Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. If they already have a lung disease, it may get worse. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness.

Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully treated and do not have complications. Possible complications of pneumonia may include:

  • Bacteremiaand septic shock.Bacteremia is a serious complication in which bacteria from the initial site of infection spread into the blood. It may lead to septic shock, a potentially fatal complication.
  • Lung abscesses.Lung abscesses usually are treated with antibiotics. Sometimes surgery or drainage with a needle is needed to remove the pus.
  • Pleural effusions, empyema, and pleurisy. These painful or even potentially fatal complications can occur if pneumonia is not treated. The pleura is a membrane that consists of two large, thin layers of tissue. One layer wraps around the outside of your lungs and the other layer lines the inside of your chest cavity. Pleurisy is when the two layers of the pleura become irritated and inflamed, causing sharp pain each time you breathe in. The pleural space is a very thin space between the two pleura. Pleural effusions are the build-up of fluid in the pleural space. If the fluid becomes infected, it is called empyema. If this happens, you may need to have the fluid drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.
  • Renal failure
  • Respiratory failure

Sometimes pneumonia is hard to diagnose because it may cause symptoms commonly seen in people with colds or the flu. You may not realize it's more serious until it lasts longer than these other conditions. Your doctor will diagnose pneumonia based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Your doctor may be able to diagnose you with a certain type of pneumonia based on how you got your infection and the type of germ causing your infection.

Your doctor will ask about your signs and symptoms and how and when they began. To find out whether you have bacterial, viral, or fungal pneumonia, your doctor also may ask about:

  • Any recent traveling you've done
  • Your hobbies
  • Your exposure to animals
  • Your exposure to sick people at home, school, or work
  • Your past and current medical conditions, and whether any have gotten worse recently
  • Any medicines you take
  • Whether you smoke
  • Whether you've had flu or pneumonia vaccinations

Your doctor will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. If you have pneumonia, your lungs may make crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds when you inhale. Your doctor also may hear wheezing. Your doctor may find it hard to hear sounds of breathing in some areas of your chest.

If your doctor thinks you have pneumonia, he or she may recommend one or more of the following tests.

  • Chest x ray to look for inflammation in your lungs. A chest x ray is the best test for diagnosing pneumonia. However, this test won't tell your doctor what kind of germ is causing the pneumonia.
  • Blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) to see if your immune system is actively fighting an infection.
  • Blood culture to find out whether you have a bacterial infection that has spread to your bloodstream. If so, your doctor can decide how to treat the infection.

Your doctor may recommend other tests if you're in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems.

  • Sputum test. Your doctor may collect a sample of sputum (spit) or phlegm (slimy substance from deep in your lungs) that was produced from one of your deep coughs and send the sample to the lab for testing. This may help your doctor find out if bacteria are causing your pneumonia. Then, he or she can plan your treatment.
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) scan to see how much of your lungs is affected by your condition or to see if you have complications such as lung abscesses or pleural effusions. A CT scan shows more detail than a chest x ray.
  • Pleural fluid culture. For this test, a fluid sample is taken from the pleural space (a thin space between two layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity). Doctors use a procedure called thoracentesis to collect the fluid sample. The fluid is studied for bacteria that may cause pneumonia.
  • Pulse oximetry. For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. Pneumonia can keep your lungs from moving enough oxygen into your bloodstream. If you're very sick, your doctor may need to measure the level of oxygen in your blood using a blood sample. The sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. This test is called an arterial blood gas test.
  • Bronchoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the lungs' airways. If you're in the hospital and treatment with antibiotics isn't working well, your doctor may use this procedure. Your doctor passes a thin, flexible tube through your nose or mouth, down your throat, and into the airways. The tube has a light and small camera that allow your doctor to see your windpipe and airways and take pictures. Your doctor can see whether something is blocking your airways or whether another factor is contributing to your pneumonia. Your doctor may use this procedure to collect samples of fluid from the site of pneumonia (called bronchoalveolar lavage or BAL) or to take small biopsies of lung tissue to help find the cause of your pneumonia.

Your doctor may also diagnosis you with a certain type of pneumonia. Pneumonia is named for the way in which a person gets the infection or for the germ that causes the infection.

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). CAP is the most common type of pneumonia and is usually caused by pneumococcus bacteria. Most cases occur during the winter. CAP occurs outside of hospitals and other health care settings. Most people get CAP by breathing in germs (especially while sleeping) that live in the mouth, nose, or throat.
  • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP). HAP is when people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. HAP tends to be more serious than CAP because you're already sick. Also, hospitals tend to have more germs that are resistant to antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is when people who are on a ventilator machine to help them breathe get pneumonia.
  • Atypical pneumonia. Atypical pneumonia is a type of CAP. It is caused by lung infections with less common bacteria than the pneumococcus bacteria that cause CAP. Atypical bacteria include Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae.
  • Aspiration pneumonia. This type of pneumonia can occur if you inhale food, drink, vomit, or saliva from your mouth into your lungs. This may happen if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. Aspiration pneumonia can cause lung abscesses.

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Quels sont les symptômes que l'on doit présenter avant d'envisager avoir contracté le virus? Après une période d'incubation de 24 à 48 heures, il y a peut-être eu contamination si l'on constate:

  • qu'on a de la fièvre pouvant atteindre 41 °C;
  • qu'on éprouve des douleurs musculaires, en particulier dans le dos;
  • qu'on a la gorge irritée;
  • qu'on a des maux de tête;
  • qu'on ressent une fatigue intense causée par la douleur;
  • qu'on éprouve de la difficulté à respirer;
  • qu'on a une toux sèche et profonde par épisodes;
  • qu'on a des écoulements nasaux;
  • qu'on perd l'appétit;
  • qu'on a la diarrhée (assez rare);
  • qu'on a des nausées et des vomissements (assez rare).

La grippe A(H1N1) nous inquiète et on veut savoir comment s'en prémunir? On lit ce qui suit.

Asian influenza, commonly known as the Asian flu, is a viral respiratory illness caused by the H2N2 strain of Type A influenza. The H2N2 Asian flu is the result of avian influenza — that is, a flu normally found in birds — crossed with a human influenza virus. The Asian flu results in symptoms similar to many other strains of influenza, including fever, body aches, chills, cough, weakness, and loss of appetite. The Asian flu was responsible for a Category 2 flu pandemic from 1956 to 1958, meaning that it was a worldwide spread of the virus with a case-to-fatality ratio between 0.1 and 0.5 percent. H2N2 became extinct in the wild circa 1968.

Influenza is an illness caused by many subtypes that can change, mutate, and cross with other strains. Occasionally a bird or animal flu can reassort its genetic material, cross the animal-human species barrier, and begin infecting the human population. The H2N2 Asian flu was the result of a cross between a virus found in wild ducks and a human influenza virus.

Asian flu causes many of the symptoms commonly reported in an influenza virus. Influenza is a respiratory illness, so a dry cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing are all widely reported among flu sufferers. Influenza usually results in a high fever and body aches or chills. An individual might have no appetite and subsequently lose weight. Recovery from the H2N2 can take many weeks; complications include pneumonia, seizures, heart failure, and death.

Asian influenza caused a worldwide pandemic in 1956, when the virus jumped from ducks to humans and then began human-to-human transmission. It originated in the province of Guizhou, China, and traveled to Singapore and Hong Kong. From there, the Asian influenza virus spread to the rest of the world. Although the illness infected humans across the globe, it remained a relatively mild pandemic and is rated as a Category 2 on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Pandemic Severity Index Chart. This chart rates pandemic flu from one to five — mild to severe — according to the number of influenza deaths reported in the U.S.

A vaccine for H2N2 was introduced in 1957, and the pandemic slowed down. There was a second wave in 1958, and H2N2 went on to become part of the regular wave of seasonal flu. In 1968, the H2N2 Asian flu disappeared from the human population and is believed to have gone extinct in the wild. Vials of H2N2 influenza remain in laboratories across the world.

6) How come I get the flu after Thanksgiving?

5) @Steamland-- The question itself is a very judgmental and prejudiced. What makes you think that all pandemic diseases come from Asia? They emerge in other areas of the world all the time. Take Ebola, which emerged in Africa.

The only difference is that in countries where health care systems are very developed, these instances are diagnosed and quarantined much faster. So the chances of the pandemic spreading is reduced and it's usually eliminated altogether this way.

4) @donasmrs-- They are not the same but they mutated from the same virus. They are subtypes of what is called influenza A. Asian flu is H2N2 as the article said and Avian flu is H5N1. They start out in wild birds and sometimes, they infect humans and become an epidemic. There are other types of influenza A that affect other animals like pigs (aka swine flu). But most flu viruses in this category exist in birds, fewer amount affect pigs and humans.

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Die Grippe stellte als Pandemie mehrfach ein schwerwiegendes historisches Geschehen dar. Den schwersten Verlauf zeigte die Spanische Grippe von 1918/1919, die ihren Ursprung vermutlich 1918 in einem Soldatencamp im amerikanischen Staat Kansas hatte. Es ist anzunehmen, dass die Influenza mit amerikanischen Truppentransporten nach Frankreich gelangte und sich von dort aus über Deutschland weiter nach Spanien verbreitete.

Ihre Bezeichnung erhielt die Spanische Grippe, da die ersten Nachrichten über diese Pandemie aus Spanien kamen. Weltweit waren damals etwa 500 Millionen Menschen von der Influenza betroffen. Wahrscheinlich starben etwa 25 bis 40 Millionen Menschen an der Spanischen Grippe, wobei die Todesopfer vor allem jüngere Menschen im Alter von 20 bis 30 Jahren und überwiegend Frauen waren.

Im Vergleich dazu nahm die Asiatische Grippe im Winter 1957/1958 einen weniger schweren Verlauf: Sie forderte etwa 1 bis 1,5 Millionen Todesopfer. Allein in Deutschland starben damals infolge der Influenza ungefähr 30.000 Menschen. Die Hongkong-Grippe (1968/1969) kostete zusammen mit der Russischen Grippe von 1977 etwa 1,5 Millionen Menschenleben.

Die jüngste Grippe-Pandemie geht auf das Konto der sogenannten Schweinegrippe (auch Neue Grippe oder Neue Influenza A/H1N1 genannt): Sie trat erstmals im April 2009 in Mexiko auf und hat sich seitdem in der ganzen Welt verbreitet. Mit bislang knapp über 18.000 registrierten Todesfällen weltweit verlief diese Grippewelle jedoch vergleichsweise milde. Im August 2010 erklärte die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) die Pandemie offiziell für beendet.

Einer Grippe (Influenza) können Sie vorbeugen, indem Sie sich impfen lassen. Der optimale Zeitpunkt für die Grippeschutzimpfung liegt vor Beginn der Grippesaison – also im Zeitraum von Oktober bis November. Zum langfristigen Schutz ist es ratsam, sich jedes Jahr erneut impfen zu lassen.

Mit der Impfung gegen Grippe können gesunde Menschen unter 60 Jahren das Erkrankungsrisiko deutlich senken oder aber zumindest erreichen, dass die Influenza bei ihnen milde und komplikationsarm verläuft. Bei Menschen höheren Alters hingegen ist die Schutzwirkung geringer. Trotzdem ist es auch – oder gerade – für über 60-Jährige wichtig, sich jedes Jahr gegen Grippe impfen zu lassen, um das Risiko für eine schwere Grippeerkrankung gering zu halten.

Die Impfung gegen Grippe jährlich erneuern zu lassen ist deshalb ratsam, da die Grippeviren ständig ihre Struktur ändern und Sie deshalb trotz Impfung in der nächsten Grippesaison nicht mehr ausreichend geschützt sind. Die empfohlenen Impfstoffe enthalten eine Mischung, die gegen verschiedene Grippeviren wirksam sind. Die Grippeimpfung kann aber nur der Influenza vorbeugen: Ein grippaler Infekt (Erkältung) lässt sich mit einem Grippeimpfstoff nicht verhindern.

Für folgende Personengruppen gilt die vorbeugende Impfung gegen Grippe als besonders empfehlenswert:

  • für Personen über 60 Jahre
  • für Schwangere ab dem zweiten Schwangerschaftsdrittel (bei erhöhter Gesundheitsgefahr wegen einer anderen Grunderkrankung ab dem ersten Schwangerschaftsdrittel)
  • für Kinder, Jugendliche und Erwachsene mit einer erhöhten gesundheitlichen Gefährdung infolge eines Grundleidens wie chronische Lungenerkrankungen, Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen, Lebererkrankungen und Nierenerkrankungen, Diabetes und andere Stoffwechselkrankheiten, chronischen neurologischen Erkrankungen wie multiple Sklerose, Immunschwäche, HIV-Infektion
  • für Bewohner von Alters- oder Pflegeheimen
  • für Menschen mit erhöhtem Ansteckungsrisiko, zum Beispiel medizinisches Personal oder Personen in Einrichtungen mit umfangreichem Publikumsverkehr
  • für jeden, der Menschen mit erhöhtem Gesundheitsrisiko betreut und diese so im Fall einer Infektion anstecken könnte,
  • für Menschen mit direktem Kontakt zu Geflügel und Wildvögeln (schützt zwar nicht vor der Vogelgrippe, kann aber einer gleichzeitigen Infektion durch menschliche Grippeviren und Vogelgrippeviren vorbeugen)
  • für jeden, wenn (aufgrund von Erfahrungen in anderen Ländern) eine Grippeepidemie oder ein neuer Virustyp zu erwarten ist und hierfür schon ein Grippeimpfstoff zur Verfügung steht

In einigen Fällen kommen auch sogenannte Neuraminidasehemmer vorbeugend gegen Grippe zum Einsatz: Manche Ärzte halten eine Behandlung mit diesen Medikamenten zum Beispiel für sinnvoll, wenn wegen einer Vorerkrankung eine Schutzimpfung nicht möglich ist oder wenn (z.B. wegen eines geschwächten Immunsystems) nur ein geringer Impfschutz gegen Influenza besteht.

Auch für bestimmte Personengruppen (wie medizinisches Personal) können diese Wirkstoffe in Betracht kommen – zum Beispiel wenn ein wirksamer Impfstoff gegen ein neues Grippevirus (noch) fehlt. Um der Virusgrippe vorzubeugen, ist jedoch die Grippeimpfung die Maßnahme der ersten Wahl.

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A number of methods and exercises have been developed that help a person both mentally and physically during withdrawal. Specific supplements can help with diarrhea, vomiting or other symptoms. Assists are simple and gentle procedures that help relieve physical pain and mental anxiety. Objective exercises calm a person’s mind and enable him to direct his attention toward recovery and the future and get attention off pain and the past. Those going through this process often remark on how manageable this withdrawal procedure is.

This is followed by an innovative detoxification step. Opiate abusers experience a mental fog from using these drugs (as do users of many drugs). Drug residues that are not fully eliminated from the body can cause this fog to persist, even long after drugs are discontinued. The Narconon New Life Detoxification combines sauna, exercise and nutrition to activate the body’s ability to flush out these residual toxins. The result is clearer thinking and an improved outlook on life. Most people also state that their cravings for drugs are greatly reduced or eliminated altogether.

A person who wishes to stay drug-free for the long haul must then overcome a mental or psychological need for drugs. This means building the skills to deal with life as it is, without hiding or trying to escape. This is the final phase of the Narconon program.

Learn how this program can help someone you love recover from an addiction that may seem hopeless.

Bei der Influenza handelt es sich um eine Infektionskrankheit bei Menschen, die durch Viren ausgelöst wird. Es handelt sich dabei umgangssprachlich um eine Virusgrippe, die auch echte Grippe genannt wird. Häufig werden fälschlicherweise auch harmloserer Viruserkrankungen, wie ein grippaler Infekt als Grippe bezeichnet. Die echte Grippe wird durch Viren aus dem Influenzavirus A oder B ausgelöst und ist nicht mit einem grippalen Infekt vergleichbar, da der Krankheitsverlauf schwerwiegender ist.

Erkrankungen, die durch Influenzaviren hervorgerufen werden, gibt es weltweit und werden in den meisten Fällen durch die Viren aus der Gruppe Influenzaviren A oder B ausgelöst. Diese Viruserkrankungen haben unterschiedlichste Auslöser und Ursachen. Auch die Behandlungsmethoden sind vielfältig. In seltenen Fällen kommt es aber auch zu Erkrankungen, die durch Influenza C Viren ausgelöst werden. Dieses Krankheitsbild ist jährlich aber nur bei ca 20 bis 30 Prozent der Menschen weltweit zu finden. In seltenen Fällen spricht man auch von einer Epidemie, das ist der Fall, wenn sich der Virus sehr schnell in einem Gebiet ausbreitet und eine Mehrheit der dort lebenden Menschen betroffen ist.

Da es sich um eine Viruserkrankung handelt, begünstigt ein schwaches Immunsystem die Ansteckungsgefahr um ein Vielfaches. Die Influenza Viruserkrankung wird als Tröpfcheninfektion über die Schleimhäute übertragen. Dazu zählen, Mund, Nase, Augen und Atemwege. Der Virus erreicht den Körper über diese Eintrittsorte und wird durch andere erkrankte Personen durch, Niesen, Sprechen, Husten und Atmen übertragen. Die größeren Tröpfchen, die dabei entstehen, sinken sehr schnell nach unten und verkleben dann an rauen Oberflächen.

Wenn die Exspirationströpfchen aber bereits in der Luft trocknen, können die darin enthaltenen Viren sich über die Luft verteilen und über mehrere Stunden infektiös bleiben. Dieses Verbreitungsschema wird besonders in den Wintertagen durch eine trockene und warme Heizungsluft begünstigt, die dazu beiträgt, dass sich der Influenza Virus besonders im Winter schnell ausbreiten kann. Auch durch das Berühren von Infizierten oder Oberflächen, an denen sich bereits Tröpfchen Erreger befinden, kann man sich schnell anstecken. Die Viren überleben auf glatten Oberflächen zwei Tage und können so durch Berühren mit den Händen leicht in die eigenen Schleimhäute gelangen.

Bei der Influenza gibt es eine Vielzahl an Symptomen, die nicht alle auftreten müssen und auch in verschiedenen Zeitabschnitten auftreten können. Nach der Ansteckung kann es zwei Tage dauern, bis sich die ersten Symptome bemerkbar machen. Oft werden die zahlreichen Symptome auch mit einer anderen Atemwegserkrankung oder einen grippalem Infekt verwechselt.
Zu den Symptomen zählen ein stark ausgeprägtes Unwohlsein und ein allgemeines Krankheitsgefühl. Auch hohes Fieber, das bis 40 Grad auftritt und Schüttelfrost, sind Begleiter des Influenza Virus. Auch ausgeprägte Appetitlosigkeit und Übelkeit, die durchaus auch zum Erbrechen führen kann, werden immer wieder als Symptome von Infizierten Personen genannt.

Zusätzlich treten Kopfschmerzen und Gliederschmerzen vermehrt auf, sodass sich die Infizierten Personen oftmals nicht mehr dazu in Stande fühlen einem normalen Tagesablauf nachzukommen. Ausgeprägte Müdigkeit und Lustlosigkeit schließen sich den Symptomen der Influenza gerne an. Sehr häufig kommt es auch zu einem trockenen Hals und einer trockenen Kehle, die nicht selten zu einem trockenen und anstrengenden Husten führen können. Auch eine sehr angeschwollene Nasenschleimhaut, die zu einer laufenden Nase führt und starkes Augentränen, das nicht nur lästig ist, sondern auch oftmals zu Verkrustungen führen kann, ist ein häufiges Symptom bei dieser Viruserkrankung.

Eine eindeutige Diagnose wird in den meisten Fällen mithilfe eines Nasenabstrichs aus dem hinteren Nasenbereich gestellt, oder aus einem Abstrich aus dem Rachen. Aufgrund dieser Abstriche kann man eine gute Diagnose stellen. Auch eine Blutuntersuchung gibt Aufschluss, ob es sich um eine Influenza Infektion handelt. Des Weiteren gibt es auch einen speziellen Influenza Test, der innerhalb von 15 Minuten eine klare Diagnose stellen kann, dieser Test ist eine wichtige Hilfe bei der Diagnosestellung. Eine weitere wichtige Methode ist Influenza PCR diese Methode basiert auf der Molekularbiologie und bietet die Möglichkeit eine Diagnose zu stellen.

Eine Influenza Viruserkrankung wird in den meisten Fällen mit antiviralen Medikamenten behandelt. Diese Medikamente sind verschreibungspflichtig und sollen den Krankheitsverlauf verkürzen und die Symptome abschwächen. Ein wichtiger Punkt bei diesen Medikamenten ist eine genaue Beachtung der Dosierung und der Art der Einnahme. Hierbei sollte man unbedingt auf die Anweisungen des behandelnden Arztes vertrauen.

Auch die Behandlung einzelner Symptome ist möglich, so werden gegebenenfalls Mittel eingenommen um das Fieber zu senken oder um das allgemeine Unwohlsein zu behandeln. Diese Medikamente dienen allerdings nicht der Eliminierung der Viren oder der Verhinderung der Vermehrung der Viren. Wenn es während einer Influenza Infektion auch zu einer bakteriellen Infektion kommt, ist es ratsam, dieser mit einer Antibiotika Behandlung zu begegnen. Des Weiteren ist es ratsam über dem gesamten Zeitraum der Influenza Erkrankung ausreichend viel Flüssigkeit zu sich zunehmen, um einer Austrocknung vorzubeugen, auch eine gute Luftfeuchtigkeit und Medikamente die dabei helfen die Nasenschleimhaut zu beruhigen sind empfehlenswert.

Das Anhalten der Symptome bei einer Influenza Viruserkrankung verläuft über einen Zeitraum zwischen 7 und 14 Tagen. Erst wenn die Influenza Viren komplett bekämpft worden sind, kann man von einer Genesung sprechen. Meistens beginnt die Infektion sehr plötzlich und braucht dann Ihre Zeit, bis sie wieder abheilt. Auch Nachwirkungen wie Appetitlosigkeit und anhaltende Schwächegefühle wie bei einer beginnenden Erkrankung können noch mehrere Wochen nach behandelter Influenza Infektion auftreten.

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Q: What are the symptoms of LaCrosse Encephalitis?

A: Like many of the arboviral encephalitides, most cases have symptoms usually associated with the flu. More severe cases may result in encephalitis, meningitis, paralysis, seizures, neurological damage, coma, and death. Those that survive severe cases often will need lifelong care.

Q: Is there a type of mosquito that carries this disease?

A: Yes, the vector for this disease is the ochlerotatus triseriatus, commonly known as the eastern tree-hole mosquito. The common name should give you a good idea of one of the habitats where this mosquito and its larvae can be found! Interestingly, the female prefer to search for their victims in daylight, but in shaded areas such as forests or woodlands.

Frequently Asked Questions about St. Louis Encephalitis

Q: Is this virus a serious threat to people here in the United States?

A: Although most cases of the disease here in the U.S. have been in the Southeastern and Midwestern areas, it can be found throughout North America. It is not one of the major arboviruses and most of the cases do not cause serious illness. However, some people, including the elderly, can end up with a very serious or fatal case of the disease. Most people don’t even realize they have the disease! (This disease also occurs in South America.)

Q: What are the symptoms of St. Louis Encephalitis?

A: Symptoms are very much like symptoms of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis and meningitis may occur.

Q: Is there a vaccine to prevent St. Louis Encephalitis?

A: No, unfortunately, not at this time. There are no medicines specifically designed to cure this disease. If a case is severe, medical attention is needed.

Q: Is St. Louis Encephalitis one of the diseases mosquitoes carry?

A: No, it is mainly the culex pipiens females that are the vectors of this disease. These mosquitoes prefer small reservoirs of water such as old tires, flowerpots, rain gutters, and other water-collecting containers for laying their eggs.

Frequently Asked Questions about Western Equine Encephalitis

Q: Where does Western Equine Encephalitis occur?

A: Basically, it can be found in the western regions of the U.S. and Canada, although the area affected has been spreading eastward, especially in places where the number of irrigated farmlands has escalated.

A: Like, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, the symptoms of Western Equine Encephalitis are very similar to those of the flu with headache and body aches, fever, nausea, and so forth. In serious cases, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis, coma, and ultimately, death, may occur.

Unfortunately, it is harshest on young children, and those who survive severe cases may end up needing lifelong care. Horses are also susceptible to the virus and may die from WEE in severe cases.

Q: Is WEE one of the diseases mosquitoes spread?

A: Yes, the Culex Tarsalis mosquito is the culprit here in the United States. It should be noted that the female mosquito can travel 10-15 miles from its “birth home” in search of a blood meal. This means that people in the suburban neighborhoods within a 10-15 mile radius of irrigated land can be prime targets.

Q: Can I catch Malaria here in the United States?

A: It is possible, although almost all of the cases were ones that people caught when they traveled to countries where Malaria outbreaks occur. We have two Anopheles mosquitoes that are responsible for transmitting the parasites that cause Malaria: Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern part of the country and Anopheles freeborni in the western part.

Q: Is Malaria Fatal? Do people die from Malaria here in the U.S.?

A: Yes, people do die from the disease, although it all depends on the medical attention the patient receives. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that of 1,337 cases of malaria reported in 2002 here in the U.S., only 8 deaths occurred.

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When you are ill (when you have a cold or the flu, for example), check for ketones every 4 to 6 hours. And check every 4 to 6 hours when your blood glucose is more than 240 mg/dl.

Also, check for ketones when you have any symptoms of DKA.

If your health care provider has not told you what levels of ketones are dangerous, then call when you find moderate amounts after more than one test. Often, your health care provider can tell you what to do over the phone.

Call your health care provider at once if you experience the following conditions:

  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones.
  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones and your blood glucose level is high.
  • Your urine tests show high levels of ketones and you have vomited more than twice in four hours.

Do NOT exercise when your urine tests show ketones and your blood glucose is high. High levels of ketones and high blood glucose levels can mean your diabetes is out of control. Check with your health care provider about how to handle this situation.

Here are three basic reasons for moderate or large amounts of ketones:

  • Not enough insulin
    Maybe you did not inject enough insulin. Or your body could need more insulin than usual because of illness.
  • Not enough food
    When you're sick, you often don't feel like eating, sometimes resulting in high ketone levels. High levels may also occur when you miss a meal.
  • Insulin reaction (low blood glucose)
    If testing shows high ketone levels in the morning, you may have had an insulin reaction while asleep.

Suppose you have made the decision to change your diet and improve your health. You understand how the body heals itself and you are more aware of its needs. Yet, you may not have complete faith in your body.

A splitting headache, chills, nausea, a dripping nose, increased body odor, reappearance of old aches and pains, rashes, boils, drastic weight loss—all the symptoms that can shake the faith of the most sincere health seeker.

Without proper understanding or support, you could panic at these symptoms and believe your new diet or way of life is the cause of them. You might revert to your old unhealthy practices because you became afraid.

Thousands of people have experienced the same sort of problems as they improved their health. Books about fasting and dietary changes should be read so that you may feel reassured. Case histories, such as the one below, may help you understand these changes.

Larry was a college junior and had become a vegetarian after graduating from high school. He had tried to improve his diet, but college life put him under stress and so he started drinking coffee in the evening to stay awake and study. After staying up late, he felt tense so he started smoking marijuana for relaxation and to get to sleep.

He also had little time to prepare lunch, so he got in the habit of eating a quart of fruit flavored yogurt for lunch every day.

When the summer came, Larry decided to kick his coffee and marijuana habits. The hot weather was also making him feel uncomfortable eating dairy products, so he gave up his daily yogurt. He had been suffering from sore throats and nasal congestion, and he changed over to a diet of raw fruits and vegetables to allow his body to cleanse itself.

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That's not surprising: Many of the symptoms are the same, including pain in the joints and muscles and swollen lymph glands.

Lymph nodes are part of your body's immune system and tend to get inflamed when there's an infection. Many of them are located in your armpit, groin, and neck.

Photo: Getty Images

As with other symptoms, sore throat and headache can often be recognized as ARS only in context, Dr. Horberg says.

If you've engaged recently in high-risk behavior, an HIV test is a good idea. Get tested for your own sake and for others: HIV is most infectious in the earliest stage.

Keep in mind that the body hasn't produced antibodies to HIV yet so an antibody test may not pick it up. (It can take a few weeks to a few monthsfor HIV antibodies to show in a blood test). Investigate other test options such as one that detects viral RNA, typically within nine days of infection.

Photo: Getty Images

Skin rashes can occur early or late in the course of HIV/AIDS.

For Ron, this was another sign that he might not have run-of-the-mill allergies or a cold.

"They were like boils, with some itchy pink areas on my arms," Ron says. The rashes can also appear on the trunk of the body. "If [the rashes] aren't easily explained or easily treated, you should think about having an HIV test," Dr. Horberg says.

Photo: Getty Images

Anywhere from 30% to 60% of people have short-term nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea in the early stages of HIV, Dr. Malvestutto says.

These symptoms can also appear as a result of antiretroviral therapy and later in the infection, usually as the result of an opportunistic infection.

"Diarrhea that is unremitting and not responding at all to usual therapy might be an indication," Dr. Horberg says. Or symptoms may be caused by an organism not usually seen in people with healthy immune systems, he adds.

Photo: Getty Images

Once called "AIDS wasting," weight loss is a sign of more advanced illness and could be due in part to severe diarrhea.

"If you're already losing weight, that means the immune system is usually fairly depleted," Dr. Malvestutto says. "This is the patient who has lost a lot of weight even if they continue to eat as much as possible. This is late presentation. We still see a lot of these." It has become less common, however, thanks to antiretroviral therapy.

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    La majorité des cas signalés antérieurement de personnes ayant contracté la grippe H1N1 ont pu se remettre complètement sans recourir à des soins médicaux ni à des médicaments antiviraux. Cependant, l'incidence des éclosions nous renseignent que le traitement à l'aide d'antiviraux pourrait être nécessaire, surtout pour les personnes qui présentent des symptômes modérés ou graves et celles qui risquent de subir des complications de la grippe (par ex. les personnes qui ont des troubles médicaux sous-jacents).

    Pour les personnes atteintes, améliorez votre état et prévenez la propagation du virus en prenant les précautions suivantes:

    • demeurez à la maison si vous avez contracté le virus. Ne vous rendez pas au travail ni à l'école;
    • gardez au moins 1 mètre de distance entre les autres personnes;
    • reposez-vous et buvez beaucoup de liquide;
    • couvrez-vous la bouche et le nez avec un papier-mouchoir lorsque vous toussez ou éternuez. Jetez-le ensuite à la poubelle. Si vous n'avez pas de papier-mouchoir à votre portée, couvrez-vous le nez et la bouche avec votre manche ou vos mains. Lavez soigneusement vos mains par la suite;
    • lavez-vous les mains régulièrement avec du savon et de l'eau. Prenez soin de laver vos mains avec du savon pendant au moins 15 secondes. Utilisez un désinfectant pour les mains à base d'alcool si vous n'avez pas accès au savon ni à l'eau.

    Il existe des façons de vous protéger contre le virus de la grippe H1N1. Recevoir le vaccin contre l'influenza juste avant la saison annuelle de la grippe (en général de novembre à avril en Amérique du Nord) représente de beaucoup la mesure de prévention la plus efficace. Les personnes qui séjournent dans des régions où il y a une éclosion du virus doivent prendre des précautions particulières pour réduire leur risque d'exposition au virus de la grippe H1N1. Voici quelques conseils pour prévenir la grippe:

    • évitez le contact étroit avec des personnes infectées et qui présentent des symptômes de grippe H1N1 (par ex. de la fièvre, une toux);
    • lavez-vous fréquemment et soigneusement les mains avec du savon et de l'eau. Pour pratiquer un bon nettoyage, vous devez vous laver les mains avec du savon et frotter pendant au moins 15 secondes. Utilisez un désinfectant à base d'alcool si vous ne pouvez pas vous laver les mains.

    *Tous les médicaments ont à la fois une dénomination commune (un nom générique) et un nom de marque ou marque. La marque est l'appellation qu'un fabricant choisit pour son produit (par ex. Tylenol®). Le nom générique est le nom du médicament en médecine (par ex. l'acétaminophène). Un médicament peut porter plusieurs noms de marque, mais il ne possède qu'un seul nom générique. Cet article répertorie les médicaments par leur nom générique. Pour obtenir des renseignements sur un médicament donné, consultez notre base de données sur les médicaments. Pour de plus amples renseignements sur les noms de marque, consultez votre médecin ou un pharmacien.

    One of my most frequently googled phrases during my pre-TTC and TTC days was “early pregnancy symptoms.” It’s nearly impossible to not symptom spot, and we all just want to have a tiny peek inside to know if our body is making a baby or not. With that in mind and acknowledging that no two people or two pregnancies are the same, I thought I would share my early, early pregnancy symptoms.

    Intuition: Not Pregnant

    1 DPO – No symptoms

    2 DPO – No symptoms

    3 DPO – Bloated, tired, & headache

    4 DPO – Diarrhea (TMI- sorry), headache, & heartburn

    5 DPO – Bloated, cramps, & tired

    7 DPO – no symptoms

    8 DPO – no symptoms

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    Dairy Intolerance like any food intolerance gets worse with age. So for many people - alternating bouts of nausea, diarrhea and constipation have become an everyday thing (Irritable Bowel). But it is not normal and can lead to serious health risks.

    Left untreated, problems with malabsorption (like iron deficiency, bone density loss or chronic dehydration) can arise. Further neglect can lead to anaemia and even osteoporosis. To find out for sure whether you have dairy intolerance use the Journal Method - as used in the Healing Program.

    Do you eat Dairy foods "to make sure you get enough calcium?". Marketing for Dairy foods certainly uses this a major motivator.

    Milk derivatives like “milk solids” and “whey powder” can make food taste good and do contain some calcium. However the calcium found in dairy foods is in the wrong form which for easy absorption by the body. That’s why so many serves must be eaten. Haven't you ever wondered why they tell us we need "three serves a day" - equal to 21 serves a week to fetch enough calcium for our needs?

    • Is it because dairy foods don't actually deliver a whwole lot of usable calcium? If it was a great source we would only need a little.

    This much dairy food in a week means that all the other dairy components like cholesterol, fat and lactose are being absorbed at the same time. To reduce fats people then switch to low fat varieties.

    The trouble is - doing this delivers lactose in much larger amounts: skim milk and low fat milk products are usually supplemented with additional milk solids, sugars and other derivatives to give them substance and make them taste better.

    You may have been advised to switch to low-fat milk to reduce cholesterol. But with much higher levels of lactose – this can bring on severe diarrhea and other gastro-intestinal symptoms. If you have noticed that - then you have dairy intolerance.

    Many people in western developed countries eat all types of foods indiscriminately and may have come to accept chronic flatulence, constipation and bloating as 'normal'. However these Irritable bowel symptoms are not normal and can lead to disease.

    Compared to milk - there are many other sources of calcium from foods: green leafy vegetables and fish with bones like canned salmon and white bait - none of which cause symptoms.

    For many thousands of years there has never been any milk or Dairy food in the traditional Chinese diet. So - according to the "three serves of dairy a day" rule - shouldn't all those Chinese be suffering from osteoporotic broken hips?

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    Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. If they already have a lung disease, it may get worse. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness.

    Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully treated and do not have complications. Possible complications of pneumonia may include:

    • Bacteremiaand septic shock.Bacteremia is a serious complication in which bacteria from the initial site of infection spread into the blood. It may lead to septic shock, a potentially fatal complication.
    • Lung abscesses.Lung abscesses usually are treated with antibiotics. Sometimes surgery or drainage with a needle is needed to remove the pus.
    • Pleural effusions, empyema, and pleurisy. These painful or even potentially fatal complications can occur if pneumonia is not treated. The pleura is a membrane that consists of two large, thin layers of tissue. One layer wraps around the outside of your lungs and the other layer lines the inside of your chest cavity. Pleurisy is when the two layers of the pleura become irritated and inflamed, causing sharp pain each time you breathe in. The pleural space is a very thin space between the two pleura. Pleural effusions are the build-up of fluid in the pleural space. If the fluid becomes infected, it is called empyema. If this happens, you may need to have the fluid drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.
    • Renal failure
    • Respiratory failure

    Sometimes pneumonia is hard to diagnose because it may cause symptoms commonly seen in people with colds or the flu. You may not realize it's more serious until it lasts longer than these other conditions. Your doctor will diagnose pneumonia based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Your doctor may be able to diagnose you with a certain type of pneumonia based on how you got your infection and the type of germ causing your infection.

    Your doctor will ask about your signs and symptoms and how and when they began. To find out whether you have bacterial, viral, or fungal pneumonia, your doctor also may ask about:

    • Any recent traveling you've done
    • Your hobbies
    • Your exposure to animals
    • Your exposure to sick people at home, school, or work
    • Your past and current medical conditions, and whether any have gotten worse recently
    • Any medicines you take
    • Whether you smoke
    • Whether you've had flu or pneumonia vaccinations

    Your doctor will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. If you have pneumonia, your lungs may make crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds when you inhale. Your doctor also may hear wheezing. Your doctor may find it hard to hear sounds of breathing in some areas of your chest.

    If your doctor thinks you have pneumonia, he or she may recommend one or more of the following tests.

    • Chest x ray to look for inflammation in your lungs. A chest x ray is the best test for diagnosing pneumonia. However, this test won't tell your doctor what kind of germ is causing the pneumonia.
    • Blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) to see if your immune system is actively fighting an infection.
    • Blood culture to find out whether you have a bacterial infection that has spread to your bloodstream. If so, your doctor can decide how to treat the infection.

    Your doctor may recommend other tests if you're in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems.

    • Sputum test. Your doctor may collect a sample of sputum (spit) or phlegm (slimy substance from deep in your lungs) that was produced from one of your deep coughs and send the sample to the lab for testing. This may help your doctor find out if bacteria are causing your pneumonia. Then, he or she can plan your treatment.
    • Chest computed tomography (CT) scan to see how much of your lungs is affected by your condition or to see if you have complications such as lung abscesses or pleural effusions. A CT scan shows more detail than a chest x ray.
    • Pleural fluid culture. For this test, a fluid sample is taken from the pleural space (a thin space between two layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity). Doctors use a procedure called thoracentesis to collect the fluid sample. The fluid is studied for bacteria that may cause pneumonia.
    • Pulse oximetry. For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is in your blood. Pneumonia can keep your lungs from moving enough oxygen into your bloodstream. If you're very sick, your doctor may need to measure the level of oxygen in your blood using a blood sample. The sample is taken from an artery, usually in your wrist. This test is called an arterial blood gas test.
    • Bronchoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the lungs' airways. If you're in the hospital and treatment with antibiotics isn't working well, your doctor may use this procedure. Your doctor passes a thin, flexible tube through your nose or mouth, down your throat, and into the airways. The tube has a light and small camera that allow your doctor to see your windpipe and airways and take pictures. Your doctor can see whether something is blocking your airways or whether another factor is contributing to your pneumonia. Your doctor may use this procedure to collect samples of fluid from the site of pneumonia (called bronchoalveolar lavage or BAL) or to take small biopsies of lung tissue to help find the cause of your pneumonia.

    Your doctor may also diagnosis you with a certain type of pneumonia. Pneumonia is named for the way in which a person gets the infection or for the germ that causes the infection.

    • Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). CAP is the most common type of pneumonia and is usually caused by pneumococcus bacteria. Most cases occur during the winter. CAP occurs outside of hospitals and other health care settings. Most people get CAP by breathing in germs (especially while sleeping) that live in the mouth, nose, or throat.
    • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP). HAP is when people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. HAP tends to be more serious than CAP because you're already sick. Also, hospitals tend to have more germs that are resistant to antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial pneumonia.
    • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is when people who are on a ventilator machine to help them breathe get pneumonia.
    • Atypical pneumonia. Atypical pneumonia is a type of CAP. It is caused by lung infections with less common bacteria than the pneumococcus bacteria that cause CAP. Atypical bacteria include Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae.
    • Aspiration pneumonia. This type of pneumonia can occur if you inhale food, drink, vomit, or saliva from your mouth into your lungs. This may happen if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. Aspiration pneumonia can cause lung abscesses.

    Acute chest pain and Flu-like symptoms
    Symptom Checker

    • Acute chest pain AND Flu-like symptoms - Causes of All Symptoms
    • Acute chest pain OR Flu-like symptoms - 184 causes

    Results: Causes of Acute chest pain AND Flu-like symptoms

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    • Internal Exposure: Irritates lungs
    • External Exposure: Irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Pyridazinone - maleic hydrazide(C), Retard(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Growth retardant

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure:
    • External Exposure: Slightly irritating
    • Chronic Exposure:

    Chemical Family: Phosphonomethyl Glycine - glyphosate(C), Roundup(T)


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure: Irritates lungs
    • External Exposure: Irritates eyes
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, fungicides

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure: Vomiting, diarrhea, shaking, and weakness caused by bentazon herbicides
    • External Exposure: Moderately irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure:
    • External Exposure: Mildly irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides

    Action on Human System: Irritant

    • Internal Exposure: Irritating to lungs
    • External Exposure: Irritating to skin, eyes, nose, and throat
    • Chronic Exposure:


    Type of Pesticide: Herbicides, insecticides

    Action on Human System: Irritant