Signs of motor system dysfunction include the following:
- Difficulty starting movement
- Increased muscle tone, stiffness
- Muscle spasm
Other symptoms of RSD/CPRS include the following:
- Dermatitis, eczema (inflammation of the skin)
- Excessive sweating
- Migraine headache
Patients with any chronic illness, including CRPS, often suffer from depression and anxiety. Skin, muscle, and bone atrophy (wasting) are possible complications of this syndrome. Atrophy may occur because of reduced function of the affected limb.
Publication Review By: Eric M. Schreier, D.O., F.A.A.P.M.R.
Published: 30 Dec 1999
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2015
SUPPORT CANADIANS LIVING WITH CANCER
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The signs or symptoms of leukemia may vary depending on whether you have an acute or chronic type of leukemia.
Acute leukemia may cause signs and symptoms that are similar to the flu. They come on suddenly within days or weeks.
Coughing and drooling can also be clear indications of cat flu or cat colds. Drooling can be particularly upsetting for cat owners as your moggy's fur can become completely soaked in saliva. Coughing is also very distressing and can sometimes lead to retching.
Below are details of the main symptoms associated with each of the two viruses normally associated with cat flu - Feline HerpesVirus (FHV- 1) and Feline Calicivirus (FCV)
Feline HerpesVirus (FHV- 1):
>> Swollen eyes often accompanied by a discharge. Sometimes this can lead to the development of corneal ulcers.
>> Sneezing and inflammation of the lining is of the nose (rhinitis). Discharge from the nose is initially clear but becomes green and thick as cat flu develops. Your cat's sense of smell may deteriorate significantly, thereby leading to a lack of interest in food.
>> Your cat will clearly appear unwell and may develop a fever. A loss of appetite is very likely and dehydration becomes a real risk.
Feline Calicivirus (FVC):
>> Mouth ulcers are a very common symptom of feline calicivirus and this ultimately triggers off drooling and loss of appetite.
>> Ulcers can affect various parts of your cat including the tongue, palate, mouth, tip of the nose and the lips. One particular strain of FVC is even known to lead to ulcers in a cat's paws.
>> Your cat's nose and eyes are likely to be runny and gingivitis may affect the gums. A fever may also develop and your cat may start to limp as a result of pain in the joints.
If you have been trying to get pregnant, or you have a suspicion that you may have conceived, there are some common signs and symptoms that occur to most women early in their pregnancy. These symptoms include emotional signs as well as physical symptoms. If you identify with these signs, and feel that you may be pregnant, it is important to confirm your pregnancy as early as possible to begin prenatal care for you and your new baby.
A missed period is one of the most obvious signs of pregnancy, but by the time you realize you have missed your period you could already be 2-3 weeks pregnant. Some early symptoms of pregnancy begin even before a missed period. These signs include flu like symptoms, fatigue, headache, implantation bleeding, mood swings, nausea, changes in your breasts, frequent urination, and odd food cravings. Many of these symptoms mimic pre-menstrual symptoms and can occur a few days after conception occurs.
Many women report feeling severe fatigue very early in their pregnancy; the fatigue quickly goes away and then they feel quite energetic until late in the pregnancy. Implantation bleeding occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself into the uterine wall; this process occurs 6-12 days after conception and may be accompanied by light spotting and cramps.
Herpes Simplex — This virus causes genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area, or cold sores. Severe conditions are more common in the advanced stage of AIDS.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) — This condition is considered the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States. It can cause warts on the anus, cervix, esophagus, penis, urethra, vagina and vulva. Studies have shown that certain types of HPV can contribute to the development of cervical and anal cancer. Individuals with HIV and AIDS are at increased risk for developing precancerous and cancerous lesions.
Liver Disease — Liver disease is one of the leading causes of death among AIDS patients, especially liver disease caused by the hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Many drugs used in the treatment of HIV and AIDS can cause liver disease or hepatitis. It is important that patients infected with hepatitis receive treatment and follow-up care.
Coccidiomycosis — This infection is caused by inhaling an infective fungus called Coccidioides immitis, found mainly in contaminated soil in the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America and parts of South America. The lungs are most commonly affected by this infection. In severe cases, it can involve the kidneys, lymph system, brain and spleen. Symptoms include cough, weight loss and fatigue. Meningitis is a common complication when left untreated.
Histoplasmosis — This infection almost always involves the lungs, although other organs may be affected. The fungus that causes this condition is found in southern parts of the United States and South America. It is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings and must be inhaled to cause infection.
Signs and symptoms include high fever; weight loss; respiratory complaints; an enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes; depressed production of white cells, red blood cells and platelets from the bone marrow; and life-threatening, unstable, low blood pressure.
Pneumocystis Carinii — This condition occurs when a fungus infects the lungs. Symptoms may include fever, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss, night sweats and fatigue.
It is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventative treatment may be administered when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Treatment is usually trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, also called Septra or Bactrim, dapsone or atovoquone.
Recurrent Pneumonia — People with AIDS are at risk for recurrent bacterial pneumonia. Bacteria can infect the lungs, which may lead to problems ranging from a mild cough to severe pneumonia. Recurrent pneumonia is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Tuberculosis (TB) — This is a serious, and often deadly, bacterial infection that primarily infects the lungs. TB is transmitted when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes, releasing microscopic particles into the air. If inhaled, these particles may transmit the condition.
Once infected by TB, most people remain healthy and develop only latent infection. People with latent infection are neither sick nor infectious. However, they do have the potential to become sick and infectious with active TB. It can occur at any CD4+ T cell level but especially when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 350 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma — Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a disease in which tumors develop from white blood cells in the lymphatic system. It is another common disease associated with AIDS. See AIDS-related lymphoma.
Candidiasis — This is the most common HIV-related fungus infection. It can affect the entire body, but most commonly occurs in the mouth (thrush) or vagina. An overgrowth of yeast causes white patches on gums, tongue or lining of the mouth, pain, difficulty in swallowing and loss of appetite. Candida in the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs is AIDS defining.
Herpes Simplex — This virus causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area. Chronic herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions and severe mucocutaneous HSV disease are common in the advanced stages of AIDS.
Tuberculosis can develop after inhaling droplets sprayed into the air from a cough or sneeze from an infected person and it can also spread through infected sputum and there is a form spread through milk from infected cows. The risk of contracting TB increases with the frequency of contact with people who have the disease, and with crowded or unsanitary living conditions and poor nutrition.
Pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection. The disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection, or it may lie dormant for years before causing disease. The extent of the disease can vary from minimal to massive involvement, but without effective therapy, the disease becomes progressive.
Infants, the elderly, and individuals who are immunocompromised, those undergoing transplant surgery who are taking anti rejection medications are at higher risk for progression of the disease or reactivation of dormant disease. Those who have not received BCG immunisation are advised to do so and if for travel purposes, at least six weeks before departure to ensure a protective level of immunity.
Treatment with anti microbial drugs is effective but is prolonged and requires medical supervision. It is also expensive and not always available abroad. Incomplete treatment of TB infections (such as failure to take medications for the prescribed length of time) can contribute to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria.
Prevention: Avoid overcrowded places in endemic areas, particularly where spitting is common. Never drink unpasteurised milk. If in doubt, boil it before drinking. There is a vaccination (BCG) which can give a valuable degree of protection, particularly in children. Travellers who plan to spend more than a month in an area with a high tuberculosis rate and who have not been previously immunised should consider immunisation with BCG.
(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
is a severe pneumonia that has been reported in China Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Canada. It appears to have spread in a short period of time and is now regarded by the World Health Organisation as a worldwide threat.
The organism responsible for SARS was originally thought to be a paramyxo virus similar to the viruses responsible for causing measles and mumps but It has now been identified as a member of the coronavirus family never previously seen in humans. Identification of the coronavirus means that scientists can now move towards developing treatments for SARS and successfully controlling the disease. At present there is no specific treatment.
Outbreaks such as the one in Toronto which affected family members and health care workers are thought to have occurred early in the epidemic when the significance of the condition was not appreciated. Where infection control measures are applied, outbreaks seem not to occur. Therefore, anyone thought to be suffering from the illness should be isolated and nursed using barrier techniques. Secondary infections can be controlled with antibiotics and symptomatic treatment undertaken.
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
Avian influenza usually does not make wild birds sick, but can make domesticated birds very sick and kill them. They do not usually infect humans; however, several instances of human infections and outbreaks have been reported since 1997. When such infections occur, public health authorities monitor the situation closely because of concerns about the potential for more widespread infection in the human population.
The reported symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, and other severe and life-threatening complications.
Currently there is no definitive evidence of human-to-human transmission of avian influenza and no infections have been documented among health-care workers. While it is unusual for people to get influenza infections directly from animals, such transmission has been documented several times in recent years and is under investigation although most human cases have been linked to direct contact with diseased birds.
Chronic leukemia often causes only a few symptoms or none at all. Signs and symptoms usually develop gradually. People with a chronic leukemia often complain that they just do not feel well. The disease is often found during a routine blood test.
Other health conditions can cause the same symptoms as leukemia. See your doctor if you have:
- a general feeling of discomfort or illness (called malaise)
- loss of appetite
- weight loss
- shortness of breath
- rapid heartbeat (called palpitations)
- easy bruising
- frequent or severe nose bleeds
- bleeding gums
- bleeding in the middle of a menstrual cycle or heavy menstrual flow
- tiny, flat, red spots caused by bleeding just under the surface of the skin (called petechiae)
- frequent infections in the lungs, urinary tract or gums or around the anus
- frequent cold sores
- sore throat
- night sweats
- bone or joint pain
- enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, groin or above the collarbone
- abdominal discomfort or feeling of fullness
- vision problems
- sores in the eyes
- swelling of the testicles
- chloroma – a collection of leukemia cells, or blasts, under the skin or in other parts of the body
- leukemia cutis – appears as sores or as patches of any size that are usually pink or tan in colour
- leukocytoclastic vasculitis – a condition that looks like an allergic reaction on the skin and usually causes sores on the hands and feet
- Sweet’s syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis – causes fever and painful sores that may appear anywhere on the body
In some cases, leukemia or its treatments can cause serious problems. These cancer-related emergencies need to be treated right away.
Tumour lysis syndrome can occur when chemotherapy is given to treat acute leukemia, but the cancer cells die quickly and the kidneys can’t remove the substances they release from the blood fast enough. Find out more about tumour lysis syndrome.
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) may occur when too many leukemia cells develop in the thymus, causing it to get bigger and block the windpipe. SVCS may develop with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Find out more about superior vena cava syndrome.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition where blood clots develop in the bloodstream and bleeding also occurs. DIC can develop more often with acute promyelocytic leukemia, but also with other subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Find out more about disseminated intravascular coagulation.
A rare, cancerous (malignant), green-coloured tumour that develops with myelogenous leukemia. It is formed by the buildup of abnormal blast cells (immature blood cells) that collect in soft tissue outside the bone marrow.
Chloromas develop most often in the bone, skin, lymph nodes, breast, ovary, meninges (membranes that cover and protect the brain or the spinal cord) and around the eye.
Also called extramedullary leukemia or granulocytic sarcoma.
It's important to recognise the symptoms of cat flu as quickly as possible so you can take swift action to get your pet on the road to recovery.
Sneezing is one of the most obvious signs of cat flu or cat colds, and is usually accompanied by a discharge from the nose and eyes.
You may notice swelling around your cat's eyes, and in extreme cases, they can be completely closed.
After a few days, you may notice that the discharge from the eyes becomes yellow and much thicker. In many cases, your cat will become completely lethargic and have a high temperature.
Your cat will appear to have no interest in doing the things it
normally does and will seem out of sorts with everything.
Other symptoms to watch out for include tongue ulcers and enlarged tonsils which can make it very painful for your cat to eat and swallow. These symptoms are likely to lead to your cat refusing to eat and drink, creating a very real danger of dehydration.