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Dr. med. Peter Mahlknecht, Univ. Prof. Dr. Franz X. Heinz, Univ. Prof. Dr. Theresia Popow-Kraupp
Mag. (FH) Silvia Hecher, MSc
Stand der Information: Februar 2015
Quellen: Robert Koch Institut, http://www.rki.de (Stand 5.11.2010)
Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, http://www.bmg.gv.at (Stand 5.11.2010)
Österreichische Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit GmbH (AGES), http://www.ages.at (Stand 5.11.2010)
Antiinfektiva – Behandlung von Infektionen. Initiative Arznei und Vernunft, Pharmig - Verband der pharmazeutischen Industrie Österreich, 2. Auflage, Dezember 2010 ( http://www.pharmig.at/uploads/AuV_Antiinfektiva_LL_5809_DE.pdf)
Hallo erstmal, Ich (m) bin 22 Jahre alt und Student. Normalerweise bin ich eigentlic.
Kann eine Grippe auch zu Meningitis führen? Ich liege im Bett mit Fieber, Husten und.
Hallo, ich komme gerade von einem KA-Termin mit meiner kleinen Tochter (7,5 Monate).
Die Influenza-Saison beginnt wie jedes Jahr mit einem Impfaufruf. Impfen lassen, ja oder nein? netdoktor hilft bei der Entscheidungsfindung.
Haemophilus influenzae ist ein Bakterium, von dem früher fälschlicherweise angenommen wurde, dass es der "echten Grippe" (Influenza) zugrunde liegt, …
Die Impfung gegen die Influenza soll vor der "echten Grippe" schützen. Besonders kranke und ältere Menschen sollten diese in Erwägung ziehen.
Myositis is the medical term for muscle inflammation. In myositis, inflammation damages the fibers of a muscle. This causes muscles to be weak by interfering with the ability of the muscles to contract. Although myositis can cause muscle aches and muscle tenderness, weakness is usually the dominant symptom.
On 14th April 2016 Dr Tom Frieden, the head of the CDC, confirmed that the Zika Virus does indeed cause Microcephaly and several other birth defects in babies. He stated that 'This study marks a turning point in the Zika outbreak. It is now clear that the virus causes microcephaly'. The Zika virus was previously beleived to have caused the birth defects seen in newborn babies, characterized by unusually small heads, and this has now been confirmed by the CDC.
Kids and teens with mononucleosis (mono) can have flu-like symptoms (like a fever, muscle aches, tiredness, and a sore throat), which go away on their own after a few weeks of rest and plenty of fluids.
Mono usually is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a very common virus that most kids are exposed to at some point while growing up. Infants and young kids infected with EBV typically have very mild symptoms or none at all. But teens and young adults who become infected often develop mono.
Mono is spread through kissing, coughing, sneezing, or any contact with the saliva of someone who has been infected with the virus. (That's how mono got nicknamed "the kissing disease.") It also can spread by sharing a straw or an eating utensil. Researchers believe that mono may be spread sexually as well.
People who have been infected with EBV will carry the virus for the rest of their lives — even if they never have any signs or symptoms of mono. Those who did have mono symptoms probably will not get sick or have symptoms again.
Although EBV is the most common cause of mono, other viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (sy-toe-meh-guh-low-VY-rus), can cause a similar illness. Like EBV, cytomegalovirus stays in the body for life and may not cause any symptoms.
Symptoms usually show up about 4 to 7 weeks after infection with the virus and can include:
- being very tired
- sore throat with swollen tonsils that may have white patches
- loss of appetite
- swollen lymph nodes (commonly called glands, located in the neck, underarms, and groin)
- sore muscles
- larger-than-normal liver or spleen
- skin rash
- abdominal pain
Mono symptoms usually go away within 2 to 4 weeks. In some teens, though, the tiredness and weakness can last for months.
To make a diagnosis, the doctor may do a blood test and physical exam to check for things like swollen tonsils and an enlarged liver or spleen, which often is a sign of the infection.
Doctors recommend that kids who get mono avoid sports for at least a month after symptoms are gone because the spleen usually is enlarged temporarily from the illness. An enlarged spleen can rupture easily — causing internal bleeding and abdominal pain — and require emergency surgery.
So vigorous activities, contact sports, weightlifting, cheerleading, or even wrestling with siblings or friends should be avoided until the doctor says it's OK.
Most kids who get mono recover completely with no problems. In rare cases, though, complications can happen. These can include problems with the liver or spleen, anemia, meningitis, trouble breathing, or inflammation of the heart.
There is no vaccine to protect again the Epstein-Barr virus. But you can help protect your kids from mono by making sure that they avoid close contact with anyone who has it.
Many people who have mono won't have symptoms, but they can still pass it to others. So kids should wash their hands well and often, and not share drinks or eating utensils with others, even people who seem healthy.
- Internal Exposure: Delirium, muscle weakness,lack of coordination
- External Exposure: Minimal
- Chronic Exposure: Weakness and lack of coordination in arms and legs; difficulty in talking and swallowing
Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, defoliants
Action on Human System: Injury to intestinal lining, nervous system, and kidneys
- Internal Exposure: Swelling of mouth and throat; pain in esophagus, stomach, and intestines; restlessness
- External Exposure: Irritant
- Chronic Exposure:
Type of Pesticide: Herbicides
Action on Human System: Irritants
- Internal Exposure:
- External Exposure: Moderately irritating to skin and eyes
- Chronic Exposure:
Type of Pesticide: Herbicides
Action on Human System: Irritant
- Internal Exposure:
- External Exposure: Mild irritants; propachlor is a skin irritant and sensitizer
- Chronic Exposure:
Chemical Family: Alumino Flouride Salt - cryolite(C), Kryocide(T)
Type of Pesticide: Insecticide
In general, coughs and colds are not dangerous conditions. They might be annoying and make you feel awful, but neither presents a real risk to your health or the health of your baby.
However, if you are ill for more than a few days, develop a high fever, have a severe sore throat, or are worried that your symptoms seem unusual, you may have the flu, strep throat or a sinus infectio, and should see your doctor right away. The flu is much worse than the common cold and can make pregnant women much sicker than those who are not pregnant. Protect yourself against the flu by getting your flu vaccination eartly on. It is recommended for all pregnant women.
Sinus infections are relatively common in pregnancy because of the increased nasal congestion, and fighting one may require the use of antibiotics. If you have asthma, you should pay special attention to your breathing and see your practitioner without delay if you are having difficulty.
If you develop a severe cough, rest assured that the fetus is protected inside your uterus, and you cannot cough so hard that you miscarry or go into labor. However, the loss of urine is, unfortunately, pretty common. The best thing you can do about stress urinary continence is to empty your bladder frequently and practice your kegel exercises.
Coughs and colds are usually caused by viruses, which do not benefit from antibiotics, and so must run their course. Medical treatment can relieve symptoms so that you feel better, but it won't make you get better any faster. With the exception for treating fever, it often is fine to simply tough it out if you don't want to take any medications. Here are tips to help you alleviate some of the discomfort that can accompany a cold.
- Drink plenty of fluids, as this will help to thin secretions. Water, chicken soup (Jewish penicillin), juices, and warm tea are good sources.
- Use a humidifier. Place it close to your face when you sleep. During the day, you can make a tent out of a sheet draped over your head. Stay under the tent for 15 minutes, three or four times a day.
- Rub a mentholated product (like Vicks Vaporub) on your chest according to package instructions.
- For nasal stuffiness, use saline drops. You can buy these at drugstores or prepare a solution at home. Just dissolve 1/4 teaspoon salt in 8-ounces of water. Place a few drops in each nostril, wait 5 to 10 minutes, and then gently blow your nose.
- To make breathing easier, sleep in a recliner or prop up your head with lots of pillows so that you are in a semi-upright position.
- Take a warm shower. This can help clear nasal stuffiness and mucus.
- Get plenty of rest.
While it is generally best to avoid exposing a fetus to medications, especially in the first trimester when its organs are forming, sometimes drugs are necessary either for medical reasons or for symptom relief. (For more information, see Medications in Pregnancy: General Principles, which explains the FDA's safety classes for medicines.)
- Decongestants: This group of medications is used to treat colds or allergies. Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), an FDA category C drug (to be used only if the benefits outweigh the risks), can be bought over the counter and is present in antihistamines as well as in cold remedies. These medications are not recommended for anyone who has high blood pressure, pregnant or not. If possible, avoid taking pseudoephedrine in the first trimester.
- Cough suppressants and expectorants: Dextromethorphan, a common ingredient found in cough and cold medications (such as Robitussin), is probably safe for use in pregnancy. While the FDA has labeled it category C, some large studies suggest that it does not cause any increase in birth defects or complications of pregnancy. Guaifenesin is an expectorant in many cough and cold medicines. It, too, is listed under category C but is probably safe as well.
Pain is bad because it hurts. Fever is bad because it overheats the fetus. Fever is unhealthy for the fetus throughout pregnancy, but high fever in the first trimester is especially worrisome since it is thought to be responsible for certain birth defects, including problems in brain and spine development. It's generally best to follow this rule: If you get a fever in pregnancy, take medications to bring it down, and if you cannot reduce your temperature, call your doctor.
- Fever: Fever also increases sweating and fluid loss, so be sure to drink lots of cool fluids when you have a high temperature. Most pregnant women can take acetaminophen (Tylenol) throughout the pregnancy without a problem. If you are a heavy drinker (three or more drinks a day), you need to discuss this with your practitioner, not only because alcohol and acetaminophen can be a lethal combination, but also because drinking while pregnant has health implications for your baby. Ibuprofen is probably safe to take in the first and second trimesters, but it may cause problems for the baby's circulation after 32 weeks' gestation so always check with your doctor before taking it. Aspirin is usually not recommended in pregnancy. A persistent fever or severe illness in pregnancy always warrants a call to your doctor.
- Zinc Lozenges: Zinc lozenges (and more recently, nasal sprays) have been used to speed recovery from the common cold. Lower doses of Zinc are safe, and there is currently no reliable information about the safety of using zinc lozenges while pregnant.
Finding Relief for Your Cough Slideshow
How do health care professionals diagnose the flu (influenza)?
The flu is presumptively diagnosed clinically by the patient's history of association with people known to have the disease and their symptoms listed above. Usually, a quick test (for example, nasopharyngeal swab sample) is done to see if the patient is infected with influenza A or B virus. Most of the tests can distinguish between A and B types. The test can be negative (no flu infection) or positive for types A or B. If it is positive for type A, the person could have a conventional flu strain or a potentially more aggressive strain such as H1N1. Most of the rapid tests are based on PCR technology that identifies the genetic material of the virus. Some rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) can screen for influenza in about 10-30 minutes.
Swine flu (H1N1) and other influenza strains like bird flu or H3N2 are definitively diagnosed by identifying the particular surface proteins or genetic material associated with the virus strain. In general, this testing is done in a specialized laboratory. However, doctors' offices are able to send specimens to specialized laboratories if necessary.
Flu is easily spread from person to person both directly and indirectly. The influenza virus can spread to other people in droplets contaminated with the virus. Produced by coughing, sneezing, or even talking, these droplets land near or in the mouth or the nose of uninfected people, and the disease may spread to them. The disease can spread indirectly to others if contaminated droplets land on utensils, dishes, clothing, or almost any surface and then are touched by uninfected people. If the infected person touches their nose or mouth, for example, they transfer or spread the disease to themselves or others.
Quick Guide 10 Foods to Eat When You Have the Flu in Pictures
Most of the illness and death caused by influenza can be prevented by annual influenza vaccination. The CDC's current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued recommendations for everyone 6 months of age and older, who do not have any contraindications to vaccination, to receive a flu vaccine each year.
Flu vaccine (influenza vaccine made from inactivated and sometimes attenuated [noninfective] virus or virus components) is specifically recommended for those who are at high risk for developing serious complications as a result of influenza infection.
A new vaccine type, Fluzone Intradermal, was approved by the FDA in 2011 (for adults 18-64 years of age). This injection goes only into the intradermal area of the skin, not into the muscle (IM) like most conventional flu shots, and uses a much smaller needle than the conventional shots. This killed viral preparation is supposed to be about as effective as the IM shot but claims to produce less pain and fewer side effects (see section below).
Other simple hygiene methods can reduce or prevent some individuals from getting the flu. For example, avoiding kissing, handshakes, and sharing drinks or food with infected people and avoiding touching surfaces like sinks and other items handled by individuals with the flu are good preventive measures. Individuals with the flu should avoid coughing or sneezing on uninfected people; quick hugs are probably okay as long as there is no contact with mucosal surfaces and/or droplets that may contain the virus.
Are there any nasal spray vaccine or flu shot side effects in adults or in children?
Although annual influenza (injectable) vaccination has long been recommended for people in the high-risk groups, many still do not receive the vaccine, often because of their concern about side effects. They mistakenly perceive influenza as merely a nuisance and believe that the vaccine causes unpleasant side effects or that it may even cause the flu. The truth is that influenza vaccine causes no side effects in most people. In the past, patients with egg allergy had restrictions on getting the vaccine. However, extensive research has indicated that there is not enough egg protein in the vaccine to trigger an immune response, and all the recommendations about allergies to eggs has been dropped for the 2017-2018 flu season by several organizations that regulate vaccines. Also, the vaccine is not recommended while individuals have active infections or active diseases of the nervous system. Less than one-third of those who receive the vaccine have some soreness at the vaccination site, and about 5%-10% experience mild side effects, such as headache, low-grade fever, or muscle cramps, for about a day after vaccination; some may develop swollen lymph nodes. These side effects are most likely to occur in children who have not been exposed to the influenza virus in the past. The intradermal shots reportedly have similar side effects as the IM shot but are less intense and may not last as long as the IM shot.
Nevertheless, some older people remember earlier influenza vaccines that did, in fact, produce more unpleasant side effects. Vaccines produced from the 1940s to the mid-1960s were not as highly purified as modern influenza vaccines, and it was these impurities that caused most of the side effects. Since the side effects associated with these early vaccines, such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and/or fatigue and malaise, were similar to some of the symptoms of influenza, people believed that the vaccine had caused them to get the flu. However, injectable influenza vaccine produced in the United States has never been capable of causing influenza because it consists of killed virus.