Tamiflu is not recommended for people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are not receiving dialysis.

Tamiflu is not a substitute for an annual flu vaccination.

Do not take Tamiflu if you are allergic to oseltamivir phosphate or any of the ingredients in Tamiflu.

  • If you have an allergic reaction or a severe rash with Tamiflu, stop taking it and contact your doctor right away. This may be very serious
  • People with the flu, particularly children and adolescents, may be at an increased risk of seizure, confusion, or abnormal behavior early during their illness
  • Let your doctor know if you are pregnant, nursing, have heart problems, breathing problems, a weakened immune system (immunocompromised), kidney problems or other medical conditions as Tamiflu may not be right for you
  • Also tell your doctor about any medications you are taking or if you've received a nasal-spray flu vaccine in the past two weeks
  • The most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, headache and pain

Please see the Tamiflu full Prescribing Information for complete important safety information.

You are encouraged to report side effects to Genentech by calling 1-888-835-2555 or to the FDA by visiting www.fda.gov/medwatch or calling 1-800-FDA-1088.

The link you have selected will take you away from this site to one that is owned by a third-party and is not owned by Genentech, Inc. Unless otherwise noted on the third-party site, Genentech, Inc. does not own, control or influence content on this third-party site. For such content, Genentech, Inc. makes no representation as to the accuracy of this information and does not recommend or endorse it. Your use of third-party websites is at your own risk and subject to the terms and conditions of use for such sites.

Below are four key topics to discuss with your doctor, followed by a list of questions. Keep in mind, you can only get Tamiflu through a prescription from your doctor.

Why Don't Octopus Tentacles Suction Their Own Bodies? Scientists Know.

Skeleton Found By Cave Divers Estimated To Be One Of The Oldest In North America

Deadly New Virus Warning: What are the Symptoms Of The Virus That Killed 8?

By iScienceTimes Staff on March 8, 2013 12:54 PM EST

A deadly new virus warning has been issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a statement released Thursday, the CDC warned state and local health officials about potential infections from a deadly new virus that has never been seen before in humans.

"Genetic sequence analyses have shown that this new virus is different from any other known human coronaviruses," the CDC stated in its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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The new virus has infected 14 people and killed eight since it was first reported in Sept. 2012. Most of the infections have occurred in the Middle East, specifically Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Jordan, with three instances in the United Kingdom. No cases have been reported in the U.S., the CDC noted.

According to the CDC's analysis, the virus is a coronavirus, which are thought to cause the majority of all common colds in human adults. It is also part of the same family of viruses that caused the deadly outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that first emerged in Asia in 2003, Fox News reports. When SARS first appeared, it quickly spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe and Asia before it was contained. There were 774 total deaths reported that were caused by SARS, most of which were in China. Viruses of the coronavirus family also cause a number of diseases in animals.

Three of the deadly new virus cases occurred in the UK within a single family. The small outbreak began with a 60-year-old man who had recently traveled to Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, and who developed a respiratory illness on Jan. 24 while still in the Middle East. The man was hospitalized after returning to the UK, and has been receiving intensive care. Another man living in the 60-year-old's household also got the virus and developed a respiratory illness on Feb. 6. He died shortly after. A second individual, a female in the house, developed a respiratory illness on Feb. 5, but did not need to be hospitalized and has recovered. This is how the CDC learned that the virus can be transmitted through human-to-human contact.

Symptoms of infection with this deadly new virus include severe acute respiratory illness with fever, cough and shortness of breath. The CDC recommends that anyone who traveled from the Arabian Peninsula recently who develops an unexplained respiratory infection within ten days should seek immediate medical treatment. The CDC has yet to issue a warning about restricting travel to the areas affected by the deadly new virus.

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The psychiatric causes of malaise is largely associated with depression. There may be no change in any of the usual systems that are affected in malaise. Rather the low quantities of serotonin and the subsequent depressed mood may be mistaken for a fluish feeling. Sometimes it is entirely psychogenic meaning that it is imagined rather than being associated with actual changes in the body. Many psychiatric drugs cause malaise.

Prescription medication that may contribute to malaise includes:

  • Antihistamines
  • Antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS
  • High blood pressure medication
  • Seizure drugs

Drug interactions where there is a reaction with the use of two or more medication simultaneously may also be responsible for malaise. Alcoholism, accidental or intentional poisoning and the use of illicit drugs can all contribute to malaise even after these substances wear off and have been removed from the system.

Lyme Disease is raking in a reported 300,000 new cases each year confirmed just in the United States alone. The often debilitating illness has become a major concern for parents and those who own pets as well, considering your furry friends can also become incredibly sick from a tick bite.

The symptoms of Lyme can be treated mostly through the help of antibiotics, but if it has been a long time since the tick bite originally occurred and was never diagnosed, severe symptoms may begin to set in within weeks. More and more patients are being diagnosed with an advanced version of Lyme disease, so without question, take this disease very seriously. Let the statistics speak for themselves with these top states having the most confirmed cases of Lyme disease:

  • Pennsylvania (coming in at the highest with 6,470 cases, doubling their number since 2011)
  • Maryland
  • Minnesota
  • Wisconsin
  • New Jersey
  • Delaware
  • New Hampshire
  • Connecticut
  • Rhode Island
  • Massachusetts
  • Vermont
  • Maine

Most affiliate Lyme disease with those that are always outdoors camping, or assume it mostly affects boys, and this cannot be further from reality. It is transmitted through deer tick bites, which could frankly happen at any point when you may be outside. Just think about how much time you spend in the great outdoors with your family or friends, and how proactive you now need to be to steer clear of developing this horrible illness.

With over 200,000 cases per year in the U.S., take the time for yourself to carefully review the following top 10 symptoms of Lyme disease:

The most common Lyme disease telltale sign is a rash.

This easily identifiable rash begins to form a "bull’s eye shape", or look like a target. It can begin to form anywhere from 3-30 days after the initial tick bite. Most patients report their rashes showing up after one week of noticing the insect bite. The rash area is warm and usually does not cause pain or even itchiness, it's just present or noticeable. Some patients opt to put home remedy natural products on their rash, such as coconut oil. This option is totally up to you if you get any healing or rash relief from the products.

Die nasse Jahreszeit ist bekannt dafür, dass viele an einer Erkältung leiden. Das Immunsystem ist meist im Keller, Viren und Bakterien haben somit ein leichtes Spiel. Heute sagen viele, umgangssprachlich Grippe, obwohl es sich nur um einfache Erkältung handelt. Die echte Grippe dagegen, ist viel schlimmer und nennt sich in der Fachsprache Influenza. Ob jemand von der echten Grippe oder nur von einer Erkältung heimgesucht wurde, lässt sich leicht herausstellen. Bei der echten Grippe ist es so, dass sich die meisten Patienten kurz vorher noch gesund fühlen. Das Fieber fängt plötzlich an und schießt in die Höhe. Über 38 Grad Celsius sind bei einer richtigen Grippe keine Seltenheit. Bei einer einfachen Erkältung fängt zuerst der Hals an zu kratzen, es kommt Schnupfen hinzu und meist auch Kopf- und Gliederschmerzen. Dies kann bei der Influenza auch auftreten, nur nicht so schleichend, wie bei einer Erkältung.

Der Grippevirus wird durch die Tröpfcheninfektion übertragen. Das kann beim Niesen sein, beim Sprechen, Husten oder auch beim berühren einer Türklinke. Wer sich infiziert, erkrankt meist in ein bis drei Tagen an der Grippe. Deswegen ist es immer wichtig, sich regelmäßig die Hände zu waschen oder zu desinfizieren. Mittlerweile gibt es in den Drogerie- sowie Supermärkten tolle Hygiene Tücher, die man hierfür verwenden kann. Komplett schützen kann man sich leider nicht vor Grippeviren. Generell gilt, wer ein gutes Immunsystem hat, erkrankt nicht so häufig daran, wie andere. Statt sich einem Hygienewahn zu unterwerfen, tun es pro Tag – fünf Portionen Obst noch eher.

Diese Symptome treten bei einer Grippeerkrankung auf:

Wer sich nicht sicher ist, ob er an der Influenza leidet, kann sich an folgenden Symptomen orientieren. Es wird bei hohem Fieber, das nicht verschwindet, dringend geraten, einen Arzt aufzusuchen. Vor allem dann, wenn es plötzlich auftritt.

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Public Health England reports(9th January) that flu like illness is at a high compared to the last three years. They are recommending that people at risk can still have the flu jab- up take by even at risk people under 65 is very low at 50 %). Viruses do not respond to antibiotics but I guess GPs get desperate when people keep going back to their doctor with symptoms and so will try anything.

Cannot put a link in here otherwise the system will block this entry. but just type public health England flu in and the report is on their front page.

Thank you everyone for your thoughts and pointers if anyone finds a miracle cure please post it we're desperate.

we have just started getting over it my partner came down with it in earlie december he was rushed to hospital and told his white blood cells was not acting the way they was so i dont know if this has something to do with it but he is still been sick during the nights now and sleepy all the time the effects he had while e had the flu bug then i caught it 22nd december im still having problems now too!

im not as bad as i was the first week i had it but i have not gone back to normal my daughter 5 had it firsst in november early and then only managed to get rid of it this month everybody i know has had it now and keep re catching it or the symtoms dont go im from yorkshire

Thank you Steph thats really helpful as some of my relatives are in Yorkshire (Leeds and Hebden Bridge). Im not one for conspiracy theories but I cant believe that theres been nothing on the national news about how widespread this outbreak is and how long it knocks patients out for. My sister in law is a GP and she gets loads of cases and the same faces week after week. My 12 year old daughter is off school today because she feels barely able to move her neck her skin and her joints are really hurting Im taking her to the doctors (again. ) shortly. My symptoms are a terrible sharp cough and the same aching skin joints neck plus being full up with phlegm which is vile in itself. If the pain could be dealt with it would be something but nothing touches it!

when my partner took my son to doctors he said they was hundreds of patients that week with the same thing im left with weak legs sharp pains in head and vile phelm i hope you feel well soon god knows what it is even my cbt worker had it when i went my friend had the flu jab and still caught it i did find something online saying that its like a flu virus thats related but its making the flu jab not work or something never had anything like it though suppose new illness's start all the time though

Sounds rough! Hope everyone feels better soon. Here in the States, my city is number three in the nation for having the most cases of the flu. So far I have been fortunate, as well as my children.

Could there be something in your environment that is causing these drawn out symptoms? My first thought was possible allergies.

The fact that its spread across friends and family around the UK doesnt really make that stand up and that my daughter and I have been prescribed antihistermines too which had no effect doesnt really point to that but yes Ive thought about it. Ive wondered about methane which can cause flu like symptoms or something in our diet. Thank you though Ill try to see if theres any commonality between friends and family and their environment.

I'm not from the UK but from California. However, my wife and I have experienced the exact same symptoms since approximately October 10, 2014. Started with dry persistent non productive cough. 1st Dr. Said a cold. 3 weeks later visited second Dr given prednisone and antibiotics 4 weeks later 3rd Dr. Again gave prednisone and cough med's. Cough ceased for 3 days then returned with more like cold symptoms and productive cough with clear sputum. Still persistent cough, going to Dr. Again this evening. Wish me luck.

My husband and I have had the same symptoms since early December, constant coughing, finding it hard to breathe, head cold, muzzy head, neck aching etc. etc. and it lasted until about 2 weeks ago and we both felt ok - as we are singers it was a great relief not having to try and sing through the coughing, we had a weeks respite and we both woke up on Thursday morning with the symptoms back with a vengence, in fact during a coughing fit today I managed to cough up what looked like a piece of lung. almost solid cream coloured thing that had fine red lines in it, a bit frightening. We haven't been to the doctors as having spoken to a lot of other people that have similar symptoms they can't get anything done, so it isn't worth bothering, a couple were taken into hospital with breathing difficulties, I think they suffered with asthma as well, I find it really hard to breath and try to do so shallowly to stave off the coughing fit, we are getting through a mountain of paracetamol. By the way, we are on the south coast of England.

i have read your post and can not believe you have not seen a g p after coughing up what you describe and suggest you go and see a doctor a s a p,as you dont know exactly what you are suffering from,i know how you feel with doctors but you do need to be seen to sooner rather than later,i am not trying to frighten you in any way,but need a mdics advice on what could be wrong,good luck.

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A few simple questions…..a lot above to sift through…..

I have tried to find confirmation that Medicare does require HCWs to get the flu shot..or wear a mask yes or no and where to find it. I am specifically referring to employees who work in a clinical outpatient setting..doctor’s offices where there is a lab and x-ray department, secretaries, nurses and administration …this refers to a provider based hospital clinic, if that makes a difference. Again, where does it say employers can make it mandatory or wear a mask for employment?

Secondly, why not require that all patients coming into the facility show proof of having had the flu shot…Rhetorical question of course…

I do agree somewhere in all this money is going from the pharmaceutical industry to the hands of the people making these decisions in Washington….

Is’nt it a HIPAA violation that I would have to get the flu shot and a sticker on my badge stating if I took the flu shot or not?
What about other vaccines or contagious illnesses.Are those health care workers going to have it stated on their badge what they are positive for?

I totally agree with David, people should not be forced to do anything and put anything into their body. It is a free country. And how about the people that had the flu vaccine and is getting the flu anyway, and walking around with it in the hospital.

Concerns raised
1. What about patients that don’t take the flu vaccine and are in our Hospital? Are we isolating them from the other patients…No.

2. What about visitors that come to our hospital we are not asking them for their vaccine status? Vendors?

3. What about Physicians that come to our hospital and meet face-to-face with their patients we are not asking them for their flu vaccine status

4. What about the side effects of mask-wearing to the healthcare worker for extended periods of time?

5. Isn’t the basis for the flu mandate for healthcare workers, found in Obamacare that states certain reimbursement will be made by percentage of healthcare workers that have the flu shot?. Once again the travesty called Obamacare has placed on healthcare workers demands that are ridiculous just as the premiums and you won’t lose your doctor was.

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Herpes Simplex — This virus causes genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area, or cold sores. Severe conditions are more common in the advanced stage of AIDS.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) — This condition is considered the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States. It can cause warts on the anus, cervix, esophagus, penis, urethra, vagina and vulva. Studies have shown that certain types of HPV can contribute to the development of cervical and anal cancer. Individuals with HIV and AIDS are at increased risk for developing precancerous and cancerous lesions.

Liver Disease — Liver disease is one of the leading causes of death among AIDS patients, especially liver disease caused by the hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Many drugs used in the treatment of HIV and AIDS can cause liver disease or hepatitis. It is important that patients infected with hepatitis receive treatment and follow-up care.

Coccidiomycosis — This infection is caused by inhaling an infective fungus called Coccidioides immitis, found mainly in contaminated soil in the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America and parts of South America. The lungs are most commonly affected by this infection. In severe cases, it can involve the kidneys, lymph system, brain and spleen. Symptoms include cough, weight loss and fatigue. Meningitis is a common complication when left untreated.

Histoplasmosis — This infection almost always involves the lungs, although other organs may be affected. The fungus that causes this condition is found in southern parts of the United States and South America. It is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings and must be inhaled to cause infection.

Signs and symptoms include high fever; weight loss; respiratory complaints; an enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes; depressed production of white cells, red blood cells and platelets from the bone marrow; and life-threatening, unstable, low blood pressure.

Pneumocystis Carinii — This condition occurs when a fungus infects the lungs. Symptoms may include fever, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss, night sweats and fatigue.

It is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Preventative treatment may be administered when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Treatment is usually trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, also called Septra or Bactrim, dapsone or atovoquone.

Recurrent Pneumonia — People with AIDS are at risk for recurrent bacterial pneumonia. Bacteria can infect the lungs, which may lead to problems ranging from a mild cough to severe pneumonia. Recurrent pneumonia is most likely to occur when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Tuberculosis (TB) — This is a serious, and often deadly, bacterial infection that primarily infects the lungs. TB is transmitted when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes, releasing microscopic particles into the air. If inhaled, these particles may transmit the condition.

Once infected by TB, most people remain healthy and develop only latent infection. People with latent infection are neither sick nor infectious. However, they do have the potential to become sick and infectious with active TB. It can occur at any CD4+ T cell level but especially when the CD4+ T cell count falls below 350 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma — Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a disease in which tumors develop from white blood cells in the lymphatic system. It is another common disease associated with AIDS. See AIDS-related lymphoma.

Candidiasis — This is the most common HIV-related fungus infection. It can affect the entire body, but most commonly occurs in the mouth (thrush) or vagina. An overgrowth of yeast causes white patches on gums, tongue or lining of the mouth, pain, difficulty in swallowing and loss of appetite. Candida in the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs is AIDS defining.

Herpes Simplex — This virus causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are painful blisters in the genital area. Chronic herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions and severe mucocutaneous HSV disease are common in the advanced stages of AIDS.

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Even though signs of heart attack can be subtle in women, the good news is that heart disease is preventable. To better understand your body and risks, schedule an appointment with your health care provider to discuss your history. Try to move around a little more every day as well, since even walking 30 minutes a day can lower the risk of heart attack. If you think you might be having a heart attack, dial 911, sit or lie down, and chew an uncoated aspirin immediately. Even if it turns out not to be a heart attack, it’s better to be prepared. Once a heart attack starts, every minute counts.

The bottom line, says Dr. Daniel: Don’t ignore how you feel. If you know something isn’t right, you can’t expect symptoms to just go away. Even though women often put themselves last after taking care of others, it’s important to pay attention to your body’s signals and trust your instincts. Women may experience warning signs up to a month before an attack, which means they have a valuable internal warning system when something isn’t right. The true trick to preventing a heart attack is taking preventative measures like exercising and eating well, but most of all, listening to your body.

Originally published Feb. 2013. Updated May 2016.

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Der Hauptsitz des Robert Koch-Instituts (RKI) in Berlin. Weiter lesen

HIV-1 - Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (Retroviren) Reife Virionen (rote Hülle) sammeln sich an der Oberfläche eines T-Lymphozyten (Wirtszelle). Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie, Ultradünnschnitt. Weiter lesen

Koloniewachstum eines aeroben Sporenbildners (Bacillus sp.) auf Blutagar ohne Hämolyse. Weiter lesen

Zahlreiche wissenschaftliche Kommissionen haben ihre Geschäftsstelle am RKI Weiter lesen

Now that we talked about why you have sugar withdrawals, let’s talk about what the symptoms are. After coming off of sugar over 50 times myself and helping hundreds to the same, I have found that sugar addicts actually have different symptoms when they are coming off of sugar. And I don’t really like to give you a long list of negative things to “expect” because maybe none of these will happen to you, only one of them or a bunch of them. It can be helpful to be kind of prepared though so you don’t think something weird is happening while you are breaking this sugar addiction. Check out this one great tool, a free video that I made for you called The 3 Mistakes Sugar Addicts Make and How to Avoid Them. Here is a list of the sugar withdrawals I personally experienced and those I have seen come off sugar and keep in mind they usually only last for a few days if even that:

  1. Feeling sad or down. I will admit, this is then number one thing I would experience when I would come off sugar. But have hope, it would only last a few days, thank God! That is one thing that really motivated me to stay away from sugar because I hate feeling sad and it started to not be worth it, the trade-off of having sugar to being really down for a few days. For me I know this is a major sugar withdrawal because I do NOT experience sadness on a regular basis, only when I am coming off sugar. Its very important if you struggle with depression already, that you guard yourself against this and make sure are aware of this. The good news is, I have seen many people who struggle with moodiness and depression GREATLY improve when they no longer have a sugar addiction. Personally I think a lot of people who struggle with this would see an improvement when they break the sugar addiction.
  2. Headaches. I personally never had this sugar withdrawal but I have heard some say they do.
  3. Fatigue. If you have been jacked up on sugar all the time, your body is used to that rush but you have also really stressed out your adrenal glands, which can make you more tired. The ironic thing is, since I no longer am a sugar addict if I do have sugar, I am so tired that night, it literally puts me to sleep. I really can’t believe it! And when I wake up the next day, I almost feel hung over I am so tired. I never realized that as much when I ate sugar all the time.
  4. Sleep patterns affected. Remember you are detoxing off a poisonous substance that is toxic so you are going to be detoxing as it gets out of your body. If you were addicted to sugar, your body was all out of whack from having blood sugar spikes to insulin surges and your body needs some time to balance back out.
  5. Sugar cravings. Now this one is the obvious side effect. Once you stop eating sugar, one sugar withdrawal can be ridiculously intense cravings for it. Remember, you may be stopping something that has been a habit of yours for 20 years so give yourself a break! Its normal to crave something that has been a part of your life for so long not only mentally but physically as well. Be encouraged that sugar cravings DO go away.

Take “The Quiz” to self-diagnose whether you even are a sugar addict or not, click here.

One of the most important things about breaking a sugar addiction is learning how to think differently about sugar and how you resist temptation in your life. Because if you get off sugar but don’t know how to stay off it, that is something that can be very frustrating. If you want to check out a free internet seminar I am doing click here or go to http://sugaraddictionspecialist.com/internet-seminar/

Be on the lookout for your own sugar withdrawals and feel free to leave a comment and let us know what yours were so we can all know what to look out for.

Except in patients with a tracheostomy or endotracheal tube, bacterial tracheitis is an uncommon infectious cause of acute upper airway obstruction. It is currently more prevalent than acute epiglottitis in children who have received Haemophilus type B vaccine. Patients may present with crouplike symptoms, such as barking cough, stridor, and fever; however, patients with bacterial tracheitis do not respond to standard croup therapy (racemic epinephrine) and instead require treatment with antibiotics and may experience acute respiratory decompensation. [1, 2, 3]

Bacterial tracheitis is a diffuse inflammatory process of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi with adherent or semiadherent mucopurulent membranes within the trachea. The major site of disease is at the cricoid cartilage level, the narrowest part of the trachea. Acute airway obstruction may develop secondary to subglottic edema and sloughing of epithelial lining or accumulation of mucopurulent membrane within the trachea. Signs and symptoms are usually intermediate between those of epiglottitis and croup. [4, 5]

Bacterial tracheitis may be more common in the pediatric patient because of the size and shape of the subglottic airway. The subglottis is the narrowest portion of the pediatric airway, assuming a funnel-shaped internal dimension. In this smaller airway, relatively little edema can significantly reduce the diameter of the pediatric airway, increasing resistance to airflow and work of breathing. With appropriate airway support and antibiotics, most patients improve within 5 days.

Although the pathogenesis of bacterial tracheitis is unclear, mucosal damage or impairment of local immune mechanisms due to a preceding viral infection, an injury to the trachea from recent intubation, or trauma may predispose the airway to invasive infection with common pyogenic organisms.

United States

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In May 2015, the public health authorities of Brazil confirmed ZIKV infection in the north-eastern part of the country. Healthcare authorities confirmed that a previously unknown disease affecting around 500 patients with flu-like symptoms followed by rash and arthralgia was indeed an ongoing outbreak of Zika fever.

On 16 October 2015, the first cases of ZIKV infections were reported in Colombia, with nine confirmed cases in the Bolivar department. From 16 October to 21 November, Colombian authorities reported 578 confirmed cases and 2 635 suspected cases..

On 12 November 2015, the Suriname authorities reported five cases of ZIKV through IHR.

On 24 November 2015, the health authorities of French Polynesia reported an unusual increase of at least 17 cases of central nervous system malformations in foetuses and infants during 2014-2015.

On 26 November 2015, Mexico authorities acknowledged three ZIKV cases, including two autochthonous cases reported from Nuevo Leon and Chiapas. The imported cases had recently travelled to Colombia.

On 27 November 2015, the Paraguay IHR National Focal Point (NFP) reported the confirmation of six ZIKV cases in the city of Pedro Caballero - close to the border with Brazil.

On 1 December 2015, media, quoting authorities, reported 17 suspected cases of ZIKV infection in Guatemala, 14 of which were among hospital employees. Blood samples have been collected and sent to the US for analysis.

On 3 December 2015, the Ministry of Health of Panama reported three autochthonous cases of Zika virus infection. All three cases are residents of the district of Ailigandi, Guna Yala (north-east).

26th December, The Island of Martinique becomes the latest country in the region to confirm reports of the autochthonous or local transmission of the mosquito borne Zika virus. The Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), says the French speaking Caribbean nation is the 11th country in the Americas to report the virus this year and the 12th to report local transmission.

The Puerto Rico Department of Health reported today the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection in Puerto Rico. Zika was confirmed in a resident of Puerto Rico with no known travel history.

Barbados, Haiti and Guyana have all confirmed cases of Zika Virus in their respective countries. On Thursday 14th January 2016 Haiti and Guyana confirmed cases of Zika Virus and on Friday 15th January, Barbados also confirmed 3 cases of Zikv.

The Center for disease control issues advisory to pregnant women and those trying to conceive to postpone travel to countries that are experiencing Zika virus outbreaks in South America and The Caribbean. The countries mentioned are: Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

The World Health Organisation director Margaret Chan has declared that the Zika virus constitute a public health emergency of international concern.

The first case of Zika Virus transmission was reported in Texas, USA this week. It is likely that the virus was contracted through sexual contact, said local health officials.

Health officials in Colombia have announced the deaths of three people who had been infected with the Zika Virus and subsequently developed Guillain-Barre syndrome. Alejandro Gaviria, the Colombian health minister, stated that there was a "causal connection" between Zika, the Guillain-Barre disorder and the three deaths. Six further deaths are under investigation for a possible link to Zika Virus.

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    Eczema flares often show up on the backs of the knees

    Living with eczema can be an ongoing challenge. The word “eczema” is derived from a Greek word meaning “to boil over,” which is a good description for the red, inflamed, itchy patches that occur during flare-ups. Eczema can range from mild, moderate, to severe.

    It’s most common for babies and children to develop eczema on their face (especially the cheeks and chin), but it can appear anywhere on the body and symptoms may be different from one child to the next. More often than not, eczema goes away as a child grows older, though some children will continue to experience eczema into adulthood.

    Adults can develop eczema, too, even if they never had it as a child.

    Eczema is not contagious. You can’t “catch it” from someone else. While the exact cause of eczema is unknown, researchers do know that people who develop eczema do so because of a combination of genes and environmental triggers. When an irritant or an allergen “switches on” the immune system, skin cells don’t behave as they should causing an eczema flare-up.

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    Acid reflux frequently causes spells of continuous cough due the irritation caused by the stomach acid to the throat. In order to protect the larynx from injury during these spells of cough, a lot of mucus is generated along the larynx and pharynx, which, over prolonged period of time, is also believed to trigger sinusitis.

    Sinusitis can be treated in many ways. Commonly, nasal sprays and nasal strips are used but the particle sizes of the nasal sprays are so large that they cannot fully reach the sinus cavity and may only help the lower nasal passage. Oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. However, in the sinus cavity there are very few blood cells, so the antibiotic cannot really get rid of the infection entirely.

    When acid reflux is present along with sinusitis, it helps to treat the acid reflux first, following which, the mucus clears by itself. Making lifestyle changes, improving diet habits, avoiding foods and medications that trigger acid reflux, eating smaller meals more frequently, chewing the food well, regularizing sleep cycles, reducing weight, avoiding tight clothes, not lying down immediately after a meal, stress management through exercise, meditation, sleeping with the head of the bed raised by 6 to 9 inches, natural herbs, etc. are some ways which are effective in controlling heartburn.

    The holistic method of treatment would incorporate all these and more changes into your daily life not only to cure acid reflux and clear the mucus but also to improve your overall health. There are no side effects and it is a long term cure without using any harmful medications. Holistic treatment is the ideal solution for acid reflux as it mitigates ALL the internal imbalances in your body that trigger the painful condition.

    Melissa Kaplan's
    Lyme Disease
    Part of the Anapsid.org Chronic Neuroimmune Diseases Information Resources for CFS, FM, MCS, Lyme Disease, Thyroid, and more.
    Last updated January 1, 2014

    Short Symptom List: Lyme Disease & Common Co-Infections

    Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia

    The following symptoms were excerpted from Diagnostic Hints And Treatment Guidelines For Lyme And Other Tick Borne Illnesses, by Joseph J. Burrascano Jr., M.D. (Fifteenth Edition 2008).

    Borrelia
    (Borreliosis, neuroborreliosis; also known as Lyme Disease)
    Spread primarily though the bite of infected ticks that live on a wide range of mammalian species; secondary human-to-human transmission through semen, breast milk, and possibly in utero

    Bladder dysfunction
    Burning or stabbing sensations
    Cardiac impairment
    Change in bowel function
    Chest pain
    Confusion
    Depression
    Difficulty thinking
    Difficulty with concentration and reading
    Difficulty with speech, writing
    Difficulty finding words; name blocking
    Disorientation: getting lost, going to wrong places
    Disturbed sleep: too much, too little, fractionated, early awakening
    Ears/Hearing: buzzing, ringing, ear pain, sound sensitivity
    Exaggerated symptoms or worse hangover from alcohol
    Eyes/Vision: double, blurry, increased floaters, light sensitivity
    Facial paralysis (Bell's palsy)
    Fatigue, tiredness, poor stamina
    Forgetfulness
    Headache
    Heart block
    Heart murmur
    Heart palpitations
    Heart valve prolapse
    Increased motion sickness
    Irritability
    Irritable bladder
    Joint pain or swelling
    Lightheadedness
    Mood swings
    Muscle pain or cramps
    Neck creaks & cracks
    Neck stiffness, pain
    Numbness
    Pelvic pain
    Poor attention
    Poor balance
    Poor short-term memory
    Problem absorbing new information
    Pulse skips
    Rib soreness
    Sexual dysfunction or loss of libido
    Shooting pains
    Shortness of breath; cough
    Skin hypersensitivity
    Sore throat
    Stiffness of the joints or back
    Swollen glands
    Testicular pain
    Tingling
    Tremor
    Twitching of the face or other muscles
    Unavoidable need to sit or lay down
    Unexplained breast pain
    Unexplained fevers, sweats, chills or flushing
    Unexplained hair loss
    Unexplained menstrual irregularity'
    Unexplained milk production
    Unexplained weight loss or gain
    Upset Stomach or abdominal pain
    Vertigo
    Wooziness

    Babesia
    (Babesiosis)
    Babesia is a protozoan spread by ticks, blood transfusion, and in utero. Despite there being 20+known forms to date, current testing only looks for two of them.

    Air hunger
    Cough
    Fatigue
    Fevers
    Headache
    Hemolysis
    Imbalance without true vertigo
    Mild encephalopathy
    Shaking chills
    Sweats

    Bartonella
    (Bartonellosis, also known as cat scratch fever)
    Spread by bites from infected ticks and in utero

    abnormal liver enzymes
    encephalopathy
    endocarditis
    flu-like malaise
    headache
    hemolysis with anemia
    hepatomegaly
    high fever
    immune deficiency
    jaundice
    lymphadenopathy
    myalgias
    myocarditis
    papular or angiomatous rash
    somnolence
    sore throat
    splenomegaly
    weakened immune response

    Ehrlichia
    (Ehrlichiosis)
    Bites from infected ticks

    elevated liver enzymes
    headaches
    myalgias
    ongoing fatigue
    persistent leukopenia
    thrombocytopenia

    This symptom list is available in PDF format.

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    Headache severe, malaise, nausea sweating and vomiting my withdrawl experience

    Yup….that’s withdrawal from aspertame. Stick with it.

    I think many doctors don’t know aspartame can and is addictive. I was at the doctors today, (i gave up pepsi max 5 days ago and i’ve been feeling like crap, not able to attend work) and he said aspartame isn’t addictive.:-/

    Multiple doctors have told me the same thing. How can we get them to warn folks about this problem if they don’t even believe what we tell them about withdrawal?

    I have stopped drinking diet coke for 2 weeks, and I use to drink a case a week. Went to doctors 3 weeks ago about dizziness she put me on steroids and said it was inner ear infection. Took all meds, 3 weeks later still have dizziness going to make another appointment.

    Try to stay away from MSG product as we’ll.. The two go hand and hand and it’s a silent killer…

    Yikes….these doctors are scary. Your symptoms will go away in 4-6 weeks.

    I am on day 9 with no Diet Coke. I have called myself the poster child for aspartame poisoning for YEARS, but I never wanted to give it up. I stopped during all 3 of my pregnancies but started right back up after having the babies. This is the longest I have gone without stopping as my youngest child is now 8. I am having all kinds of withdrawal symptoms, but I am wondering if anyone else has been eating the house apart like I have! I am going to bust out of my clothes like the Incredible Hulk soon if I don’t watch out, but I am having to do something to keep from drinking Diet Coke. Anyone else have this symptom? If so, does it go away eventually too?

    This is day 6 of Aspartame withdrawals, The ringing in my ears is not as bad as it was on day 1, but still there. I was doing 4-6 12OZ. can of diet Pepsi caffeine free a day and then started on sugar free hard candy for dry mouth.I also was drinking decaf coffee, but using 6 packets of Spenda a day.also was getting tinkling thuout my body. My doctor put me on Gabapentin because she said I had nerve damage and that seemed to help the tingling I have many other health issues and I’m not sure if it because of the Aspartame or being overweight. But the terrible ringing in my ears must be from that. I have stopped it all and am drinking water and a occasional glass of milk. I think I should sue someone, but don’t even know where to start.

    I recommend taking Psyllium and Betonite to detox. You can get these at the health food store or grocery store that carries vitamins and health food. I was very sick for 3 days and took the advice of someone on this site and had my friend buy them for me because I was too sick to get out of bed. Within 12 hours of taking these I felt immediate relief. I feel so much better than I did a year ago… it’s amazing!

    Today is day 6 since giving up Diet Coke. I have never felt so ill. If anybody speaks to me today I’m likely to cry. I had 3 nights of going to bed at 8pm and sleeping through until morning. The next 2 nights, I was awake until the early hours and woke at 7am feeling like a deflated balloon. I don’t think anyone realises how bad that stuff is. I’m now 46 years old and Diet Coke was available in 1982 in the UK. I’ve been drinking it ever since. I was a slim teenager. 7st 10lbs until my early twenties. I now weigh my highest weight ever at 17 stone 10lbs. I feel sluggish, have depression, have IBS, muscle and joint pain. Until recently I was taking 3 different kinds of prescription tablets. I’ve been pill free for over 2 weeks and thought it was the pills that made me feel bad. I read something on Facebook last week saying that my symptoms are likely to be Diet Coke (aspartame). As I said, I now feel worse than ever. I had breast cancer 6 years ago too. I’ve also read that I’ll feel like sh*t for a while more. Just hope I can get through it. Sorry if my message seems to be all over the place but head’s mucked up too. Good luck to everyone going through this. I can’t believe it’s still legal 🙁

    I quit 1 year ago this week after 25 years of drinking Diet Coke. I recommend taking Psyllium and Betonite to detox. You can get these at the health food store or grocery store that carries vitamins and health food. I was very sick for 3 days and took the advice of someone on this site and has my friend buy them for me because I was too sick to get out of bed. Within 12 hours of taking these I felt immediate relief. I feel so much better than I did a year ago. Aspartame free is the way to be. I hope this helps you.

    Wow, reading your story about this poisonous addiction to Diet Coke is like reading a biography about myself! I have been drinking 6-8 Diet Cokes per day for 20 years. I’m 45! I also had breast cancer 5 years ago- the first person in my extended family to ever have cancer. I started to feel sickly a couple years before the cancer- headaches, fatigue, depression, terrible joint pain, hair loss, ringing in both ears, irritability and mood problems, racing pulse, itchy skin, and more! My doctors keep wanting to put me on more and more medications. I decided yesterday I had to get control of this or I would kill myself because I am at my wits end feeling miserable. I have been suspecting my Diet Coke being the cause all along- this is my first day without one and I’m feeling edgy, achy, and like I won’t make it, but I am determined to feel good again- I told my husband there will be no more of that crap in the house and I’m hoping I can make it through this! I get sick to my stomach when I think about the possibility of losing both my breasts because of that terrible poison! I would like to hear how your coming with this- I normally don’t message people but your story sounded so similar to mine! Good luck to you!

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    You can find more information about mosquitoes on the Ministry of Health website and also tips on how to avoid mosquito bites while travelling.

    Zika virus infection is notifiable in New Zealand as an arboviral disease.

    Guidance for health professionals (updated 24 July 2017)

    Pregnant women who become infected with Zika virus can transmit the disease to their unborn babies, with potentially serious consequences. Reports from several countries, most notably Brazil, demonstrate an increase in severe fetal birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes in babies whose mothers were infected with Zika virus while pregnant.

    We know that Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital microcephaly and other severe brain abnormalities. Zika virus has also been linked to other problems in pregnancies and among fetuses and infants infected before birth, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and other birth defects.

    A distinct pattern of birth defects, called congenital Zika syndrome, has emerged among fetuses and infants of women infected with Zika during pregnancy. In addition to cognitive, sensory, and motor disabilities that are shared with other birth defects, congenital Zika syndrome is associated with five types of birth defects that are either not seen or occur rarely with other infections (eg, cytomegalovirus or rubella) during pregnancy:

    • severe microcephaly resulting in a partially collapsed skull
    • decreased brain tissue with brain damage (as indicated by a specific pattern of calcium deposits)
    • damage to the back of the eye with a specific pattern of scarring and increased pigment
    • limited range of joint motion, such as clubfoot
    • too much muscle tone restricting body movement soon after birth.

    Therefore, the Ministry of Health recommends that women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant in the near term should defer travel to areas with Zika virus present. If travel is essential, if possible delay pregnancy if travelling to these areas.

    If travelling in Zika-infected areas, women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should consult with their health care provider. All travelers should take all precautions to avoid mosquito bites, including the following.

    • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
    • Use insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), or IR3535. Always use as directed.
    • Insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, and IR3535 are safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children older than 2 months when used according to the product label. Oil of lemon eucalyptus products should not be used on children under 3 years of age.
    • If you use both sunscreen and insect repellent, apply the sunscreen first and then the repellent.
    • Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents).
    • Use bed nets as necessary.
    • Stay and sleep in screened-in or air-conditioned rooms.
    • Be particularly vigilant for the 2 hours after sunrise and the 2 hours before sunset.

    We also advise that women who have travelled to an affected country without their partner use appropriate contraception for eight weeks to avoid pregnancy. However, if the partner has also travelled to an affected country then see advice on sexual transmission of Zika virus.

    If you are pregnant and develop a rash, red eyes, fever, or joint pain within 14 days of travel to a Zika virus-infected country, please consult your health care provider and let them know your travel history.

    This information will be updated as more research becomes available.

    Zika virus is considered to be mainly spread by infected mosquitoes. However, there is growing information available about the risk of sexual transmission of Zika virus.

    Due to the potentially serious implications of transmitting Zika to a pregnant woman, we advise that:

    • All men who have travelled to a Zika-affected area and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity (oral, vaginal, and anal) or use condoms for the duration of the pregnancy, whether they have symptoms or not.
    • All men who have travelled to a Zika-affected area and have a partner who is at risk of becoming pregnant should abstain from sexual activity (oral, vaginal, and anal) or use condoms, whether they have symptoms or not, for at least six months after leaving a Zika-affected area.

    We will continue to review New Zealand guidance as further information becomes available.