der Schweinegrippe verantwortlich waren. Die Viren verbreiten sich meist durch Tröpfcheninfektion (beispielsweise beim Husten oder Niesen). Eine Ansteckung ist aber auch durch direkten Kontakt wie zum Beispiel beim Küssen möglich.

Da das Influenza-Virus sehr wandlungsfähig ist, ist ein dauerhafter Schutz gegen den Erreger nicht möglich. Eine Grippe-Impfung muss beispielsweise jedes Jahr wiederholt werden. Sie ist besonders für bestimmte Risikogruppen wie ältere oder chronisch kranke Menschen empfehlenswert.

Im Verlauf einer Grippe treten typischerweise folgende Symptome auf:

  • Die ersten Anzeichen einer Grippe sind häufig Schüttelfrostund ein stark ausgeprägtes Krankheitsgefühl.
  • Kurze Zeit später treten dann Symptome wie Fieber sowie Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen auf.
  • Außerdem können sich Beschwerden wie Husten, Schnupfen und Halsschmerzenbemerkbar machen.
  • Die Betroffenen fühlen sich in der Regel müde, abgeschlagen und erschöpft.
  • Bei einer Grippe kann das Fieber auf bis zu 41 Grad ansteigen. Solange die Temperatur steigt, tritt häufig Schüttelfrost auf. Sobald das Fieber sinkt, kommt es zu den ebenfalls für eine Influenza typischen Schweißausbrüchen.

Typisch ist, dass die Symptome relativ plötzlich und sehr heftig auftreten. Dies unterscheidet die Grippe von einer normalen Erkältung. Denn bei einer Erkältung machen sich die Symptome normalerweise langsamer und auch nicht so stark bemerkbar. Der Unterschied zwischen einer Grippe und einer Erkältung liegt also vor allem im Verlauf und der Schwere der Erkrankung.

Meist nimmt eine Grippe einen harmlosen Verlauf und es kommt zu keinen Komplikationen. Treten Komplikationen auf, liegt das meist daran, dass zusätzlich zu der Virus-Infektion noch eine bakterielle Infektion hinzukommt. Durch eine solche Zweitinfektion kann es zu Erkrankungen wie einer Lungenentzündung, einer Mittelohrentzündung oder einer Herzmuskelentzündung kommen.

Ein erhöhtes Risiko für das Auftreten von Komplikationen haben ältere Menschen, Kleinkinder, chronisch Kranke sowie Schwangere.

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  • Urinating often
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Feeling very hungry - even though you are eating
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal
  • Weight loss - even though you are eating more (type 1)
  • Tingling, pain, or numbness in the hands/feet (type 2)

Early detection and treatment of diabetes can decrease the risk of developing the complications of diabetes.

Learn about how your doctor can make a diabetes diagnosis or take our Risk Test to find out if you are at increased risk for having type 2 diabetes.

Women with gestational diabetes often have no symptoms, which is why it's important for at-risk women to be tested at the proper time during pregnancy.

Have you already been diagnosed with diabetes but are concerned about symptoms that may be the result of complications related to diabetes?

Do you have questions or concerns about diabetes symptoms? Want to connect with others? Visit the American Diabetes Association Community to find support now!

If you've recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, enroll in the FREE Living With Type 2 Diabetes program to get more information and support.

Making an early diagnosis is important to treatment and outcome. There are currently no screening tests for lymphomas and it is usually not evident in the blood.

Statistics provided by: Lymphoma Coalition 2014 Global Patient Survey (3,500 Respondents)

  • Painless swelling in a lymph node
  • Chills/temperature swings
  • Recurrent fevers and excessive sweating at night
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Persistent tiredness and lack of energy
  • Breathlessness and coughing
  • Persistent itch all over the body without an apparent cause or rash
  • General fatigue
  • Enlarged tonsils
  • Headache

The symptoms of lymphoma are commonly seen in other, less serious illnesses, such as influenza or other viral infection. These symptoms are often overlooked , but in cases of less serious illnesses they would not last very long. With lymphoma, these symptoms persist over time and cannot be explained by an infection or another disease.

The most common symptom is a painless swelling in a lymph node . The neck or armpits are common places noticed first, but the swelling can occur in other parts of the body including the groin (that may cause swelling in the legs or ankles) or the abdomen (that can cause cramping and bloating). Some patients with lymphoma notice no swelling at all while others may complain of night sweats, weight loss, chills, a lack of energy, or itching. There is usually no pain involved, especially when the lymphoma is in the early stage of development. Most people who have nonspecific complaints such as these will not have lymphoma. However, it is important that any person who has symptoms that persist see a doctor to confirm that no lymphoma or serious illness is present.

You may have found our site because you are concerned that you may have a parasitic infection. In this section, we will help you by telling you which parasite symptoms are most commonly associated with parasitic infections. Armed with a little knowledge, you will then be able to take the right actions to move you in a healthier, parasite-free direction.

The parasite symptoms that are associated with parasites and the infections they cause vary greatly and can indicate other causes. Some parasites can exist in the body for years and never produce a single symptom. Others will have symptoms so severe you would require immediate medical attention. It can be very hard to pinpoint an exact cause of some of the symptoms or even be misdiagnosed.

Chronic fatigue or extreme tiredness is a common symptom of a parasitic infection. The reason someone infected by a parasite may feel so tired is because the parasite living in the intestines will sap the nutrients out of the food he or she digests. The parasite will thrive, and its human host will be under nourished.

Iron deficiency, or anemia, is often caused by worm parasites in the intestines. This is a major contributor to feeling chronically fatigued. Some differences between chronic fatigue and just your run-of-the-mill tiredness are that chronic fatigue will not improve with rest, becomes worse with both mental and physical activity, and is associated with feeling weak and sore muscles.

Since many human parasites make their home in the digestive track, their hosts are likely to experience digestive related symptoms. Most of these are very unpleasant and can be embarrassing. They include belching, excessive flatulence or gas, vomiting, bloody stools, and diarrhea. Some may experience fecal incontinence or oily stools.

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Results from a retrospective nursing home study in the United States show influenza has been found to negatively affect functional status in seniors significantly, and has been associated with activities of daily living (ADL) decline. 11*

* FLUZONE ® High-Dose is not indicated for the prevention of mortality or hospitalization or complications associated with influenza, such as activities of daily living decline (ADL), independence, quality of life or influenza-attributed morbidity and mortality associated with stroke, heart attack, kidney disease and diabetes.

of flu-related hospitalizations 2

of flu-related deaths 2

Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) considers adults over the age of 65 to be at high risk of influenza-related complications or hospitalization and recommends that all seniors get an influenza vaccine annually. 3

FLUZONE ® High-Dose influenza vaccine has been shown to be more effective for seniors than FLUZONE ®† , our standard dose influenza vaccine. 12

FLUZONE ® High-Dose has been shown to have superior efficacy in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza compared to the FLUZONE ® standard dose vaccine †. In a large multi-centred clinical trial (conducted in US and Canada) FLUZONE ® High-Dose demonstrated a superior relative efficacy of 24.2% (95% CI: 9.7 - 36.5) in preventing influenza illness attributed to any viral type or subtype. The attack rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (primary endpoints) were 1.43% in the FLUZONE ® High-Dose arm and 1.89% for the FLUZONE ®† arm. 1 **

Though it has only been available in Canada since 2015, FLUZONE ® High-Dose is not new. It has been available in the US since 2009, with over 90 million doses distributed to date. 13

In choosing a vaccine product, it is important to consider the relative burden of influenza disease caused by the various influenza subtypes (i.e., influenza A(H1N1), influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B) in this age group, as well as the efficacy, immunogenicity and safety profile of the available vaccines. 3

† Fluzone trivalent standard-dose vaccine is not marketed/available in Canada.
** The pre-specified statistical superiority criterion for the primary endpoint (lower limit of the 2-sided 95% CI of the vaccine efficacy of FLUZONE ® High-Dose relative to FLUZONE ® >9.1%; p-value against H0: VE ® High-Dose or FLUZONE ® Trivalent. The study was conducted over two influenza seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). FLUZONE ® High-Dose contained 60 μg of HA per strain while FLUZONE ® Trivalent contained 15 μg of HA per strain. The per-protocol analysis set for efficacy assessments included 15,892 FLUZONE ® High-Dose recipients and 15,911 FLUZONE ® Trivalent recipients. The primary endpoint of the study was the occurrence of laboratory-confirmed influenza, defined as a new onset (or exacerbation) of at least one of the following respiratory symptoms: sore throat, cough, sputum production, wheezing, or difficulty breathing; concurrent with at least one of the following systemic signs or symptoms: temperature > 37.2°C, chills, tiredness, headaches or myalgia.

In the first year of the study, the influenza B component of the vaccine and the majority of influenza B cases were of the Victoria lineage; in the second year, the influenza B component of the vaccine and the majority of influenza B cases were of the Yamagata lineage.

Contact your Provincial Public Health Unit today to see if FLUZONE ® High-Dose is covered for your 65+ patients.

  • Publicly funded for personal care homes in Manitoba for 65+ 14

FLUZONE ® High-Dose is indicated for active immunization against influenza caused by the specific strains of influenza virus contained in the vaccine in adults 65 years of age and older. Annual vaccination against influenza using the current vaccine is recommended as immunity declines in the year following vaccination. i

  • Should not be administered to anyone with a history of severe allergic reaction to egg protein or any component of the vaccine or after previous administration of FLUZONE ® High-Dose or a vaccine containing the same components or constituents. ii
  • FLUZONE ® High-Dose is not indicated for persons less than 65 years of age. iii
  • As with any vaccine, immunization with FLUZONE ® High-Dose may not protect 100% of individuals. Protection is limited to those strains of virus from which the vaccine is prepared or against closely related strains. iv
  • Do not administer FLUZONE ® High-Dose by intravascular injection. Do not administer into the buttocks. v
  • Postpone vaccination in case of moderate/severe febrile illness or acute disease. vi
  • Administer FLUZONE ® High-Dose with caution in persons suffering from coagulation disorders or on anticoagulation therapy. vii
  • Immunocompromised persons (whether from disease or treatment) may not elicit the expected immune response. viii
  • Avoid vaccinating persons who are known to have experienced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks after a previous influenza vaccination. ix

Consult the product monograph at www.sanofipasteur.ca/node/17902 for important information relating to adverse reactions, drug interactions, and dosing information which have not been discussed in this piece. The product monograph is also available through our medical department. Call us at 1-888-621-1146.

REFERENCES:
1. Sanofi Pasteur Limited. FLUZONE ® High-Dose Influenza Virus Vaccine Trivalent Types A and B (Split Virion). Product Monograph. Date of Approval: May 2017. 2. Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). FluWatch. May 3 to May 9, 2015. 3. Public Health Agency of Canada (2016). An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2017-2018. 4. Health Indicator Profile Statistics Canada. (2014). Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2013 boundaries) and peer groups, *Archived*. Table 105-0501. Retrieved June 12, 2017 from Statistics Canada: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2015001/article/14218-eng.htm. 5. Statistics Canada. (2013) Population Projections for Canada (2013 to 2063), Provinces and Territories (2013 to 2038): Section 2 – Results at the Canada level, 2013 to 2063. (Catalogue number 91-520-X). Retrieved June 12, 2017 from Statistics Canada: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/2014001/section02-eng.htm. 6. Grau AJ, et al. Influenza Vaccination Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Stroke. Stroke. 2005; 36(7):1501-1506. 7. Udell JA. et al. Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;310(16):1711-1720. 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2016–17 Influenza Season. MMWR Recommendations and Reports Vol. 65 No. 5. August 26, 2016. 9. Husein N, et al. Influenza and Pneumococcal Immunization Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2013;37 Supplement 93. 10. Chen C-I, et al. Influenza Vaccination is Associated with Lower Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(5). 11. Gozalo PL, et al. The impact of influenza on functional decline. Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(7): 1260–1267. 12. DiazGranados, C.A., et al. (2014). Efficacy of High-Dose versus Standard-Dose influenza Vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine, 371, 635-645 13. Sanofi Pasteur Inc. Data on file. Distribution Letter Fluzone® High-Dose Influenza Vaccine - Doses Distributed. November 16, 2017. 14. Government of Manitoba (2017). Manitoba First in Canada to introduce New Flu Vaccine for Personal Care Home Residents http://news.gov.mb.ca/news/index.html?item=42125&posted=2017-09-05. September 5, 2017.

FLUZONE ® is a trademark of Sanofi Pasteur. Sanofi Pasteur 1755 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3T4
© 2017 Sanofi Pasteur Limited. All rights reserved. DIN: 02445646 SPCA.FLHD.17.08.0044 E

I FLUZONE ® High-Dose Influenza Virus Vaccine Trivalent Types A and B (Split Virion).
Product Monograph. Date of Approval: May 2017.

ii Ibid.
iii Ibid.
iv Ibid.
v Ibid.
vi Ibid.
vii Ibid.
viii Ibid.
ix Ibid.
ix Ibid.

Un vaccin à haute dose contre l’influenza conçu spécifiquement pour les personnes de 65 ans et plus 1

Les adultes de 65 ans et plus souffrent de manière disproportionnée de morbidité et de mortalité associées à l’influenza 2,3. L’immunité diminue avec l’âge 1 . Bien que les personnes âgées affichent le plus haut taux d’immunisation contre l’influenza de tous les groupes d’âge (plus de 60 %) 4, les vaccins sont environ à moitié moins efficaces chez les personnes âgées que chez les adultes en santé, et leur efficacité varie selon les critères d’évaluation et la population à l’étude 3.

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    Avoid taking medication that includes identical ingredients at the same time. For instance, do not take Tylenol ® and Tylenol ® Sinus together because both these medicines contain acetaminophen.

    In certain cases, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine to reduce the duration and severity of your symptoms. This type of medication is most effective when taken at the onset of an infection.

    If your child is over 3 months old and has a fever, you may give him or her acetaminophen such as Tylenol ®, following instructions given and according to your child’s weight.

    Avoid giving children and adolescents acetylsalicylic acid such as aspirin. Such medication can lead to a serious disease of the brain and liver known as ‘Reye's Syndrome’ in children and adolescents with the flu.

    The flu can lead to certain complications, including:

    • Dehydration due to sweating caused by fever
    • Pneumonia
    • Bronchitis
    • Sinusitis
    • Otitis

    For people considered more vulnerable to sickness, certain complications can lead to hospitalisation or even death.

    The following people are most at risk of complications:

    • Children younger than 5 years old
    • People with chronic diseases
    • Pregnant women
    • Women who gave birth in the last 4 weeks
    • People aged 65 years and over

    If you or your child are among people most at risk of complications and have symptoms of the flu, call Info-Santé 811. A nurse will evaluate your health and make recommendations based on your condition.

    The flu virus lives best in fresh and dry areas. It can live up to 2 days on contaminated objects or up to 5 minutes on skin.

    The flu virus is very contagious. It is spread quickly from person to person in the following ways:

    • By droplets sprayed through the mouth or nose by an infected person when they cough or sneeze
    • By direct contact with secretions from the nose or throat from a person with the flu, when kissing for instance
    • When you bring your hand to your nose, mouth or eyes after shaking the hand of someone infected or touching contaminated objects

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    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure:
    • External Exposure: Slight irritant of eyes, nose, and skin
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Bensoic and Benzilic Derivatives - chloramben(C), Amiben(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Insecticides, herbicides

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure:
    • External Exposure: Irritating to skin and respiratory tract
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Benzonitriles - bromoxynil(C), Buctril(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Fungicides, Herbicides

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure: Moderately irritating to lungs
    • External Exposure: Moderately irritating to skin
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Dithiocarbamates - mancozeb(C), Dithane M-45(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, fungicides

    Action on Human System: Do not inhibit cholinesterase; mild irritants.

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    Acute leukemia may cause signs and symptoms that are similar to the flu. They come on suddenly within days or weeks.

    Chronic leukemia often causes only a few symptoms or none at all. Signs and symptoms usually develop gradually. People with a chronic leukemia often complain that they just do not feel well. The disease is often found during a routine blood test.

    Other health conditions can cause the same symptoms as leukemia. See your doctor if you have:

    • fatigue
    • a general feeling of discomfort or illness (called malaise)
    • loss of appetite
    • weight loss
    • fever
    • shortness of breath
    • paleness
    • rapid heartbeat (called palpitations)
    • weakness
    • dizziness
    • easy bruising
    • frequent or severe nose bleeds
    • bleeding gums
    • bleeding in the middle of a menstrual cycle or heavy menstrual flow
    • tiny, flat, red spots caused by bleeding just under the surface of the skin (called petechiae)
    • frequent infections in the lungs, urinary tract or gums or around the anus
    • frequent cold sores
    • vomiting
    • headache
    • sore throat
    • night sweats
    • bone or joint pain
    • enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, groin or above the collarbone
    • abdominal discomfort or feeling of fullness
    • vision problems
    • sores in the eyes
    • swelling of the testicles
    • chloroma – a collection of leukemia cells, or blasts, under the skin or in other parts of the body
    • leukemia cutis – appears as sores or as patches of any size that are usually pink or tan in colour
    • leukocytoclastic vasculitis – a condition that looks like an allergic reaction on the skin and usually causes sores on the hands and feet
    • Sweet’s syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis – causes fever and painful sores that may appear anywhere on the body

    In some cases, leukemia or its treatments can cause serious problems. These cancer-related emergencies need to be treated right away.

    Tumour lysis syndrome can occur when chemotherapy is given to treat acute leukemia, but the cancer cells die quickly and the kidneys can’t remove the substances they release from the blood fast enough. Find out more about tumour lysis syndrome.

    Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) may occur when too many leukemia cells develop in the thymus, causing it to get bigger and block the windpipe. SVCS may develop with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Find out more about superior vena cava syndrome.

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition where blood clots develop in the bloodstream and bleeding also occurs. DIC can develop more often with acute promyelocytic leukemia, but also with other subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Find out more about disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    A rare, cancerous (malignant), green-coloured tumour that develops with myelogenous leukemia. It is formed by the buildup of abnormal blast cells (immature blood cells) that collect in soft tissue outside the bone marrow.

    Chloromas develop most often in the bone, skin, lymph nodes, breast, ovary, meninges (membranes that cover and protect the brain or the spinal cord) and around the eye.

    Also called extramedullary leukemia or granulocytic sarcoma.

    Milk allergy is caused when the immune system (IS), which is there to protect us from bacteria and infections, mistakenly marks one or more of the 25 proteins found in milk to be harmful. Therefore it initiates a response to fight against the milk protein/s. The IS through specialised cells releases toxins, and it is these toxins that make persons with milk allergy to suffer the symptoms associated with food allergy. Milk is ranked among the top offenders for food allergies! In fact, many doctors, scientists, and health specialists recommend going dairy free as an initial test when a food allergy is suspected.

    The symptoms of a milk protein allergy fall into 3 types of reactions:

    Skin:

    • Hives - red, itchy bumps on skin
    • Oedema - swelling of the skin, sometimes of the eyes and lips
    • Eczema - a dry and bumpy rash

    Stomach and Intestinal Reactions:

    • Abdominal pain and bloating
    • Diarrhoea (usually very runny)
    • Vomiting
    • Gas/wind
    • Cramps

    Nose, Throat and Lung Reactions:

    • Runny Nose
    • Sneezing
    • Watery and/or Itchy eyes
    • Coughing
    • Wheezing
    • Shortness of Breath

    Milk allergy is often muddled with lactose intolerance. It is very important to understand the differences because it is only this way that you can help avoid the symptoms. When a person reacts to milk, the first assumption is that it is an allergy. However, things are the opposite, because while only around 2% of adults suffer from milk allergy the amount of people who have lactose intolerance are 50% or more! Lactose intolerance is caused by insufficient amount of enzymes to break down lactose, the sugar found in milk. For more details on lactose intolerance read here.

    The table below shows the differences between lactose intolerance and milk allergy. Some symptoms may be common for both.

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    9 DPO – Backache & tender breasts

    10 DPO – Very tired (slept until 11:30 a.m.), back ache, headache, & tender breasts. Negative pregnancy test.

    11 DPO – Very tired again, backache, cramps, & headache. Very light positive on FRER and positive digital test.

    12 DPO – Very tired again, tender breasts & pretty crampy, particularly on my right side.

    13 and 14 DPO – Same symptoms. I was very aware of my abdomen. The cramps felt a little bit like period cramps only not quite as painful, though I occasionally had sharper pains.

    In the week that followed, I continued to be very tired (still am for that matter) and have some on and off cramping. I was only queasy occasionally, and I never threw up during the first two weeks post-BFP. Looking back, I think most of my symptoms prior to 9 DPO were just life symptoms and not related to my pregnancy. I’m guessing I implanted at 7 or 8 DPO. Then my symptoms really started manifesting, but I was just too convinced that I wasn’t pregnant to notice.:)

    One of my big questions pre-BFP was how to know if I was tired enough to check the “fatigue” box on my Fertility Friend app. My pregnancy fatigue feels like when I had mono. I’m tired in a body achey, can’t stay awake to save my life, might cry if I can’t take a nap soon kind of way. Some days are better than others, and I am fairly unaffected by fatigue, but other days, it is a struggle to not fall asleep at my desk and I go to sleep for the night as soon as I eat dinner. In hind sight, I was putting “fatigue” down in FF too often when I was just really tired from my busy life. I would say to generally look for being notably more tired than usual. For instance, I slept in really late two days in a row when I normally can’t sleep past 8:30.

    For those of you who have already gotten a BFP, what were your early symptoms?

    It's quite common, yet highly annoying -- a runny nose. Your nose drips when your nasal tissues and blood vessels produce excess fluid or mucus, according to the Mayo Clinic. This excess fluid also runs down the back of your throat in the dreaded post-nasal drip. Sometimes you'll have nasal congestion along with your runny nose, but not always.

    Dozens of things can cause your nose to run, from a variety of allergies and illnesses to more serious conditions like a deviated septum. Certain medications, stress and even pregnancy can also cause a runny nose. Sometimes the condition indicates a life-threatening problem, especially if you've suffered a head injury or trauma to the brain.

    So, how do you know if your runny nose means you've got a problem? In the past, it was thought that thin, clear mucus meant you weren't too sick, while thick, greenish-yellow mucus meant you should haul it to the doctor. That's not necessarily true. You can have clear mucus and be quite ill and colored mucus when you have a viral infection for which antibiotics won't help a bit. In general though, runny noses are a temporary condition and will clear up on their own.

    Read on to learn about why your nose may be mimicking a leaky faucet.

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    The signs or symptoms of leukemia may vary depending on whether you have an acute or chronic type of leukemia.